Augustin Scalbert

Augustin Scalbert
International Agency for Research on Cancer

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385
Publications
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52,659
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Publications

Publications (385)
Article
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Background The mechanisms underlying childhood overweight and obesity are poorly known. Here, we investigated the direct and indirect effects of different prenatal exposures on offspring rapid postnatal growth and overweight in childhood, mediated through cord blood metabolites. Additionally, rapid postnatal growth was considered a potential mediat...
Article
Background & Aims Epidemiological studies that assessed the associations between dietary polyphenol intakes and colon cancer risk have reported largely null results, possibly due to measurement error associated with dietary assessment. We adopted an objective approach by measuring prediagnostic plasma concentrations of 35 polyphenols and assessing...
Article
Background: Self-reported meat consumption is associated with disease risk but objective assessment of different dimensions of this heterogeneous dietary exposure in observational and interventional studies remains challenging. Objectives: We aimed to derive and validate scores based on plasma metabolites for types of meat consumption. For the m...
Article
Endogenous and exogenous metabolite concentrations may be susceptible to variation over time. This variability can lead to misclassification of exposure levels and in turn to biased results. To assess the reproducibility of metabolites, the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) is computed. A literature search in three databases from 2000 until...
Preprint
Background. Metabolites produced by the gut microbiota play an important role in the cross-talk with the human host. Many microbial metabolites are biologically active and can pass the gut barrier and make it into the systemic circulation, where they form the gut microbial exposome, i.e. the totality of gut microbial metabolites in body fluids or t...
Preprint
Background. Metabolites produced by the gut microbiota play an important role in the cross-talk with the human host. Many microbial metabolites are biologically active and can pass the gut barrier and make it into the systemic circulation, where they form the gut microbial exposome, i.e. the totality of gut microbial metabolites in body fluids or t...
Article
Introduction Circulating levels of acylcarnitines (ACs) have been associated with risk of various diseases such as cancer and type 2 diabetes. Diet and lifestyle factors have been shown to influence AC concentrations but a better understanding of their biological, lifestyle and metabolic determinants is needed. Methods Circulating ACs were measure...
Preprint
Background Epidemiological studies of associations between metabolites and cancer risk have typically focused on specific cancer types separately. Here, we designed a multivariate pan-cancer analysis to identify metabolites potentially associated with multiple cancer types, while also allowing the investigation of cancer type-specific associations....
Article
Full-text available
Fruit and vegetables (FV) are part of a healthy diet and should be frequently consumed already at a young age. However, intake of FV is difficult to assess in children and adolescents due to various misreporting aspects. Thus, measurement of dietary biomarkers may be a promising alternative to assess FV intake more objectively at young age. To date...
Article
Introduction Higher flavonoid intakes are beneficially associated with pulmonary function parameters, however, their association with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unknown. This study aimed to examine associations between intakes of 1) total flavonoids, 2) flavonoid subclasses, and 3) major flavonoid compounds and incident COPD in...
Article
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This study examines the correlation of acute and habitual dietary intake of flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, theaflavins, and their main food sources with the urinary concentrations of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC). Participants (N = 419, men and women) prov...
Article
Bile acids (BA) play different roles in cancer development. Some are carcinogenic and BA signaling is also involved in various metabolic, inflammatory, and immune-related processes. The liver is the primary site of BA synthesis. Liver dysfunction and microbiome compositional changes, such as during hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development, may mo...
Article
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Introduction Metabolomics may identify biological pathways predisposing children to the risk of overweight and obesity. In this study, we have investigated the cord blood metabolic signatures of rapid growth in infancy and overweight in early childhood in four European birth cohorts. Methods Untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metab...
Article
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Background Excess bodyweight and related metabolic perturbations have been implicated in kidney cancer aetiology, but the specific molecular mechanisms underlying these relationships are poorly understood. In this study, we sought to identify circulating metabolites that predispose kidney cancer and to evaluate the extent to which they are influenc...
Article
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Purpose Emerging evidence suggests that diet is linked to survival in colorectal cancer patients, although underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dietary exposures are associated with metabolite concentrations in colorectal cancer patients. Methods Concentrations of 134 metabolites of the Bioc...
Presentation
Full-text available
Background Flavonoid-rich foods may contribute to a lower risk of ischemic stroke through their anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, and anti-thrombotic properties. We aimed to examine the relationship between flavonoid intake and ischemic stroke incidence in participants from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health study. Methods In this prospective...
Article
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Despite some epidemiological evidence on the protective effects of polyphenol intake on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk from case-control studies, the evidence is scarce from prospective studies and non-existent for several polyphenol classes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the associations between the intake of total, classes and subclass...
