Attila Krajcsi

Attila Krajcsi
Eötvös Loránd University · Department of Cognitive Psychology

PhD

About

36
Publications
8,747
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330
Citations
Introduction

Publications

Publications (36)
Article
In elementary symbolic number processing, the comparison distance effect (in a comparison task, the task is more difficult with smaller numerical distance between the values) and the priming distance effect (in a number processing task, actual number is easier to process with a numerically close previous number) are two essential phenomena. While a...
Chapter
According to the dominant view in the literature, several numerical cognition phenomena are explained coherently and parsimoniously by the Approximate Number System (ANS) model, which supposes the existence of an evolutionarily old, simple representation behind many numerical tasks. We offer an alternative account that proposes that only nonsymboli...
Article
Learning the meaning of number words is a lengthy and error‐prone process. In this review, we highlight outstanding issues related to current accounts of children’s acquisition of symbolic number knowledge. We maintain that, despite the ability to identify and label small numerical quantities, children do not understand initially that number words...
Article
Full-text available
While knowledge on the development of understanding positive integers is rapidly growing, the development of understanding zero remains not well-understood. Here, we test several components of preschoolers’ understanding of zero: Whether they can use empty sets in numerical tasks (as measured with comparison, addition, and subtraction tasks); wheth...
Article
Full-text available
The Give-a-number task is one of the most frequently used tests to measure the number knowledge of preschoolers at the time they acquire the meaning of symbolic numbers. In the task, an experimenter asks for a specific number of objects from a child. The literature utilizes several versions of this task, and usually it is assumed that the different...
Preprint
According to the dominant view in the literature, several numerical cognition phenomena are explained coherently and parsimoniously by the Approximate Number System (ANS) model, which model supposes an evolutionarily old, simple representation behind many numerical tasks. We offer an alternative model, the Discrete Semantic System (DSS) to explain...
Article
Full-text available
In the number comparison task distance effect (better performance with larger distance between the two numbers) and size effect (better performance with smaller numbers) are used extensively to find the representation underlying numerical cognition. According to the dominant analog number system (ANS) explanation, both effects depend on the extent...
Article
Full-text available
The approximate number system (ANS) is believed to be an essential component of numerical understanding. The sensitivity of the ANS has been found to be correlating with various mathematical abilities. Recently, Chesney (2018, Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 80[5], 1057-1063) demonstrated that if the ANS sensitivity is measured with the rat...
Poster
Full-text available
In regards to the number comparison task, the correlation between the comparison distance effect (better performance with larger distance between two numbers, CDE) and the priming distance effect (better performance with smaller distance between the priming and target number, PDE) has been studied before. The Analogue Number System explanation of n...
Article
Full-text available
An educational computer game is presented, used for beginner students to introduce some basic concepts of code execution and code writing. In this mini-language microworld game, a code should be written with which a robot can escape from a procedurally generated labyrinth. The game uses a simple language and utilizes a virtual environment, where co...
Article
In the symbolic number comparison task, the size effect (better performance for small than for large numbers) is usually interpreted as the result of the more general ratio effect, in line with Weber's law. In alternative models, the size effect might be a result of stimulus frequency: smaller numbers are more frequent, and more frequent stimuli ar...
Article
Interference between number magnitude and other properties can be explained by either an analogue magnitude system interfering with a continuous representation of the other properties or by discrete, categorical representations in which the corresponding number and property categories interfere. In this study, we investigated whether parity, a disc...
Article
Full-text available
HIGHLIGHTSWe test whether symbolic number comparison is handled by an analog noisy system. Analog system model has systematic biases in describing symbolic number comparison. This suggests that symbolic and non-symbolic numbers are processed by different systems. Dominant numerical cognition models suppose that both symbolic and non-symbolic number...
Article
Full-text available
In a comparison task, the larger the distance between the two numbers to be compared, the better the performance—a phenomenon termed as the numerical distance effect. According to the dominant explanation, the distance effect is rooted in a noisy representation, and performance is proportional to the size of the overlap between the noisy representa...
Preprint
Dominant numerical cognition models suppose that both symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers are processed by the Analogue Number System (ANS) working according to Weber’s law. It was proposed that in a number comparison task the numerical distance and size effects reflect a ratio-based performance which is the sign of the ANS activation. However, increa...
Preprint
In a comparison task, the larger the distance between the two numbers to be compared, the better the performance, a phenomenon termed the numerical distance effect. According to the dominant explanation, the distance effect is rooted in a noisy representation, and performance is proportional to the size of the overlap between the noisy representati...
Preprint
Full-text available
While the knowledge about the development of understanding positive integers is rapidly growing, the development of understanding zero is not well-known. Here we tested several components of preschoolers’ understanding zero: whether they can use empty sets in numerical tasks, whether they can use empty sets as soon as they understand the cardinalit...
Article
Full-text available
Human number understanding is thought to rely on the analog number system (ANS), working according to Weber’s law. We propose an alternative account, suggesting that symbolic mathematical knowledge is based on a discrete semantic system (DSS), a representation that stores values in a semantic network, similar to the mental lexicon or to a conceptua...
