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Research Item (27)
- Oct 2017
The aim of our study was to investigate matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-9 and MMP-13 levels, in the rabbit model of Fusarium and Candida keratitis treated by corneal cross-linking (PACK-CXL). Rabbit corneas were inoculated with fungal inoculum for keratitis. Each group divided into four subgroups, including un-treated group, PACK-CXL group, voriconazole group and PACK-CXL plus voriconazole group. PACK-CXL was applied with 0.25% riboflavin in accelerated Dresden protocol, and 0.1% voriconazole drops were administered. All corneal buttons excised at tenth day after ophthalmological examination. Fungal cell counts and Scheiber scores were determined in all groups. Corneal tissue MMP mRNA levels were evaluated quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. The difference in MMP-9 and MMP-13 levels at all groups was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). PACK-CXL with 0.25% riboflavin either alone or combined with antifungal drops was unable to provide decline in inflammatory findings in both macroscopic and microscopic levels similar to medical antifungal treatment.
In this study, the efficiency of the ‘‘Needle Immersed Vitrification’’ technique was tested on cryopreserved feline ovarian tissue. For vitrification, ovarian fragments (0.5–1.5 mm2) from each ovary were collected; the grafts were exposed to 7.5–15% ethylene glycol and 7.5–15% dimethyl sulfoxide at room temperature and stored in liquid nitrogen at least 1 week. Morphologic examinations, expression of genes such as B cell lymphoma 2, B-cell lymphoma-2- associated X protein, Bone morphogenetic protein 15, zone of polarizing activity, zona pellucida C protein and DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1, ultrastructural analysis and viability tests were carried out from collected grafts. Light microscopy examinations revealed the percentage of morphologically normal primordial follicles in a fresh group which was significantly higher than the treatment groups (p < 0.001). Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and anti-caspase-3 staining observed in oocytes, follicle cells, interstitial tissue showed higher rates of apoptosis for post-vitrification and -transplantation groups than freshly grafted ovarian tissues. Furthermore, we observed significant down regulation of zone of polarizing activity and zona pellucida C protein gene expression in vitrified ovarian tissue grafts than in the fresh grafts (p < 0.05). In conclusion, we suggest that the needle immersed vitrification method is a convenient, cheap, and feasible vitrification method for cat ovarian tissues. However, further studies need to be performed to determine more optimal vitrification solutions and equilibration times for the needle immersed vitrification method in order to adapt it for cat ovaries.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the expression of iNOS, COX-2 and VEGF mRNA levels and malignancy degree in canine malignant mammary tumours. Thirty-five bitches presented with the complaint of mammary masses, aged 6–10 years and representing different breeds, were used. The expressions of iNOS, COX-2 and VEGF mRNA levels were significantly higher in both benign and malignant tumours than in the adjacent nonneoplastic mammary glands (P < 0.05). The iNOS, COX-2 and VEGF mRNA expression levels of grade 2 tumours were higher than those of grade 1 tumours; however, the highest expression levels were detected in grade 3 tumours. Thus, increased iNOS, COX-2 and VEGF gene mRNA levels were found to be related with the histological grade of malignancy in dogs with mammary tumours.
- Sep 2017
Objective We aimed to investigate the potential use of the expression of apoptotic signaling pathway genes of rat in skin wound age estimation. Methods For this purpose, we formed cutting tool injuries using a scalpel in an experimental model. Then, we assessed Caspase 3, 8 and 9 mRNA levels by using quantitative real-time PCR and protein levels by using immunohistochemistry in rat skin wounds. In addition, we used TUNEL assay to detect apoptotic cells. Results We observed that Caspase 3 mRNA level significantly increased (2.1±0.4 folds) on day 3 (p<0.05) and Caspase 8 mRNA level significantly increased (1.8±0.2 folds) on day 5 (p<0.05). Caspase 9 mRNA level increased (1.9±0.1 folds) on day 3 and (2.5±0.4 folds) on day 5 (p<0.05). The percentage values of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) and inflammatory mononuclear cells (IMCs) were observed after immunohistochemical staining by Caspase 3, 8, 9 antibodies. Our immunohistochemistry results were found to be consistent with the mRNA results observed. We reported a statistically significant increase in Caspase 3, 8 and 9-positive cells on days 3 and 5 after immunohistochemical staining as well. Conclusion Our results suggest that time-dependent features of apoptotic factors might offer a potential tool in estimating wound age.
