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Augusto Di Castelnuovo

Augusto Di Castelnuovo
IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Mediterraneo Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy

MS, PhD

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297
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Publications

Publications (297)
Article
Full-text available
Background Thrombosis is common in subjects suffering from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cancer. Hypercoagulation plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of thrombosis. Therefore, the inactivation of thrombin, the key enzyme in coagulation, is tightly regulated via antithrombin (AT). AT deficiency is related to thrombosis and cardiovascular...
Article
Background & Aims Food processing may adversely affect human health through a variety of mechanisms, including the development of a chronic pro-inflammatory state. In this study we aimed to test the hypothesis that an increasing degree of food processing is directly associated with low-grade inflammation, and evaluate to what extent this associatio...
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Background/Objectives Unsaturated fats, fibre-rich foods and polyphenols are distinctive features of a traditional Mediterranean diet and have pleiotropic properties possibly contributing to reduce the long-term risk of non-communicable diseases and mortality associated with this diet. We aimed to evaluate whether changes over time in dietary fats,...
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The coagulation system can be assessed by the thrombin generation (TG) assay, and increased TG peak height, endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), and velocity index are associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. Obesity had been reported to increase TG and is associated with dyslipidemia, which also predisposes to atherosclerotic cardiovascula...
Article
The use of a mini-craniotomy approach involving linear skin incision and a bone flap of about 3 cm has been reported for several neurosurgical diseases, such as aneurysms or cranial base tumors. More superficial lesions, including intra-axial tumors, may occasionally raise concerns due to insufficient control of the tumor boundaries. The convenienc...
Article
Scientific literature is overflowing of significance testing and p-values. P-value states how discordant the observed finding is with a null hypothesis. P<0.05 indicates that an association greater than that detected would happen less than 5% of the time under a null hypothesis of no association [...].
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PurposeNutrition is an important, modifiable, environmental factor affecting human health by modulating epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation (5mC). Numerous studies investigated the association of nutrition with global and gene-specific DNA methylation and evidences on animal models highlighted a role in DNA hydroxymethylation (5hmC) reg...
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PurposeTo examine the relationship between psychological distress resulting from the COVID-19 lockdown and dietary changes.Methods Cross-sectional analysis from 2 retrospective Italian cohorts recruited from May to September 2020: (1) The Moli-LOCK cohort consists of 1401 participants from the Moli-sani Study (n = 24,325) who were administered a te...
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Background: Soluble suppression of tumorigenesis-2 (sST2) and galectin (Gal)-3 are two biomarkers related to inflammation, metabolic disturbances and to myocardial fibrosis that characterize several cardiac pathological conditions. Increased circulating levels of these molecules have been associated with risk of cardiovascular death. Treatment wit...
Article
Asbtract Background and aims Biological age (BA) is the hypothetical underlying age of an organism and has been proposed as a more powerful predictor of health than chronological age (CA). The difference between BA and CA (Δage) reflects the rate of biological aging, with lower values indicating slowed-down aging. We sought to compare the relation...
Article
Introduction: The Nutri-Score front-of-pack label rates foods according to their nutritional quality while the NOVA classification is focused on degree of food processing; both systems are reported to separately predict mortality in population-based studies. Hypothesis: We tested the following hypotheses: a) both the Nutri-Score and ultra-processed...
Article
Introduction: Excessive consumption of ultra-processed food (UPF) is associated with increased risk of mortality and disease in general populations but its health impact for individuals with type 2 diabetes is poorly defined. Hypothesis: We assessed the hypothesis of an association between elevated UPF intake and all-cause and cause-specific mortal...
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Sortilin has been positively correlated with vascular disorders in humans. No study has yet evaluated the possible direct effect of sortilin on vascular function. We used pharmacological and genetic approaches coupled with study of murine and human samples to unravel the mechanisms recruited by sortilin in the vascular system. Sortilin induced endo...
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Objectives: To estimate psychological distress experienced during the Italian lockdown (March-May 2020) by assessing, in the transition period of the pandemic (June-September 2020), participants’ recalling of their psychological state. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis on 1,880 adults (mean age 48.9 ± 14.5 years) from the web-based ALT RISCOVID-19...
Article
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Deep Neural Networks (DNN) have been recently developed for the estimation of Biological Age (BA), the hypothetical underlying age of an organism, which can differ from its chronological age (CA). Although promising, these population-specific algorithms warrant further characterization and validation, since their biological, clinical and environmen...
