Aurélien Besnard

Aurélien Besnard
Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive | CEFE · Biodiversity & Conservation

PhD

About

266
Publications
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3,498
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Publications

Publications (266)
Article
European Union environmental policy has created a unique regulatory framework to favour aquatic ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation across European countries. Identifying the spatial structure of freshwater fish population dynamics is crucial to define region-specific management and conservation planning. To implement evidence-driven...
Article
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Comparative studies of mortality in the wild are necessary to understand the evolution of aging; yet, ectothermic tetrapods are underrepresented in this comparative landscape, despite their suitability for testing evolutionary hypotheses. We present a study of aging rates and longevity across wild tetrapod ectotherms, using data from 107 population...
Preprint
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Camera-traps have revolutionized the way ecologists monitor biodiversity and population abundances. Their full potential is however only realized when the hundreds of thousands of images collected can be rapidly classified with minimal human intervention. Machine learning approaches, and in particular deep learning methods, have allowed extraordina...
Technical Report
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En 2015, un protocole visant à montrer les bénéfices de l’implantation de bandes enherbées sur les carabidés a été mis en place par le futur Parc national de forêts, dans deux parcelles cultivées, grâce à un financement du Conseil départemental de Haute-Marne. Il avait pour objectifs de comparer les communautés de carabes selon différentes modalité...
Article
1. In many animal species, sexually mature individuals may skip breeding opportunities despite a likely negative impact on fitness. In spatio‐temporally heterogeneous environments, habitat selection theory predicts that individuals select habitats where fitness prospects are maximized. Individuals are attracted to high‐quality habitat patches where...
Article
Each year, millions of Palearctic waterbirds migrate between Eurasia and the wintering wetlands of the Sahel-Sahara region. International censuses show these populations are declining. Although hunting is recognised as the second cause of decline after habitat degradation along flyways, waterbird harvesting in the African wintering region remains o...
Article
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Understanding the points in a species breeding cycle when they are most vulnerable to environmental fluctuations is key to understanding interannual demography and guiding effective conservation and management. Seabirds represent one of the most threatened groups of birds in the world, and climate change and severe weather is a prominent and increa...
Article
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The alarming decline of amphibians in France: The documented example of Normandy. Amphibians are exposed to numerous pressures such as the disappearance and degradation of their terrestrial and aquatic habitats, the introduction of invasive species, diseases, and climate change, which lead to the disappearance or decline of populations. Many env...
Article
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Mediterranean islands host unique ecosystems that are particularly vulnerable to invasive species. However, knowledge regarding the precise impact of invasive species on local biodiversity remains limited for many of these systems. Here we report on the negative impacts of invasive wild boars (Sus scrofa) on native snakes on islands in the Mediterr...
Technical Report
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The salinization of coastal wetlands resulting from sea level rise is one of the many effects expected from global warming. In the coastal plains of the Mediterranean Basin, this phenomenon particularly concerns oligo- and mesohaline temporary ponds and marshes, as well as the fauna and flora associated with these environments. We have studied this...
Article
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Durant le 20 ème siècle, les populations de Sonneurs à ventre jaune (Bombina variegata) ont subi un net déclin en Europe de l'Ouest, et en France tout particulièrement. Les causes de cette régression sont possiblement multiples, incluant la perte et la fragmentation d'habitat, ainsi que les changements climatiques. De nos jours, les forêts de produ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Depuis l’arrivée de l’Homme sur l’île de La Réunion au cours du XVIIe siècle, plusieurs milliers d’espèces, notamment de plantes, y ont été introduites. Certaines sont devenues envahissantes et menacent plusieurs écosystèmes, dont la forêt sèche. Un projet Life+, conduit entre 2014 et 2020, visait à restaurer cet écosystème unique au monde par des...
Technical Report
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Note de synthèse décrivant la méthodologie de choix pour quantifier l'impact démographique des collisions sur les populations d'oiseaux. Une comparaison détaillée entre deux approches possibles (le PBR: Potential Biological Removal ; et les projections démographiques) est faite.
