Aurelio José Figueredo

Aurelio José Figueredo
The University of Arizona | UA · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

312
Publications
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Introduction
Aurelio José Figueredo, PhD, is Professor of Psychology and Director of the Ethology and Evolutionary Psychology Laboratory at the University of Arizona. Past research centers on evolutionary psychology, life history strategy, intelligence, sex, and violence in human and nonhuman animals. Recent academic efforts include pioneering the nascent field of Social Biogeography.
Additional affiliations
August 1983 - August 1987
University of California, Riverside
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (312)
Article
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Limiting similarity theory (LST) and the principle of competitive exclusion (PCE) affirm that the degree of allowable niche overlap predicts the occurrence of tolerant coexistence between two or more biotic entities. Attribute variation reduces conflict, whereby two biological systems in direct competition for the same type of finite resources are...
Article
The prediction that reduction of negative selection decreases group-level competitiveness, as reflected in increased individual-focused and diminished group-focused moral foundations, is tested. To measure this hypothesized shift in moral foundations, we conduct a culturomic analysis of the utilization frequencies of items sourced from the moral fo...
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The purpose of this study was to examine how attitudes toward different nonhuman animal species (including emotional empathy, cognitive empathy, and harm avoidance) are shaped by the coevolutionary histories between the ancestors of contemporary humans and these different nonhuman animal species. We compared the explanatory power of alternative cat...
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The present research investigates relations among social-biogeographic factors (i.e., temperature, parasite burden, poverty rate, firearm possession rate, psychopathology rate, and estimated IQ), firearm homicide rate, and firearm suicide rate in each of the 50 states of the United States of America. Analysis of archival state-level data showed tha...
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The present article describes the development of a Modern Biased Information Test (MBIT) inspired by the work published by Donald Campbell in 1950 on indirect measures of prejudice. A biased information test aims to tap individuals' intergroup attitudes from the selective information they use to describe group members. Two biased information tests...
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Previous studies on the relationship between religiosity and prejudice have produced inconsistent results and lack a diverse understanding of faith identities. This prompts the need for further exploration of the contexts in which different forms of faith correlate with attitudinal biases both within and between biocultural groups. In this online s...
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Conceptually driven by life history theory, the current study investigated a hypothesized hierarchy of behaviors leading to men's perpetration of violence in intimate relationships. Using a series of hierarchical regressions, we tested a causal cascade model on data provided by 114 men in a committed romantic relationship. The results supported the...
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has harshly impacted Italy since its arrival in February 2020. In particular, provinces in Italy's Central and Northern macroregions have dealt with disproportionately greater case prevalence and mortality rates than those in the South. In this paper, we compare the morbidity and mortality dynamics of 16th and 17...
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After many waves of out-migration from Africa, different human populations evolved within a great diversity of physical and community ecologies. These ambient ecologies should have at least partially determined the selective pressures that shaped the evolution and geographical distribution of human cognitive abilities across different parts of the...
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Traditional theories of development and evolutionary developmental psychology propose that early environmental experiences shape an individual’s developmental trajectory. According to the Adaptive Calibration Model (ACM), for example, calibration of speed of life history strategy to ecological cues encountered during development contributes to beha...
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We developed a cascade model to reconstruct the hypothesized developmental progression from (a) increased resource instability during childhood to (b) decreased maternal sensitivity during childhood to (c) social vulnerability cognitive schemata to (d) faster Life History strategies to (e) decreased behavioral regulation to (f) more pronounced “Dar...
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Miyake and colleagues (2000) identified three independent but correlated components of executive function in young adults – set shifting, inhibition, and updating. The present study compared the factor structure in young adults to two groups of older adults (ages 60–73 and 74–98). A three-factor model of shifting, inhibition and updating was confir...
Chapter
Where Chap. 4 reviewed the formation of sociopolitically complex civilizations, this chapter reviews their growth and maintenance. Mature states invariably come to encompass expanding territories and consequently absorb populations distinct in dialect and language, ethnicity and race, and culture and religion. As discussed herein, maintaining integ...