Article
Full-text available
Psychological resilience (PR) is the capacity to adapt positively in face of adversity. Its role as an independent protective factor has been acknowledged in recent years. We aimed to test the association of PR with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in a general adult population. We performed longitudinal analyses on 10,406 CVD-f...
Article
Aims To evaluate the association of ultra-processed food (UPF) intake and mortality among individuals with history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and analyse some biological pathways possibly relating UPF intake to death. Methods and results Longitudinal analysis on 1171 men and women (mean age: 67 ± 10 years) with history of CVD, recruited in...
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Defined as an index of platelet size heterogeneity, the platelet distribution width (PDW) is still a poorly characterized marker of platelet function in (sub)clinical disease. We presently validated PDW as a marker of P-selectin dependent platelet activation in the Moli-family cohort. Platelet-bound P-selectin and platelet/leukocyte mixed aggregate...
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Purpose Dietary guidelines recommend to limit egg consumption to 4 servings per week but the relation between egg intake and health outcomes is still controversial. To evaluate the association of egg consumption and mortality risk in Italian adults and to investigate nutritional factors and serum lipids as potentially explaining such associations....
Article
The results presently available from randomised clinical trials and their meta-analysis indicate that Hydroxychloroquine is not associated in COVID-19 patients with either decreased mortality or clinical worsening. Thus, the use of Hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 patients cannot at present be encouraged. However, the hypothesis that Hydroxychloroqui...
Article
Background and objectives Absence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with angina is common, but its prognosis debated. We investigated outcomes of such patients to identify predictors of cardiovascular events. Methods We selected 1,014 patients with angina, evidence of myocardial ischemia at the electrocardiogram (ECG) exerci...
Article
Background and Aims There is a lack of knowledge on the association of dietary factors and Lumbar Spinal Stenosis (LSS). We evaluated the association of a Mediterranean diet (MD), its major food components and ultra-processed food (UPF) with the risk of LSS. Methods and Results Participants were recruited from the Neurosurgery Department of the IR...
Article
Objective To investigate the age-dependent impact of traditional stroke risk factors on the occurrence of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). Methods We performed a case–control analysis, comparing consecutive patients with ICH with age-matched and sex-matched stroke-free controls, enrolled in the setting of the Multicenter Study on Cerebral Hemorrha...
Article
Background and aims Obesity defined by body mass index (BMI) is independently associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). Abdominal obesity, defined by waist circumference, is a predictor of cardiovascular events. Recently, relative fat mass (RFM) was proposed as a marker of cardiovascular risk. We assessed the role of three different measures of...
Article
Full-text available
The efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection is harshly debated, with observational and experimental studies reporting contrasting results. To clarify the role of HCQ in Covid-19 patients, we carried out a retrospective observational study of 4,396 unselected patients hospitalized for Covid-19 in Italy (February–May 202...
Article
Objective To assess ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption and its sociodemographic, psychosocial and behavioural correlates in a general population of Italian children, adolescents and adults. Design Cross-sectional telephone-based survey Setting Italy, 2010-2013 Participants 9,078 participants (5-97 y), from the Italian Nutrition & HEalth Surv...
Article
Background: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was proposed as potential treatment for COVID-19, but its association with mortality is unclear. We reviewed published literature for evidence of an association between HCQ (with or without azithromycin (AZM)) and total mortality in COVID-19 patients. Methods: Articles were retrieved until April 29th, 2021 by se...
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Aims The aim of this study was to develop, validate, and illustrate an updated prediction model (SCORE2) to estimate 10-year fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in individuals without previous CVD or diabetes aged 40–69 years in Europe. Methods and results We derived risk prediction models using individual-participant data from...
Article
Background and aims Diabetes has consistently been shown to increase risk for cognitive decline. Cognitive deficits may occur at the very earliest stages of diabetes. We sought to estimate the determinants of memory function in a group of middle-aged obese subjects with prediabetes or newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods and results S...
Article
The efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection is harshly debated, withobservational and experimental studies reporting contrasting results. To clarify the role of HCQ in Covid-19patients, we carried out a retrospective observational study of 4,396 unselected patients hospitalized for Covid-19 in Italy (February–May 2020)...
Article
Full-text available
Biological aging, or the discrepancy between biological and chronological age of a subject (Δage), has been associated with a polyphenol-rich Mediterranean diet and represents a new, robust indicator of cardiovascular disease risk. We aimed to disentangle the relationship of dietary polyphenols and total antioxidant capacity with Δage in a cohort o...