Article
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Background Higher flavonoid intakes are hypothesised to confer protection against type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objective We aimed to 1) investigate associations between flavonoid intakes and diabetes, 2) examine the mediating impact of body fat, and 3) identify subpopulations that may receive the greatest benefit from higher flavonoid intakes in part...
Article
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We investigated longitudinal associations of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and light-intensity physical activity (LPA) with plasma concentrations of 138 metabolites after colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. Self-reported physical activity data and blood samples were obtained at 6 weeks, and 6, 12 and 24 months post-treatment in stage...
Article
Dysregulation of tryptophan metabolism has been linked to colorectal tumorigenesis, however, epidemiological studies investigating tryptophan metabolites in relation to colorectal cancer risk are limited. We studied associations of plasma tryptophan, serotonin, and kynurenine with colon cancer risk in two studies with cancer patients and controls,...
Article
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By 2030, more than 80% of Europe's population will live in an urban environment. The urban exposome, consisting of factors such as where we live and work, where and what we eat, our social network, and what chemical and physical hazards we are exposed to, provides important targets to improve population health. The EXPANSE (EXposome Powered tools f...
Conference Paper
p>Objective: High-throughput metabolomics assays can generate thousands of biomarker measurements and provide novel opportunities for prognostic modeling in colorectal cancer (CRC) research. The high dimensionality of metabolic data brings unforeseen statistical challenges and traditional variable selection methods may not perform well due to simul...
Article
Introduction: The promotion of evidence-based diets is an important s trategy to mitigate the global health and economic burden of diabetes. Higher flavonoid intakes are associated with a lower risk of obesity and diabetes. Less clear are associations of the flavonoid subclasses with diabetes, the mediating impact of body fat, and the identificatio...
Article
Background: Alcohol is an established risk factor for several cancers, but modest alcohol-cancer associations may be missed due to measurement error in self-reported assessments. Biomarkers of habitual alcohol intake may provide novel insight into the relationship between alcohol and cancer risk. Methods: Untargeted metabolomics was used to iden...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Prospective studies investigating flavonoid intake and dementia risk are scarce. The aims of this study were to examine associations between flavonoid intake and the risk of incident dementia and to investigate whether this association differs in the presence of lifestyle risk factors for dementia. Methods: We examined associations...
Article
Full-text available
Background Flavonoid-rich foods have antiinflammatory, antiatherogenic, and antithrombotic properties that may contribute to a lower risk of ischemic stroke. Objectives We aimed to investigate the relationship between habitual flavonoid consumption and incidence of ischemic stroke in participants from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study. Des...
Article
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Background The mechanisms underlying the obesity-cancer relationship are incompletely understood. This study aimed to characterise metabolic signatures of greater body size and to investigate their association with two obesity-related malignancies, endometrial and colorectal cancers, and with weight loss within the context of an intervention study....
Article
We evaluated the association between intake of total polyphenols, polyphenol classes and the 10 most consumed individual polyphenols with serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in 749 European adolescents (53% girls; 15% overweight; 12.5–17.5 years-old) from the cross-sectional HELENA study of 2006–2007. Dietary polyphenol intake was calculated fro...
Article
Background and aims Emerging evidence suggests a role of amino acids (AAs) in the development of various diseases including renal failure, liver cirrhosis, diabetes and cancer. However, mechanistic pathways and the effects of dietary AA intakes on circulating levels and disease outcomes are unclear. We aimed to compare protein and AA intakes, with...
Preprint
Background: Alcohol is an established risk factor for several cancers, but modest alcohol-cancer associations may be missed due to measurement error in self-reported assessments. The identification of biomarkers of habitual alcohol intake may enhance evidence on the role of alcohol in cancer onset. Methods: Untargeted metabolomics was used to ident...
Article
Full-text available
The identification of patients at high-risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) recurrence remains an unmet clinical need. The aim of this study was to investigate associations of metabolites with risk of recurrence in stage II/III CRC patients. A targeted metabolomics assay (128 metabolites measured) was performed on pre-surgery collected EDTA plasma samp...
Article
Full-text available
Metabolomics may help to elucidate mechanisms underlying diet-disease relationships and identify novel risk factors for disease. To inform the design and interpretation of such research, evidence on diet-metabolite associations and cross-assay comparisons is needed. We aimed to compare nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolite profiles between me...