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Whole books, and sections of books, have been dedicated to reviewing the intellectual history of multilevel selection, some small swath of which are considered in this first chapter. Readers are then made aware of other pertinent publications, acquiring something of their substance in this condensed review. For example, readers will certainly gain...
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The previous chapter depicted a rising chorus of consensus starting in the 1970s. Sober and Wilson describe how group selection was buried in the 1960s and 1970s and treated with utter contempt. It was so reviled that it was not forgotten, but recalled as an example of how not to think. Even in the 1980s, as Sober and Wilson recount, an unidentifie...
Chapter
As exemplified by the history of the Roman State, economic distress can decrease the level of intrasocietal cohesion even in the absence of external pressures. Since its inception, the Roman Republic faced numerous foreign threats, from rival cites in the Italian peninsula to tribal confederacies in Gaul. A chronic state of intergroup conflict favo...
Chapter
The content of the previous two chapters described mathematical models and presented relevant empirical data pertaining to multilevel selection as a proposed biological universal within the general framework of evolutionary theory. The present chapter turns to phenomena that are believed to apply more specifically to humans. Consistent with the Dar...
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A recent technical article of ours on which this chapter is based is entitled War and Peace: A Diachronic Social Biogeography of Life History Strategy and Between-Group Relations in Two Western European Populations (Figueredo et al., 2019a). From an excess of ambition and length, this article spawned a daughter paper on which the present chapter al...
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This chapter is the first of five comprising Part III. Though, as in Chap. 10.1007/978-3-030-49520-6_6, we have previously allowed some lexical analyses to interpolate Part II’s historical-empirical thrust, Part III is predominately statistical, even as it continues to review relevant literature and history. Though, consistent with the mandate of t...
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Where Chap. 10.1007/978-3-030-49520-6_5 reviewed the growth and maintenance of states, this chapter reviews their deterioration and decline. At the outset, however, it is important to precisely specify what, if anything, is declining. Most obviously, we can speak of this process after the fashion of the great declinists: Montesquieu, Gibbon, Spengl...
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The subject of societal collapse is a theme that, due to its political, social, economic, and ecological implications, still generates heated discussions. Researchers interested in developing a general theory of collapse face the challenge of identifying common patterns across human societies. This task is further complicated because multiple publi...
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This chapter and the three that follow collectively comprise Part II of our book, respectively, entitled “Aggregation, Growth, Decline, and Collapse.” Thus, these four chapters collectively comprise a theme familiar to declinists and students of cyclical history. As will be reiterated in later chapters, each of these processes must be studied in ab...
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In 2017, our research team produced a technical, statistically driven, monograph entitled The Rhythm of the West: A Biohistory of the Modern Era, AD 1600 to the Present. Therein, general intelligence, life history, and other topics were treated alongside multilevel selection theory. Here, after providing a general overview for the sake of context,...
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This chapter will provide a synthesis of the current evolutionary literature concerning lethal coalitional aggression in small-scale societies. Attacks, raids, skirmishes, ambushes, and other forms of intergroup aggression present significant risk of injury or death, irrespective of group size, though the means of differentiation among groups, like...
Article
Various neuroanatomical volume measures (NVMs) are frequently used as proxies for intelligence in comparative studies, such as the size of the brain, neocortex, and hippocampus, either absolute or controlled for other size measures (e.g., body size, or rest of the brain). Mean species NVMs are moderately correlated with aggregate general intelligen...
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Knowledge of evolutionary influences on patterns of human mating, social interactions, and differential health is increasing, yet these insights have rarely been applied to historical analyses of human population dynamics. The genetic and evolutionary forces behind biases in interethnic mating and in the health of individuals of different ethnic gr...
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“Multilevel selection is the only logically coherent and empirically supported theory that can explain human ultrasociality—the capacity of humans to cooperate in huge groups of genetically unrelated individuals. Yet influential critics continue to reject it. This timely and important book is a welcome entrant to this intense scientific debate. The...
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We tracked the relative integration and differentiation among life history traits over the period spanning AD 1800–1999 in the Britannic and Gallic biocultural groups. We found that Britannic populations tended toward greater strategic differentiation, while Gallic populations tended toward greater strategic integration. The dynamics of between-gro...