- Jan 2017
Context: Thyroid cancers (TCs) are the most common endocrine malignancies. There were two problems with the current cancer chemotherapy: the ineffectiveness of treatment due to resistance to cancer cell, and the toxic effect on normal cells. Aims: This study was aimed to determine the effects of thymoquinone (TQ) and genistein (Gen) phytotherapeutics on telomerase activity, angiogenesis, and apoptosis in follicular and anaplastic thyroid cancer cells (TCCs). Materials and methods: Cell viability, caspase-3 (CASP-3) activity, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21), and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) genes were analyzed. Results: It was found that TQ and Gen treatment on TCCs caused a statistically significant decrease of cell viability, and mRNA expression levels of hTERT, VEGF-A, and NF-kB genes, but a statistically significant increase of PTEN and p21 mRNA expression levels. In addition, TQ and Gen treatment also caused a statistically significant increase active CASP-3 protein level in TCCs. Moreover, our results demonstrated that, when compared with follicular TCCs, anaplastic TCCs were more sensitive to the treatment of TQ and Gen. Conclusions: Based on these results, two agents can be good options as potential phytochemotherapeutics against TCCs.
Background and Objectives Genetic predisposition is an important risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of rs10757274 and rs2383206 polymorphisms in chromosome 9p21 on presence and severity of CAD in a Turkish population. Subjects and Methods A total of 646 patients who underwent coronary angiography were included in this study. Coronary vessel score and Gensini score were calculated to assess the angiographic severity of CAD. Alleles of AA, AG, and GG were determined for rs10757274 (polymorphism-1) and rs2383206 (polymorphism-2) polymorphisms located in chromosome 9p21 from the blood samples. Results There was a significant difference between the alleles in polymorphism-1 in the presence of coronary artery disease (38.9% in AA, 48.0% in GG and 56.4% in AG, p=0.017). However, there was no difference between the alleles in polymorphism-2. According to vessel scores, there was a significant difference between the alleles in polymorphism-1 (AA 0.71±1.04, GG 0.88±1.07, AG 1.06±1.12, p=0.018). In polymorphism-2, vessel scores did not show a difference between the alleles. In polymorphism-1, there was a significant difference in Gensini score (p=0.041). Gensini scores did not differ between the alleles in polymorphism-2 (p>0.05 for all). In multivariate analyses, none of the alleles was an independent factor for presence of CAD. Conclusion The presence of rs10757274 polymorphism including AG allele in chromosome 9p21 was related to CAD. However, this relationship was not independent of other cardiovascular risk factors.
The activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (Akt) and mitogen activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways are implicated in the majority of cancers. Selective inhibition of Akt and ERK represents a potential approach for cancer therapy. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects of the novel and selective Akt inhibitor 4-amino-5,8-dihydro-5-oxo-8-β-D-ribofuranosyl-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxamide (API-1) and selective ERK1/2 inhibitor FR180204 (FR) alone and in combination on colorectal cancer (CRC) cells (DLD-1 and LoVo). In addition, the effects of API-1 and FR on Akt and ERK signaling pathways were also investigated. The effects of the agents on DLD-1 and LoVo cells were evaluated in terms of cell viability, cytotoxicity, DNA synthesis rate, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activity levels. In addition, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were performed to examine relevant mRNA and protein levels. The present study observed that the combination of FR with API-1 resulted in significant apoptosis and cytotoxicity compared with any single agent alone in a time-dependent manner in these cells. Also, treatment with FR and API-1 in combination decreased the expression levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL2), Bcl-2-like 1, cyclin D1 and cMYC, and increased the expression levels of BCL2-associated X protein and BCL2 antagonist/killer via phosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated ERK1/2 downregulation. The combination of Akt and ERK1/2 inhibitors resulted in enhanced apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects against CRC cells. The present study hypothesizes that the combination of FR and API-1 in CRC cells may contribute toward potential anti-carcinogenic effects. Additional analyses using other cancer cell lines and animal models are required to confirm these findings in vitro and in vivo.