Article
Full-text available
Sporadic colorectal cancer is characterized by a multistep progression from normal epithelium to precancerous low-risk and high-risk adenomas to invasive cancer. Yet, the underlying molecular mechanisms of colorectal carcinogenesis are not completely understood. Within the “Metabolomic profiles throughout the continuum of colorectal cancer” (Metabo...
Article
Scope: Processed meat intake has been associated with adverse health outcomes. However, little is known about the type of processed meat more particularly responsible for these effects. This study aims to identify novel biomarkers for processed meat intake. Methods and results: In a controlled randomized cross-over dietary intervention study, 12...
Article
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Increasing evidence points to a role for inflammation in lung carcinogenesis. A small number of circulating inflammatory proteins have been identified as showing elevated levels prior to lung cancer diagnosis, indicating the potential for prospective circulating protein concentration as a marker of early carcinogenesis. In order to identify novel m...
Article
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We investigated associations of habitual dietary intake with the taxonomic composition and diversity of the human gut microbiota in 222 Koreans aged 18–58 years in a cross-sectional study. Gut microbiota data were obtained by 16S rRNA gene sequencing on DNA extracted from fecal samples. The habitual diet for the previous year was assessed by a food...
Article
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Background & aims: Colorectal cancer risk can be lowered by adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guidelines. We derived metabolic signatures of adherence to these guidelines and tested their associations with colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)...
Article
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Background The role of nutrition in the primary prevention of peripheral artery disease (PAD), the third leading cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, is undetermined. Flavonoids may attenuate atherosclerosis and therefore persons who consume flavonoid-rich foods may have a lower risk of developing PAD. Objectives We aimed to examine th...
Article
Mechanisms underlying adverse birth and later in life health effects from exposure to air pollution during the prenatal period have not been not fully elucidated, especially in the context of mixtures. We assessed the effects of prenatal exposure to mixtures of air pollutants of particulate matter (PM), PM2.5, PM10, nitrogen oxides, NO2, NO x , ult...
Article
Full-text available
Citrus intake has been suggested to increase the risk of skin cancer. Although this relation is highly plausible biologically, epidemiologic evidence is lacking. We aimed to examine the potential association between citrus intake and skin cancer risk. EPIC is an ongoing multi-center prospective cohort initiated in 1992 and involving ~ 520,000 parti...
Article
Background: Polyphenols are natural compounds with anticarcinogenic properties in cellular and animal models, but epidemiological evidence determining the associations of these compounds with thyroid cancer (TC) is lacking. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relations between blood concentrations of 36 polyphenols and TC risk...
Article
Full-text available
There is a lack of focus on the protective health effects of phy-tochemicals in dietary guidelines. Although a number of chemical libraries and databases contain dietary phytochemicals belonging to the plant metabolome, they are not entirely relevant to human health because many constituents are extensively metabolized within the body following ing...
Article
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PurposeUnderlying mechanisms of the relationship between body fatness and colorectal cancer remain unclear. This study investigated associations of circulating metabolites with visceral (VFA), abdominal subcutaneous (SFA), and total fat area (TFA) in colorectal cancer patients.Methods Pre-surgery plasma samples from 212 patients (stage I–IV) from t...
Article
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development entails changes in liver metabolism. Current knowledge on metabolic perturbations in HCC is derived mostly from case‐control designs, with sparse information from prospective cohorts. Our objective was to apply comprehensive metabolite profiling to detect metabolites whose serum concentrations are associat...
Article
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There is an accumulating body of literature reporting on dietary flavonoid intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in prospective cohort studies. This makes apparent the need for an overview and update on the current state of the science. To date, at least 27 prospective cohorts (in 44 publications) have evaluated the association betwee...
Article
The microbiome has been hypothesized to play a role in cancer development. Due to the diversity of published data, an overview of available epidemiological evidence linking the microbiome with cancer is now needed. We conducted a systematic review using a tailored search strategy in Medline and EMBASE databases to identify and summarize the current...
Article
Obesity and obesity-driven cancer rates are continuing to rise worldwide. We hypothesize that adipocyte-colonocyte interactions are a key driver of obesity-associated cancers. To understand the clinical relevance of visceral adipose tissue in advancing tumor growth, we analyzed paired tumor-adjacent visceral adipose, normal mucosa, and colorectal t...
Article
Full-text available
The intake of processed meat has been associated with several adverse health outcomes such as type II diabetes and cancer; however, the mechanisms are not fully understood. A better knowledge of the metabolite profiles of different processed and non-processed meat products from this heterogeneous food group could help in elucidating the mechanisms...