Article
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Life-history theory predicts that animals should develop adaptive trade-offs between survival and reproduction to maximize their fitness. This results in a continuum of life-history strategies among species, ranging from slow to fast paces-of-life. The optimal pace-of-life has been shown to vary within environmental gradients, with a commonly obser...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Ce document présente un modèle intégré de dynamique de population développé pour la gestion adaptative du grand tétras dans les Pyrénées françaises. Ce modèle comprend deux classes d'âge pour les femelles et trois pour les mâles et inclut cinq sous-populations distinctes. Il couvre la période 2004-2019. Sa structure et son ajustement reposent sur d...
Article
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In long-lived species, although adult survival typically has the highest elasticity, temporal variations in less canalized demographic parameters are the main drivers of population dynamics. Targeting recruitment rates may thus be the most effective strategy to manage these species. We analyzed 1,136 capture–recapture histories collected over 9 yea...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Ce document présente un modèle intégré de dynamique de population développé pour la gestion adaptative du grand tétras dans les Pyrénées françaises. Ce modèle comprend deux classes d'âge pour les femelles et trois pour les mâles et inclut cinq sous-populations distinctes. Il couvre la période 2004-2019. Sa structure et son ajustement reposent sur d...
Article
Full-text available
The Comoros archipelago is a biodiversity hotspot by virtue of its high level of endemism. However, it suffers one of the highest rates of forest loss worldwide, mainly due to strong anthropogenic pressures. As Comorian populations depend on forest resources for subsistence, establishing relevant conservation strategies for their sustainable manage...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Mountains host complex ecosystems whose wide range of ecological conditions over small geographical distances makes them biodiversity hotspots. To ensure their long‐term conservation, a better understanding of the interaction between climate change and modifications in land use is necessary. Most studies have focused on only one of these factor...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Authentique espèce arctico-alpine, le Lièvre variable (Lepus timidus) vit dans les Alpes en populations relictuelles isolées en moyenne et haute altitude. Son aire de distribution devrait vraisemblablement se contracter avec l’élévation des températures, isolant davantage les populations. Les populations de moyenne à haute altitude pourraient ainsi...
Article
Full-text available
Establishing effective wildlife conservation measures requires accurate demographic information such as population size and survival probability: parameters that can be extremely difficult to obtain. This is especially the case for threatened species, which are often rare and sometimes occupy inaccessible areas. While noninvasive genetic sampling (...
Preprint
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Noninvasive genetic sampling techniques are useful tools for providing genetic data that are crucially needed for determining suitable conservation actions. Yet these methods may be highly unreliable in certain situations for instance, when working with faecal samples of frugivorous species in tropical areas. In this study, we tested the applicabil...
Article
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Many animal populations are subject to hunting or fishing in the wild. Detailed knowledge of demographic parameters (e.g. survival, reproduction) and temporal dynamics of such populations is crucial for sustainable management. Despite their relevance for management decisions, structure and size of exploited populations are often not known, and data...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Comoros archipelago is a biodiversity hotspot by virtue of its high level of endemism. However, it suffers one of the highest rates of forest loss worldwide, mainly due to strong anthropogenic pressures. As Comorian populations depend on forest resources for subsistence, establishing relevant conservation strategies for their sustainable manage...
Preprint
The assessment of wildlife population sizes and their trends is one of the most important research fields in conservation biology, as it is used to identify vulnerability soon enough to implement measures in threatened species, or to set up sustainable harvesting rates in exploited populations. Yet, because field work is expensive, may be difficult...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Dans les parcs éoliens terrestres en exploitation, des mortalités aviaires sont constatées, notamment sur des espèces dites patrimoniales. La nécessité réglementaire des opérateurs de ces parcs de diminuer ces mortalités, passe par la mise en place de divers moyens de réduction. L’un de ces moyens est les systèmes de détection-réaction qui permette...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In onshore wind farms in operation, avian mortalities are observed, especially on so-called heritage species. The regulatory need for the operators of these parks to reduce these mortalities, passes by the installation of various means of reduction. One of these means is the detection-reaction systems which allow to detect the arrival of bird speci...