- May 2016
Neuroblastoma (NB) is a cancer that occurs in sympathetic nervous system arising from neuroblasts and nerve tissue of the adrenal gland, neck, chest, or spinal cord. It is an embryonal malignancy and affects infants and children. In this study, we investigated the effects of microwave (MW) radiation on apoptotic activity, cell viability, and cell cycle progression in human SH-SY5Y NB cells which can give information about MW radiation effects on neural cells covering the period from the embryonic stages to infants. SH-SY5Y NB cells were exposed to 2.1 GHz W-CDMA modulated MW radiation for 24 h at a specific absorption rate of 0.491 W/kg. Control samples were in the same conditions with MW-exposed samples but they were not exposed to MW radiation. The apoptotic activity of cells was measured by Annexin-V-FITC and propidium iodide staining. Moreover, mRNA levels of proliferative and cell cycle proteins were determined by real-time RT-PCR. The change in cell cycle progression was observed by using CycleTest-Plus DNA reagent. No significant change was observed in apoptotic activity of MW-exposed cells compared to control cells. The mRNA levels of c-myc and cyclin D1 were significantly reduced in MW group (p < 0.05). The percentage of MW-exposed cells in G1 phase was significantly higher than the percentage of control cells in G1 phase. MW radiation caused cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. These results showed that 2.1 GHz W-CDMA modulated MW radiation did not cause apoptotic cell death but changed cell cycle progression.
Question - Can anyone suggest a video tracking system for rat's behavior?
Hi everyone, I'm sorry for the repeated question at first, Our research group are trying to evaluate morris maze task results, but our ETHOVISION system was really old and really complex. If its possible, Could you suggest us a free and easy to use tracking system please?
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a major role in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression by changing acetylation status of histone and non-histone proteins. MS-275 (entinostat, MS) is a well-known benzamide-based HDACI and Salermide (SAL), a reverse amide compound HDACI, have antiproliferative effects on several human cancer cells. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of HDACIs (MS and SAL) alone and/or combined use with EF24 (EF), a novel synthetic curcumin analog, on human pancreatic cancer cell line (BxPC-3). In vitro, BxPC-3 cells were exposed to varying concentrations of MS, SAL with or without EF, and their effects on cell viability, acetylated Histone H3 and H4 levels, cytotoxicity, and cleaved caspase 3 levels, and cell cycle distribution were measured. The viability of BxPC-3 cells decreased significantly after treatment with EF, MS and SAL treatments. MS and SAL treatment increased the acetylation of histone H3 and H4 in a dose dependent manner. MS and SAL alone or combined with EF were increased the number of cells in G1 phase. In addition, treatment with agents significantly decreased the ratio of cell in G2/M phase. There were significant dose-dependent increases at cleaved Caspase 3 levels after MS treatment but not after SAL treatment. Our results showed that HDAC inhibitors (MS and SAL), when combined with EF, may effectively reduce pancreatic cancer cell (BxPC-3) progression and stop the cell cycle at G1 phase. Further molecular analyses are needed to understand the fundamental molecular consequences of HDAC inhibition in pancreas cancer cells.
Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) is synthesised in the Sertoli cells of the testes and granulosa cells of the ovary. As the ovaries seem to be the primary source of AMH, it may be used for determination of the presence or absence of ovaries or ovarian remnants in mammalians. The purpose of the present study was to compare the serum AMH concentration of rats with experimentally induced ovarian remnant syndrome and the expression of AMH in the ovarian tissue removed during ovariohysterectomy and remnant ovarian tissue. A total of eighteen Sprague Dawley rats were used in the study. Group I consisted of 6 rats that were gone through ovarian remnant syndrome (ORS) experimentally, group II consisted of 6 rats in which both ovaries were removed and group III consisted of 6 rats that were sham-operated. Median laparotomy was performed in the all groups under general anaesthesia. AMH mRNA expression was determined using Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). AMH mRNA expression levels in group I were decreased on day 30 after surgery when compared to day 0 (P>0.05). Mean concentration of serum AMH on day 10 after surgery in group I, II and III were found 2.27±0.52 ng/ml, <0.312 ng/ml and 3.96±0.53 ng/ml, respectively (P<0.05). In conclusion, this finding suggests that evaluation of serum AMH concentration could be an useful method to determine the presence or absence of ovaries or ovarian remnants in the rat.
- Mar 2016
Cranial bone repair and regeneration via tissue engineering principles has attracted a great deal of interest from researchers during last decade. Here, within this study, 6 mm critical-sized bone defect regeneration via genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were monitored up to 4 months. Cranial bone repair and new bone formations were evaluated by histological staining and real time PCR analysis in five different groups including autograft and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) transfected MSC groups. Results presented here indicate a proper cranial regeneration in autograft groups and a prospering regeneration for hBMP-2 encoding mesenchymal stem cells.
- Oct 2015
Objective: To determine the efficacy of a newly developed scaffold (col/β-TCP) in a preclinical rat model as compared with the gold standard treatment (autograft) and control scaffolds (PLLA/PCL). Design: Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four experimental groups, and critical-sized alveolar defects (7 × 4 × 3 mm) were created in each animal. Group A was the blank defect group, group B received autograft, group C received col/β-TCP scaffolds, and group D received PLLA/PCL blend scaffolds to fill the bone defects. New bone formation was assessed radiomorphometrically, histomorphometrically, and molecular-biologically at 1 and 4 months following surgery. Results: Radiomorphometrically, the best new bone volume rate at 1 month (43.7%) and 4 months (45.4%) was observed in the autograft group, and the difference was significantly higher than in the other three groups (P < .005, P < .001, P < .001 for 1 month and P = .004, P < .001, P < .001 for 4 months). Even though the new bone volume rate in the col/β-TCP group (21.5%) was higher than that of the PLLA/PCL group (18.2%), the difference was not significant (P = .08). Molecular-genetic analysis revealed significantly higher BSP and ALP gene expression levels in the autograft and col/β-TCP groups than in the blank defect group (P = .002 and P = .004). Conclusion: The engineered tissue scaffolds described herein have great potential as an alternative treatment option when cost, donor region morbidity, and duration of hospitalization are considered.
- Jul 2015
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) associated with signaling pathways, such as Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), plays an important role in colorectal cancers (CRCs). Gefitinib (Gef) is an orally active inhibitor targeting the adenosine tri phosphate-binding domain of EGFR, and cucurbitacin B (CuB) is a selective inhibitor of JAK/STAT signaling with potent antitumor activity via suppression of STAT3 phosphorylation, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. We aimed to investigate the apoptotic and antiproliferative effects of CuB as a single agent and in combination with Gef on both HT-29 and HCT-116 cell lines. Cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis were evaluated using viability assay, fluorescent microscopy, cytotoxicity assay, proliferation, DNA fragmentation, and cleaved caspase 3 levels. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses were performed to determine the expression of relevant genes and proteins including antiapoptotic, proapoptotic, and cell cycle regulation. EGFR, phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR), STAT3, and pSTAT3 proteins were evalutaed with Western blot analysis. Our results showed that, compared to CuB alone, CuB plus Gef treatment caused a significant growth and cell cycle inhibition and induced apoptosis in both cell lines. Also CuB plus Gef treatment decreased DNA synthesis rate more effectively than CuB alone. Treatment with CuB alone and in combination with Gef decreased the expression levels of B-Cell CLL/Lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), BCL2-like 1 (BCL2L1), cyclin D1, pSTAT3, and pEGFR and increased the expression levels of Bcl-2-like protein 4, Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer, Bcl-2-associated death promoter, Bcl-2-like protein 11, and p27kip1 levels. Our results suggest that treatment with CuB alone and more likely in combination with Gef may be a considerable alternative therapeutic approach for CRC, at least in vitro. © The Author(s) 2015.
Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been reported to induce apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation in tumor cells when combined with conventional chemotherapeutic agents. We aimed to investigate the effect of NSAIDs (meloxicam and lornoxicam) plus conventional chemotherapeutic agents on RAF/MEK/ERK pathway in Burkitt's lymphoma cell line (Raji). Methods: Raji cells were treated with meloxicam, lornoxicam, carboplatin, gemcitabine and 5-fluorourasil (5-FU) for 24h. Then, the cells were treated with selected low and high doses of meloxicam alone or in combination with two different gemcitabine concentrations. Presence of apoptotic cells were assessed using fluorescence microscopy. mRNA expression levels of RAF1, MEK1, ERK1 and ERK2 genes were analyzed with quantitative real time PCR. Results: Apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects were not observed by carboplatin, 5-FU and lornoxicam. However, meloxicam and gemcitabine treatment resulted in a decrease in viability. Therefore, we examined the effects of low and high doses of meloxicam, gemcitabine and their combinations on this pathway. The antiproliferative effects of gemcitabine were not significantly enhanced in the presence of meloxicam. Furthermore, mRNA expression levels of RAF1, MEK1 and ERK1/2 genes were downregulated in gemcitabine alone and upregulated in meloxicam alone. Interestingly, the decrease shown in low and high doses of gemcitabine alone reversed in low dose meloxicam plus gemcitabine treatment. Conversely, downregulation of these genes by high dose gemcitabine did not change with meloxicam treatment. Conclusion: We believe that it may be fundamental to further evaluate this inhibitory drug interaction.
In this work, we studied the expression and localization of rat prostaglandin F (FP) receptor in uterine tissues of rats at gestational days 10, 15, 18, 20, 21, 21.5 and on postpartal days 1 and 3 using Western blotting analysis, Real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry techniques, respectively. A high immunoreactivity was observed on days 20, 21 and 21.5 being most significant on day 20. FP receptor protein the protein was expressed from gestation day 15, and a fluctuating unsteady increase was observed until delivery. Uterine FP receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) level was low between days 10 and 18 of gestation (p < 0.05). The transcript level increased significantly on day 20 and peaked on day 21,5 just before labor (p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between FP-receptor mRNA level and serum estradiol levels (rs = 0.78; p < 0.01) and serum estradiol/progesterone ratio (rs = 0.79; p < 0.01). Serum progesterone levels were negatively correlated with FP-receptor mRNA levels (rs = -0.44; p < 0.01). We conclude an increase FP receptor expression in rat uterus with advancing gestation, a marked elevation at term and a concominant decrase in postpartum (PP) period supporting a role for uterine FP receptors in mediation of uterine contractility at term.