Article
Numerical distance and size effects (easier number comparison with large distance or small size) are mostly supposed to reflect a single effect, the ratio effect, which is the consequence of the analogue number system (ANS) activation, working according to Weber’s law. In an alternative model, symbolic numbers can be processed by a discrete semanti...
Article
Human number understanding is thought to rely on the analogue number system (ANS), working according to Weber’s law. We propose an alternative account, suggesting that symbolic mathematical knowledge is based on a discrete semantic system (DSS), a representation that stores values in a semantic network, similar to the mental lexicon or to a concept...
Article
Although it is widely accepted that colors facilitate object and scene recognition under various circumstances, several studies found no effects of color removal in tasks requiring categorization of briefly presented animals in natural scenes. In this study, three experiments were performed to test the assumption that the discrepancy between empiri...
Article
Full-text available
Subitizing is a fast and accurate enumeration process of small sets of usually less than four objects. Several models were proposed in the literature. Critically, only pattern recognition theory suggests that subitizing performance is sensitive to the arrangement of the array. In our study, arrays of dots in random or canonical arrangements were en...
Article
Full-text available
Number notations can influence the way numbers are handled in computations; however, the role of notation itself in mental processing has not been examined directly. From a mathematical point of view, it is believed that place-value number notation systems, such as the Indo-Arabic numbers, are superior to sign-value systems, such as the Roman numbe...
Article
Full-text available
Five experiments using the think/no-think (TNT) procedure investigated the effect of the no-think and substitute instructions on cued recall. In Experiment 1, when unrelated A-B paired associates were studied and cued for recall with A items, recall rates were reliably enhanced in the think condition and reliably impaired below baseline in the no-t...
Article
Full-text available
The main purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between verbal short-term memory and the morphological complexity of words. Hungarian, as an agglutinative language, is of special interest for psycholinguistic inquiries in morphology. The authors presented two word-list recall experiments. The recall of the word list was measured by t...
Article
Full-text available
Numerals are processed by a phylogenetically old analogue magnitude system. Can culturally new negative numerals be processed using this same representation? To find out whether magnitude representation could be used, we contrasted three possible processing mechanisms: an extended magnitude system for both positive and negative numbers, a mirroring...
Article
Full-text available
A Numerikus Feldolgozás és Számolás Teszt (NFSZT) egy neuropszichológiai tesztcsomag, amely szerzett numerikus sérülések vizsgálatára és diagnózisára alkalmas. Numerikus kompetenciánkért számos, egymástól független kognitív rendszer felelős, amelyek disszociatív mintázatokban sérülhetnek. A teszt, azon túlmenően, hogy sorra veszi a numerikus feldol...
Article
Full-text available
Two numerical systems--the analogue magnitude system and verbal retrieval--were investigated in Williams syndrome (WS) with three numerical tasks: simple addition, simple multiplication, and number comparison. A new matching technique was introduced in selecting the proper control groups. The WS group was relatively fast in the addition and multipl...
Article
Full-text available
A Williams-szindróma (WS) egy ritka genetikai fejlődési zavar, amely a numerikus képességek súlyos sérülésével jár együtt. Két numerikus rendszer, az analóg mennyiségi rendszer és a verbális rendszer működését vizsgáltuk meg Williams-szindrómában, három eltérő numerikus feladatban: egyszerű össze-adási, egyszerű szorzási és szám-összehasonlítási fe...
Article
To assess the associated obstetric and sociodemographic risk of vulnerability to postnatal depression in a population-based study. All women presenting for postpartum care (n=1656) were surveyed at pregnancy care units of southern-eastern Hungary between January 2004 and May 2006 with an anonymously completed Leverton questionnaire (LQ). The demogr...
Article
Full-text available
Kutatásunk célja a verbális munkamemória és a szóterjedelem kapcsolatának feltérképezése. Három kísérletet mutatunk be, melyekben a kísérleti személyeknek klasszikus emlékezetiterjedelem-mérő kísérleti elrendezésben kellett szólistákat tanulniuk és visszamondaniuk. A szavak morfológiai összetettségét változtattuk, miközben a listákon belül kiegyenl...
Article
Számos esetben van szükség arra, hogy egy elemi mentális funkció teljesítményét egy adott személynél megmérjük. Többféle eljárás (tesztek, reakcióidő, pszichofizikai mérés stb.) áll a rendelkezésünkre. Mégis, bizonyos esetekben egyik ma használatos eljárás sem tűnik megfelelőnek. Így például nehéz olyan módszert találni, amely a számolási zavarokka...
Article
Darwin után, szabadon [Steve Jones: Darwin szelleme ; Edward O. Wilson: Minden egybecseng ] (Tófalvy Tamás); A tudomány célja: határok átlépése [Pléh Csaba: A természet és a lélek ] (Bereczkei Tamás) ; Iránytu az evolúciós pszichológiához [Bereczkei Tamás: Evolúciós pszichológia ] (Kardos Péter) ; Intuitív aritmetika [Stanislas Dehaene: A számérzék...
Article
Full-text available
This report is about a small scale study where frequent Internet users' habits of communication (in the use of the Internet and mobile phone systems) in Hungary were investigated with questionnaires that were made accessible via the Internet. The results show that among the frequent Internet users the 'dependent' and 'alienated' types of usage are...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
Methodological works related to various areas of behavioral sciences.
Project
We investigate how preschoolers understand numbers, starting from the very beginning of understanding symbolic numbers (i.e., understanding the cardinality principle), until they start formal math education.
Project
Symbolic and non-symbolic numbers are thought to be processed by an evolutionary ancient, simple representation, the Analogue Number System (ANS), which system is thought to be the very base of number understanding. We offer an alternative account for symbolic number understanding, proposing a human specific, simple representation similar to a network of concepts or to the mental lexicon. It is a comprehensive model for symbolic number processing phenomena. See more details at http://www.thenumberworks.org/discrete_semantic_system.html