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During the past 20 years, fields such as ethology, behavioral ecology, and evolutionary psychology have drawn upon life history theory to make important advances in our understanding of the ecology of human behavior, building extensively upon the earlier work of Bronfenbrenner and others. In this article, we (a) elaborate on an alternative to the t...
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Baumard proposes that life history slowing in populations over time is the principal driver of innovation rates. We show that this is only true of micro-innovation rates, which reflect cognitive and economic specialization as an adaptation to high population density, and not macro-innovation rates, which relate more to a population's level of gener...
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We report successful diachronic replication of two major sets of prior findings in the social biogeography of human life history (LH) strategy: (1) the constructive replication of the diachronic changes in the latent hierarchical structure of intelligence in Britannic populations, but as presently applied to the latent hierarchical structure of...
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A considerable number of publications have examined the effect of various geographical, life history, social, economic and political factors on homicide. However, few studies were interested in examining the effect of these forces in an integrated social biogeography of homicide. This study collected data for 172 nation-states from various publicat...
Chapter
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Life history theory is a descriptive theory of correlated traits reflecting the strategic allocation of bioenergetic and material resources toward achieving competing survival and reproductive goals. In humans, slow life history strategy is partially characterized by slower growth rates, later puberty, and fewer offspring, characteristics that refl...
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John Landers is a demographer of pre-industrial Europe, acutely aware of bioenergetic resources as they are spent and accrued in a careful calculus. As if on a balance sheet, output must match input. Within such an empirically informed historical framework, Landers provides one of the most detailed demographic studies of eighteenth-century London,...
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A geographer of a different cast of mind, Alfred Crosby described assemblages of portmanteau biotas, a concept recognizing associated micro-communities of animals and plants within which human societies are ensconced, and to which they respond culturally and evolutionarily. Crosby then historically reinterprets the clash between European and Amerin...
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James Casey researches regional variation in lineal descent, consanguinity, and patterns of inheritance as they alternately impede or impel state formation. Joined by a spirit of capitalism, a market economy, and the division of labor, lineal descent, consanguinity and patterns of inheritance each had a role to play as drivers of state formation, a...
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Alan Baker’s work documents the fulfillment of the Neolithic Revolution with its mature societies resting on a foundation of staple grain crops. In Studies of Field Systems in the British Isles, Baker studies agriculture and its laboring class, while in Man Made the Land, he takes up the social outgrowths of agriculture. As evident in Baker’s studi...
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Two centuries ago, Richard Price assisted in compiling the Northampton Tables, allowing lives to be insured with probabilistic rationality. This was part of a life’s work concerning the measurement of mortality risk. Though such early demographic investigations gained predictive power, explanatory power lagged behind. Herein we reread Price’s work...
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In the late Victorian era, one could find Ellsworth Huntington caravanning through Eurasia, counting tree rings in northern California, or subsisting on stipends on the fringes of Yale’s geology department. Writing on demography as much as geography, Huntington described non-random change through founding effects and migration, as much as natural a...
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Montesquieu incorporates what would now be understood as political science and ecology into his eighteenth-century sociological studies. He concluded that sociopolitical systems were outgrowths of ecological conditions, and so cannot be unthinkingly transplanted from locale to locale. Already extant, there are evolutionarily informed studies of Mon...
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Distilled to its utmost, John Goldthorpe’s research depicts class as a coherent bundle of variables whose dynamic stability is only modestly responsive to social policy and temporarily disrupted by societal transitions. For all his descriptive prowess, Goldthorpe less successfully explains the origin and perpetuation of social stratification, and c...
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Where Edward Gibbon studied the Decline and Fall of Rome, Arnold Toynbee more generally studied the decline and fall of civilizations. The civilizational challenge is followed by a creative and adaptive response, or otherwise conquest and collapse. Across all studied civilizations, Toynbee returns to the theme of internal cohesion and its relation...
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Like Toynbee, William McNeill is a world historian, but one with a bent toward epidemiology. Most directly in his Plagues and Peoples, McNeill considers the role of disease-induced mortality, infection, and transmission alongside the more traditional historical topics of war and conquest. McNeill studied disease as a primary cause in its own right,...