Objective: DNA repair pathways in cells are essential for the maintenance of genome integrity, and for countering the induction of tumorigenesis. Topoisomerase II is a nuclear enzyme that functions during both DNA replication and transcription. The topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide is an antineoplastic drug that has been used to generate DNA damage and maintain apoptosis. Etoposide blocks cell division by interfering with the topoisomerase II and generates double strand breaks. Application of topoisomerase II inhibitors leads to the formation of double strand breaks that are rapidly repaired following removal of the drug. In the present study, we searched the apoptotic events and early double strand DNA repair process that prevent the apoptotic cell death of L929 fibroblasts in response to treatment with etoposide. Methods: Cytotoxicty of etoposide on L929 cells was determined in a time and dose dependent manner with MTT assay. The double strand DNA breaks were determined with comet assay. Acridin orange/Ethidium bromide fluorescence staining and Caspase 3/7 activity assays were performed in determined etoposide concentrations at 24 hour. Quantitative mRNA expressions of DNA repair genes (Ku70, Ku80, BRCA2, Rad51, XRCC4) were determined after etoposide treatment. Results: The levels of apoptotic cell markers and DNA double strand breaks were elevated in the increasing doses and time. The relative expression levels of Rad51, XRCC4 and BRCA2 were unstable in a time and dose dependent manner. Ku80 levels were generally decreased in etoposide treated groups when compared with controls. However, Ku70 was highly expressed at 9 and 12 hour with the increasing doses. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, etoposide activates apoptotic events. Also, low expression levels of DNA repair enzymes prevent cell survival from DNA damage.
- Dec 2012
The loss of cartilage tissue due to trauma, tumour surgery or congenital defects, such as microtia and anotia, is one of the major concerns in head and neck surgery. Recently tissue-engineering approaches, including gene delivery, have been proposed for the regeneration of cartilage tissue. In this study, primary chondrocytes were genetically modified with plasmid-encoding bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) via the commercially available non-viral Turbofect vector, with the aim of bringing ex vivo transfected chondrocytes to resynthesize BMP-7 in vitro as they would in vivo. Genetically modified cells were implanted into gelatin-oxidized dextran scaffolds and cartilage tissue formation was investigated in 15 × 15 mm auricular cartilage defects in vivo in 48 New Zealand (NZ) white rabbits for 4 months. The results were evaluated via histology and early gene expression. Early gene expression results indicated a strong effect of exogenous BMP-7 on matrix synthesis and chondrocyte growth. In addition, histological analysis results exhibited significantly better cartilage healing with BMP-7-modified (transfected) cells than in the non-modified (non-transfected) group and as well as the control. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Prostaglandins (PGs) are produced by the intrauterine tissues of pregnancy and play important role in all of the physiological processes of parturition. PGs are synthesized from arachidonic acid by the action of cyclooxygenase (COX). Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent smooth muscle relaxant and is considered to be an important local mediator that suppresses uterine contractility. There may be an interaction between the NO and PG pathways in regulating the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and COX expression and this interaction may play a critical role in the control of cervical ripening and parturition. The purpose of this study is to examine the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS) mRNA levels during gestation, parturition, and postpartum in pregnant rat uterus. Forty-two pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 7 groups. Both uterine horns were removed and the pups and placentas were discarded. Complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized after isolation of total RNA from the tissues. The relative expression of iNOS, eNOS and COX-2 genes were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR). The mRNA level of iNOS was increased during gestation; highest level in parturition and then it decreased at postpartum. The eNOS mRNA level was generally low during gestation in all groups and was significantly increased at postpartum. The COX-2 mRNA levels decreased as the pregnancy progressed to term with the highest level occurring on day 21 and the lovest levels during the postpartum period. In conclusion, there may be an interaction between the NO and PG pathways in cervical ripening and parturition. These results may show that mRNA levels of eNOS, iNOS and COX-2 genes may be effective cervical ripening during pregnancy and parturition.
Changes in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA expression profiles and oxidative stress in the eye tissue microenviroment may have important roles in ocular neovascularization and permeability in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The present study investigated the effects of resveratrol (RSV) treatment on the mRNA expression profile of VEGF, ACE, MMP-9, and eNOS, which are associated with vascular neovascularization, and glutathione, protein carbonyl, and nitrite-nitrate levels, which are markers of oxidative stress in eyes of diabetic rats. Twenty-four Wistar albino male rats were divided into four groups. After diabetes induction with streptozotocin (10 mg/kg/day) RSV was administered to the RSV and diabetes mellitus (DM) + RSV groups for 4 weeks. The mRNA levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, and biochemical estimations were determined with spectrophotometric assays in eye homogenates. The mRNA expression levels of VEGF, ACE, and MMP-9 were increased in the DM group compared with the control group, and RSV treatment decreased their mRNA levels. Expression of eNOS mRNA was increased in the RSV and DM groups and decreased in the DM + RSV group. Nitrite-nitrate levels and protein carbonyl content were increased and glutathione levels were decreased in the DM group compared with controls. Consequently, these data suggest that RSV suppressed the expression of eNOS, which is actively involved in the inflammation and healing process in chronic diabetes. Although oxidative stress was increased in eye tissue from diabetic rats, mRNA levels of VEGF, MMP-9, and ACE genes associated with vascular remodeling did not change in diabetic eyes.