Article
Full-text available
Protease proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a regulator of LDL cholesterol clearance and has been associated with cardiovascular risk. PCSK9 inhibitors increase in vivo circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a subtype of immature cells involved in ongoing endothelial repair. We hypothesized that the effect of PCSK9 o...
Article
Aim to investigate the relation of pulmonary function impairment with mortality and the possible mediation by low-grade inflammation in a general adult population. Methods A prospective investigation was conducted on 14,503 individuals from the Moli-sani study (apparently free from lung disease and acute inflammatory status at baseline; 2005-2010)...
Article
We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis to assess the association of anticoagulants and their dosage with in-hospital all-cause mortality in COVID-19 patients. Articles were retrieved until January 8, 2021, by searching in seven electronic databases. The main outcome was all-cause mortality occurred during hospitalization. Data were co...
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Sodium effects on proteinuria are debated. This observational, cross-sectional, population-based study investigated relationships to proteinuria and albuminuria of sodium intake assessed as urinary sodium/creatinine ratio (NaCR). In 482 men and 454 women aged 35–94 years from the Moli-sani study, data were collected for the following: urinary NaCR...
Article
We investigated the effect of confinement during the COVID-19 pandemic on the consumption of foods characterising the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) and its major correlates in two Italian population-based cohorts comprising 3161 subjects (mean age 57.7 ± 15.4 y). At population level, 38.8% of participants reported an improvement of diet quali...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To evaluate changes in ultra-processed food (UPF) intake and its major correlates during the first Italian lockdown (March 9 -May 3 2020). Design Retrospective observational study. Setting Italy. Participants We analysed 2,992 subjects (mean age 57.9±15.3 y, 40.4% men). Individual participant data were pooled from 2 retrospective cohor...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeTo evaluate in an Italian general population, the association with mortality of a traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) and non-Mediterranean dietary (non-MD) patterns, and their combined effect, and to test some biomarkers of cardiovascular (CVD) risk as potential mediators of such associations.Methods Longitudinal analysis on 22,849 men and...
Article
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Background: Growing evidence indicates that cognitive decline and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) share common vascular risk factors. Protease proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is associated with CV disease risk and has been also involved in neuronal differentiation. Aim: Evaluate whether in patients at high CV risk cognitive fun...
Article
We investigated the association of cumulative socioeconomic disadvantage (CSD) and socioeconomic (SES) trajectories across life course with the risk of first hospitalization for heart failure (HF) or atrial fibrillation (AF) and tested some biological mechanisms in explaining such associations. Longitudinal analysis on 21,756 HF- and AF-free subjec...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Aims Experimental and non-experimental human studies have consistently shown a positive association between exposure to the trace element selenium, which occurs primarily through diet, and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Plausible biological mechanisms include adverse effects of selenium and selenium-containing proteins on glucose...
Preprint
Full-text available
The efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection is harshly debated, with observational and intervention studies reporting contrasting results. To clarify the role of HCQ in Covid-19 patients, we carried out a retrospective observational study of 4,396 unselected patients hospitalized for Covid-19 in Italy (February-May 202...
Preprint
Full-text available
Deep Neural Networks (DNN) have been recently developed for the estimation of Biological Age (BA), the hypothetical underlying age of an organism, which can differ from its chronological age (CA). Although promising, these population-specific algorithms warrant further characterization and validation, since their biological, clinical and environmen...
Article
Full-text available
Aims There is inconsistent evidence on the relation of alcohol intake with incident atrial fibrillation (AF), in particular at lower doses. We assessed the association between alcohol consumption, biomarkers, and incident AF across the spectrum of alcohol intake in European cohorts. Methods and results In a community-based pooled cohort, we foll...
Article
Neuromedin U (NMU) is a neuropeptide involved in gut-brain axis, energy balance and immune response. We aimed at analysing the association between NMU epigenetic variability and metabolic indices and the potential mediating role of low-grade inflammation in a general population of Italian adults. NMU Blood DNA methylation levels at two CpG islands...
Article
Background An inverse relationship between coffee intake and mortality has been observed in several population cohorts, but rarely within Mediterranean countries. Moreover, the biological pathways mediating such an association remain unclear. Objectives We assessed the associations between coffee consumption and total and cause-specific mortality...
Article
Full-text available
This observational, cross-sectional, epidemiological analysis investigated relationships of kidney function to urine calcium and other variables. The analyses targeted two population-based samples of adults (Gubbio study and Moli-sani study: n = 3508 and 955, respectively). Kidney function was assessed as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)...