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Bound together by virtue of their shared mission to explain human nature and society, the social sciences have unity of purpose even as they have no meta-theory; there exists no foundation from which variables can be connected, causally sequenced, or ultimately explained. By way of an overview in abstract, this first chapter introduces life history...
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With eminently unpropitious timing, Thomas Robert Malthus wrote of resource competition just as humans were bursting the bonds of organic economies. An Essay on the Principle of Population, in warning of the ills consequent to population density and resultant resource competition, may have, however, underappreciated its evolutionary effects. Althou...
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Introductory psychology classes and texts invariably feature attachment theory, which is rightly regarded as a pillar of the field. The acknowledged founder of attachment theory, John Bowlby, resisted the tide of psychoanalysis and instead pursued a more biological explanation of parent–child relations, characterized by insecure attachment variants...
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Raymond Cattell distinguished crystallized intelligence, akin to stored knowledge, from fluid intelligence, akin to raw reasoning abilities. Likewise, he delineated personality into component parts. Though intelligence and personality each qualify as subdisciplines within psychology, both are subsumed, along with other traits, under the meta-theory...
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In his Atlas of World Cultures, George Murdock catalogues more than 1000 discreet populations of peoples that are too often amalgamated at the level of the nation-state. For each of these ethnically informed cultural populations, Murdock provides nearly fifty points of tabular ethnographic codes, including mating systems, kinship networks, levels o...
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Lawrence Keeley was at the forefront of scientifically deciding between Rousseau, who saw civilization as corrupting noble savages and peaceable peoples, and Hobbes, who saw a war of all against all waged between peoples, clans, and tribes except if dominated by a Leviathan capable of monopolizing power and violence. Keeley came down firmly on the...
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Written over decades, subsuming much of his career as a sociologist, Michael Mann’s four-volume Origins of Social Power pursues one grand theme: Societal aggregation from tribe, to fief, to city-state, to nation, to empire. Mann uses the term, “patterned mess,” in recognition of cultural, historical, and temporal particularities which overlay socio...
Chapter
Through his Bioecological Systems Theory, Urie Bronfenbrenner emphasized school, parish, neighborhood, and other aspects of what behavioral geneticists now call the extra-familial environment. Bronfenbrenner incorporated even the economy, government, and culture into his developmental scheme, knowing that these macrostructural realities trickle-dow...
Chapter
Marvin Harris has taken the vagaries of culture and grounded them in ecology. From burning witches, to worshiping animals, to proscribing foods, Harris finds religious and cultural idiosyncrasies to proceed from ecological vagaries. More than this, Harris broaches social structure, demographic constraint, race, death, sex, and fertility, all of whi...
Chapter
The Cambridge Handbook of Violent Behavior and Aggression - edited by Alexander T. Vazsonyi July 2018
Article
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In various personality models, such as the Big Five, a consistent higher order general factor of personality (GFP) can be identified. One view in the literature is that the GFP reflects general social effectiveness. Most GFP studies, however, have been conducted in Western, educated, industrialized, and rich democracies (WEIRD). Therefore, to addre...
Book
The social sciences share a mission to shed light on human nature and society. However, there is no widely accepted meta-theory; no foundation from which variables can be linked, causally sequenced, or ultimately explained. This book advances “life history evolution” as the missing meta-theory for the social sciences. Originally a biological theory...
Article
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We integrate life history (LH) theory with “hot/cool” systems theory of self-regulation to predict sexually and socially coercive behaviors, including intimate partner violence (IPV) and interpersonal aggression (IPA). LH theory predicts that a variety of traits form LH strategies: adaptively coordinated behavioral clusters arrayed on a continuum f...
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Nothing is presently known about the relationship between individual differences in fertility and life history (LH) speed, as measured by the K-Factor. To examine this relationship, the correlation between LH speed and the number of children was examined in two, large samples (MIDUS II and the Swedish STAGE dataset). Their association was positive...
Article
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This sequential canonical cascade model of social biogeography is an extension of an integrated model of human cognitive ecology (Cabeza de Baca & Figueredo, 2014) that predicted state-level life history and cognitive abilities in Mexico. We integrate such population-level factors by utilizing a sample of sixty-six recognized national polities for...