Resveratrol (RSV) has a beneficial role in the prevention of diabetes and alleviates some diabetic complications, such as cardiomyopathy. We investigated cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), COX-2, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) mRNA expression levels in heart tissue after RSV treatment in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. After induction of chronic diabetes with STZ, 10 mg RSV/kg per day was administered to DM and DM+RSV groups for four weeks. At the end of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed and heart tissues were stored at -80°C; mRNA expression levels of COX-1, COX-2, NF-κB, MMP-9, and SIRT1 genes were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR. We did not find any significant effect of RSV on MMP-9, COX-1, COX-2, or NF-κB mRNA levels among the groups. However, SIRT1 mRNA levels decreased in the DM group compared to controls and increased in the DM+RSV group when compared to the DM group. SIRT1 is activated by RSV treatment in diabetic heart tissue. Activation of SIRT1 by RSV may lead to a new therapeutic approach for diabetic heart tissue. We conclude that RSV treatment can alleviate heart dysfunction by inhibiton of inflammatory gene expression such as SIRT1.
- Jan 2011
The aim of this study is to investigate the proliferative and anti/pro-apoptotic effects of monensin and doxorubicin alone as well as with their combination on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. MCF-7 cells were treated with various concentrations of monensin and doxorubicin for 24 hours. The expression levels of Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB), survivin, BCL2, mTOR, and caspase 3 (CASP3) genes were analyzed in treated and control groups at transcriptional level. The expression levels of NF-κB, survivin, BCL2, mTOR were decreased in doxorubicin and monensin treated cells, CASP3 mRNA levels were similar within both groups. Combination of doxorubicin and monensin decreased BCL2 mRNA levels. In conclusion, doxorubicin or monensin was individually effective on inhibition of cell death. Combination of these compounds caused a significant decrease in IC50 dose of doxorubicin and monensin treatment and also decreased anti-apoptotic gene BCL2 mRNA levels.
Cyclooxygenase (COX), which have the isoforms of COX-1 and COX-2, is the key enzyme of prostaglandins biosynthesis. Especially, COX-2 is induced in inflammatory disease such as Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Resveratrol (RSV), a natural antioxidant, has a beneficial role in prevention of inflammatory disease. We investigated the changes of COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA expression and protein level in diabetic rat kidney after RSV treatment. Three months-old, 44 Wistar albino male rats, which were divided into six groups such as control group, sodium citrate buffer (sham control) group, diabetic group (DM), Dimethyl Sulfoxide induced control group, RSV treated sham control group (RSV) and RSV treated diabetic group (DM + RSV) were used for the study. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 55 mg/kg Streptozotocin. After the induction of chronic diabetes 10 mg/kg per day RSV was administered intraperitoneally for 4 weeks. In this study. RSV has no significant effect on COX-1 mRNA expression in diabetic rat kidney (P > 0.05). Immunohistochemical study showed that COX-1 expression was slightly inhibited in RSV group and was not significantly supressed in DM + RSV group. When comparing control and treated groups, there were no significant differences in COX-2 mRNA or protein levels (P > 0.05). In conclusion, our results indicate that resveratrol do not significantly affect COX gene and protein expression. Therefore, different therapy strategies such as combination with other antidiabetic drugs may tried in STZ induced animal model for reducing diabetic symptoms and altering COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA or protein levels.