Article
Full-text available
Background Consumption of ultra-processed food (UPF) is gaining growing attention in relation to disease/mortality risk, but less is known on the main nutritional factors or biological mechanisms potentially underlying such associations. Objectives We aimed to assess the association between UPF and mortality risk in a large sample of the Italian a...
Article
Background and aims The CASSIOPEA Study was designed to evaluate whether the economic downturn during the late 2000s was a contributing factor to the observed decrease in adherence to Mediterranean diet (MD). Methods and results The study protocol consists of two steps: A) recall of 7,406 men and women who, between 2005 and 2006, had been randomly...
Preprint
Full-text available
Protease proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a regulator of LDL cholesterol clearance and has been associated with cardiovascular risk. PCSK9 inhibitors increase in vivo circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a subtype of immature cells involved in ongoing endothelial repair. We hypothesized that the effect of PCSK9 o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was proposed as potential treatment for COVID-19, but its association with mortality is not well characterized. We conducted two meta-analyses to evaluate the association between HCQ (with or without azithromycin (AZM)) and total mortality in COVID-19 patients. Methods: Articles were retrieved until November 10t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was proposed as potential treatment for COVID-19, but its association with mortality is not well characterized. We conducted two meta-analyses to evaluate the association between HCQ (with or without azithromycin (AZM)) and total mortality in COVID-19 patients. Methods Articles were retrieved until October 20 th...
Article
Background The EU-supported ATHENA project stems from a previous study suggesting that moderate wine consumption reduced the side-effects of radiotherapy (RT) in breast cancer patients, an effect possibly due to non-alcoholic anthocyanin fractions of wine. Objective To evaluate the role of anthocyanins on RT skin side effects in breast cancer pati...
Article
Full-text available
Background The link between systemic inflammation and depression has been deeply investigated, but relatively few studies explored symptom‐specific associations, mostly focusing on common inflammatory biomarkers like C‐reactive protein (CRP) levels. Methods We investigated associations of low‐grade inflammation with depressive symptoms assessed th...
Article
Background and Purpose Stroke is a common cause of death and a leading cause of disability and morbidity. Stroke risk assessment remains a challenge, but circulating biomarkers may improve risk prediction. Controversial evidence is available on the predictive ability of troponin concentrations and the risk of stroke in the community. Furthermore, r...
Article
Background We investigate whether socially disadvantaged individuals are more susceptible to the detrimental effects of smoking and alcohol intake on allostatic load (AL), a marker of physiological ‘wear and tear’, resulting from adaptation to chronic stress. Methods In a cross-sectional analysis, 27 019 men and 26 738 women aged 35–74 years were...
Article
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Background Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was proposed as potential treatment for COVID-19. Objective We set-up a multicenter Italian collaboration to investigate the relationship between HCQ therapy and COVID-19 in-hospital mortality. Methods In a retrospective observational study, 3,451 unselected patients hospitalized in 33 clinical centers in Italy...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims There is poor knowledge on characteristics, comorbidities and laboratory measures associated with risk for adverse outcomes and in-hospital mortality in European Countries. We aimed at identifying baseline characteristics predisposing COVID-19 patients to in-hospital death. Methods and results Retrospective observational study o...
Article
Objectives High levels of serum uric acid (UA) are associated with cerebro-cardiovascular disease risk factors. This study aimed at evaluating the main determinants of serum UA levels in relation to biochemical, lifestyle, and clinical variables.Methods The study population included 15,594 participants (48% men, age ≥ 35 years) to the Moli-sani Stu...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims There is poor knowledge on characteristics, comorbidities and laboratory measures associated with risk for adverse outcomes and in-hospital mortality in European Countries. We aimed at identifying baseline characteristics predisposing COVID-19 patients to in-hospital death. Methods and results Retrospective observational study...
Article
The hypothesis has been proposed that patients COVID-19 positive, under anti-hypertensive treatment with angiotensin enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor-blockers, might have a worse or a better clinical prognosis. This might be due to the fact that ACE2 is the receptor for the virus to enter human cells, but, on the contrary, that ACE2 expres...
Article
Background Differences in risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) are incompletely understood. Aim of this study was to understand whether risk factors and biomarkers show different associations with incident AF and HF and to investigate predictors of subsequent onset and mortality. Methods and Results In N=58 693 individu...
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Full-text available
Objectives The aims of this study were to characterize the association of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) with heart failure (HF), to determine its predictive value beyond classical cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide, and to derive a relevant cutoff for potential clinical application. Ba...