Article
Background: Acylcarnitines (ACs) play a major role in fatty acid metabolism and are potential markers of metabolic dysfunction with higher blood concentrations reported in obese and diabetic individuals. Diet, and in particular red and processed meat intake, has been shown to influence AC concentrations but data on the effect of meat consumption o...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose In this study, we aimed to study the correlation between acute and habitual intakes of flavonols, their main food sources and their 24-h urinary concentrations in an European population. Methods A 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) and 24-h urine samples were collected on the same day from a convenience subsample of 475 men and women from four c...
Article
Fermentation may enhance the nutritional properties of foods by increasing metabolite bioactivity or bioavailability. This study explored the effect of fermentation on isoflavone bioavailability and metabolism. Isoflavone metabolites were tracked in foods and biospecimens of healthy adults after fermented soybean (FS) or non-fermented soybean (NFS)...
Article
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Background Birthweight reflects in utero exposures and later health evolution. Despite existing studies employing high-dimensional molecular measurements, the understanding of underlying mechanisms of birthweight remains limited. Methods To investigate the systems biology of birthweight, we cross-sectionally integrated the methylome, the transcrip...
Article
Full-text available
Demographic, lifestyle and biospecimen-related factors at the time of blood collection can influence metabolite levels in epidemiological studies. Identifying the major influences on metabolite concentrations is critical to designing appropriate sample collection protocols and considering covariate adjustment in metabolomics analyses. We examined t...
Article
Background & Aims Primary prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF) through behavioural and dietary modification is a critically important and unmet need. Flavonoids are bioactive dietary compounds with promising cardiovascular health benefits. Our aim was to investigate the association between flavonoid intake and clinically apparent AF. Methods Bas...
Article
Background: Although high dietary polyphenol intake is negatively associated with risk of certain inflammation-associated chronic diseases, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood and few studies have explored this in adolescents. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the association between intakes of total polyphenols, polyphenol cl...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The role of polyphenol intake during adolescence to prevent metabolic syndrome (MetS) is little explored. This study aimed to evaluate the association between intake of total polyphenols, polyphenol classes and the 10 most consumed individual polyphenols with MetS risk in European adolescents. Methods Of the cross-sectional HELENA study, 6...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Little is known of the relationship between the Korean habitual diet and gut microbiota composition. We investigated associations of habitual dietary intake of foods and nutrients with the taxonomic composition and diversity of gut microbiota in 222 Korean adults aged 18-58 years in a cross-sectional study. Gut microbial taxonomic compo...
Chapter
Metabolomics is today widely used to identify new biomarkers for disease diagnosis or prognosis, for patient stratification or for monitoring treatment efficacy in the clinics. It is also applied to identify biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility increasingly used in epidemiological research to study the etiology of diseases. This chapt...
Article
In this study, the aim was to investigate the correlation between the acute and habitual dietary intake of flavanones, and their main food sources, and the concentrations of aglycones naringenin and hesperetin in 24h urine in a European population. A 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) and a 24-h urine sample were collected the same day from a subsample o...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Coffee and tea constituents have shown several anti-carcinogenic activities in cellular and animal studies, including against thyroid cancer (TC). However, epidemiological evidence is still limited and inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to investigate this association in a large prospective study. Methods The study was conducted in the EPIC...
Article
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Exposome-Explorer (http://exposome-explorer.iarc.fr) is a database of dietary and pollutant biomarkers measured in population studies. In its first release, Exposome-Explorer contained comprehensive information on 692 biomarkers of dietary and pollution exposures extracted from the analysis of 480 peer-reviewed publications. Today, Exposome-Explore...
Article
Background and Aims: Despite declines in the absolute number of colorectal cancer cases, colorectal cancer incidence rates among individuals under age 50 years are climbing with etiologies unknown. Many studies analyze one molecular profile to identify features of young-onset colorectal cancers. We sought to conduct a multi-omics analysis to identi...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Flavonoids, compounds found in plant-based foods and beverages, might ameliorate vascular damage and atherosclerosis. Therefore, our aim was to assess the association between flavonoid intake and hospital admissions due to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, participants from the Danish...
Article
Full-text available
Experimental studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory properties of polyphenols. However, results from epidemiological investigations have been inconsistent, and especially studies using biomarkers for assessment of polyphenol intake have been scant. We aimed to characterize the association between plasma concentrations of 35 polyphenol compo...
Article
Background Our understanding of how diet affects future risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) is limited. Evidence suggests that higher habitual intakes of flavonoids, bio-active compounds found in plant-based foods and beverages, lower cardiovascular disease risk, attenuate inflammation, and may have anti-arrhythmic properties. Purpose To investigate...