Article
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Le développement des méthodes statistiques permet d’estimer les tendances des populations à partir des données collectées sur le terrain et de quantifier l’incertitude associée à ces tendances. Ce type d’approche peut également être utilisé pour déterminer l’influence des répétitions intra- ou interannuelles sur la précision des tendances, dans l’o...
Article
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Transferability of habitat suitability models (HSMs), essential to accurately predict outside calibration conditions, has been seldom investigated at intraspecific level. We targeted Vipera ursinii ursinii, a meadow viper from southeastern France and central Italy, to assess determinants of transferability among geographically disjunct populations....
Article
Translocation is an important tool in restoring biodiversity, particularly when species have been extirpated from an area. In the period just after release, the main objective of conservation managers is to keep as many of the translocated individuals in the release area as possible, in order to maximize the number of founders of the new population...
Article
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1. Entomological studies often aim to estimate species distribution, community composition, or species‐richness patterns. False absences can, however, bias these estimates and should consequently not be overlooked in insect studies. Multi‐species occupancy models (MSOMs) afford a flexible solution to cover the main topics in ecological entomology w...
Article
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The role of urban areas in the introduction of alien plant species, and their subsequent spread in the countryside, has long been identified. However, it was mainly considered indirectly due to the lack of data on the frequency of planting of alien species and their early stages of colonization. In this study, we took advantage of the spectacular f...
Article
Full-text available
Seabirds are one of the most threatened of all bird groups, with a marked community-wide decline across the last decades. Yet, some seabird species are more resilient than others, and it is essential to study under which conditions even these highly resilient organisms are affected by global changes. Here, we report such a case in northern gannets...
Article
Full-text available
Artificial devices are increasingly used in conservation measures to mitigate the disappearance of natural habitats. However, few studies have demonstrated their benefits for the target species, and they may pose a risk of creating ecological traps. This occurs when lower individual fitness is found in artificial habitats that are more attractive t...
Article
Full-text available
1. Understanding the population dynamics of aquatic species and how inter-specific variation in demographic and life history traits influence population dynamics is crucial to define their conservation status and design appropriate protection measures. 2. The abundance and biomass growth rates for 18 common European freshwater fish species were es...
Technical Report
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L’Eulepte d’Europe (Euleptes europaea) est un gecko méditerranéen dont la distribution française est fortement localisée. Classé « en danger » par l’UICN en région Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, il y fait face à des menaces multiples : progression de la couverture forestière, introduction d’espèces exotiques envahissantes (autres geckos, rats…), trava...
Article
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1. Local movements of aquatic insects within the surroundings of waterbodies aim essentially to find food, mates, resting sites, or avoid predation. Distances moved are very variable among species and may also differ depending on sex or age at the intraspecific scale. Despite a large panel of studies on odonate activities near wa-terbodies, little...
Article
Full-text available
Which urban biodiversity observed on different types of sites ? A survey in Grenoble. The growth of human population has led to increasing pressures on ecosystems and biodiversity. Urban encroachment on natural habitats threaten biodiversity and urban life contributes to a disconnection with nature. One particular question arises in this context:...
Article
Full-text available
Open habitat bird species of Southern Massif Central (France) are highly dependent of traditional land uses such as extensive livestock farming. These practices have however largely declined other the last decades. Despite the high conservation value of these species at the national level, little is known about their recent trends in this region. I...
Article
Full-text available
La dynamique des populations est façonnée par des contraintes physiologiques qui ne permettent pas aux individus de maximiser simultanément la survie et la reproduction. En fonction de ses paramètres démographiques, chaque espèce se place le long d'un continuum allant des espèces présentant des dynamiques lentes, investissant massivement dans la su...
Technical Report
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Les déplacements altitudinaux en réponse au changement climatique sont largement documentés pour quelques taxa, notamment les plantes et les oiseaux. Pour d’autres, comme les insectes, cette problématique est peu étudiée. Parmi les insectes, les orthoptères (criquets, sauterelles, grillons) ont une place importante dans la chaîne trophique des mili...
Article
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Investigating how and why the life history and demographic traits of a species vary across its range is fundamental to understand its evolution and population ecology and then develop sustainable management recommendations. At the margins of a species' distribution range, populations are expected to exhibit a slower pace of life than in core areas,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Artificial devices are increasingly used in conservation measures to mitigate the disappearance of natural habitats. However, few studies have demonstrated their benefits for the target species, and they may pose a risk of creating ecological traps. This occurs when lower individual fitness is found in artificial habitats that are more attractive t...
Article
Full-text available
Sampling efficiency is crucial in order to overcome the data crisis in biodiversity and to understand what drives the distribution of rare species. Adaptive niche‐based sampling (ANBS) is an iterative sampling strategy that relies on the predictions of species distribution models (SDMs). By predicting highly suitable areas to guide prospection, ANB...
Article
Full-text available
Phengaris alcon is an endangered butterfly that is subject to several conservation programs in Europe. Our study aims at evaluating how grazing pressure by domestic animals affects the maintenance of Gentiana pneumonanthe stems, larval plant host of Phengaris alcon and the survival of Phengaris alcon's eggs. We selected 304 stems of G. pneumonanthe...
Research
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Le lagopède alpin est une espèce emblématique des zones de hautes altitudes, dont les populations ont subi une forte baisse ces dernières décennies. Dans un objectif de conservation de l'espèce, il est crucial de pouvoir quantifier de façon précise l'ampleur de ce déclin à différentes échelles, mais également le degré de confiance que l'on peut avo...
Article
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Identifying the drivers of population fluctuations in spatially distinct populations remains a significant challenge for ecologists. Whereas regional climatic factors may generate population synchrony (i.e., the Moran effect), local factors including the level of density‐dependence may reduce the level of synchrony. Although divergences in the scal...
Article
Full-text available
Density dependence effects acting on fecundity can be explained by two competing hypotheses. First, the individual adjustment hypothesis (IAH) states that, as population density increases, interference among individuals negatively affects their breeding performance. Second, the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis (HHH) proposes that, as more individua...
Article
Populations of segetal species are facing sharp declines in Europe due to agricultural intensification. To better conserve them, it is important to assess the effect of intensification in extensive mixed crop-livestock systems, which are considered hotspots for segetal species. The aim of this study was to evaluate how certain key farming practices...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Relating the effects of foraging niche variation to reproductive dynamics is critical to understand species response to environmental change. We examined foraging niche variations of the slender‐billed gull (Chroicocephalus genei), a nomadic colonial waterbird species during its range expansion along the French Mediterranean coast over a 1...
Article
Full-text available
There is growing evidence that anthropogenic landscapes can strongly influence the evolution of dispersal, particularly through fragmentation, and may drive organisms into an evolutionary trap by suppressing dispersal. However, the influence on dispersal evolution of anthropogenic variation in habitat patch turnover has so far been largely overlook...
Article
Full-text available
Open habitat bird species of Southern Massif Central (France) are highly dependent of traditional land uses such as extensive livestock farming. These practices have however largely declined other the last decades. Despite the high conservation value of these species at the national level, little is known about their recent trends in this region. I...
Article
Full-text available
Mediterranean ecosystems are severely impacted by urbanization, habitat clearing, fires and landscape fragmentation; conservation actions are urgently needed. The protection status of a given area depends notably on the presence and detection rate of protected species. Further, habitat restoration, conservation translocations, or population reinfor...
Article
Full-text available
Information on population sizes and trends of threatened species is essential for their conservation, but obtaining reliable estimates can be challenging. Here, we propose a method to improve the precision of population size estimates obtained from capture‐recapture studies for species with low (re)capture probabilities and short seasonal activity,...
Article
Full-text available
In the south of France, the so-called climate hiatus from 1998 to 2013 was associated with a late winter cooling which has affected the phenology of several reptiles and amphibian species, delaying their dates of first appearances in spring. This episode has been related to a period of frequently negative values of the North Atlantic Oscillation in...
Article
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Abstract Climate seasonality is a predominant constraint on the lifecycles of species in alpine and polar biomes. Assessing the response of these species to climate change thus requires taking into account seasonal constraints on populations. However, interactions between seasonality, weather fluctuations, and population parameters remain poorly ex...