Ateka Contractor

Ateka Contractor
University of North Texas | UNT · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

173
Publications
21,283
Reads
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2,317
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 2014 - June 2015
Alpert Medical School - Brown University
Position
  • Psychology Resident
August 2010 - August 2015
University of Toledo
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (173)
Article
Objective: Psychopathology, cyberpsychology, and mass media theories link psychological symptoms, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to increased media and technology usage (MTU). Given limited research in this area, we uniquely examined if specific MTU facets were associated with PTSD symptom severity. Method: A sample of 404 socioec...
Article
Firefighters are at increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and sleep disturbances due to occupational trauma exposure as well as the nature of their job (e.g., shift work, workplace stress). PTSD symptoms co-occur with sleep disturbances, including poor sleep quality, short sleep duration, and low sleep efficiency. No publ...
Article
Topic. Limited research has examined trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Asian Indians in the U.S. Thus, we (1) synthesize literature on trauma, PTSD, disparities in treatment for PTSD, the burden of untreated PTSD, and culturally-adapted (CA) PTSD interventions; and (2) discuss recommendations for clinicians/researchers working w...
Article
Background and objectives: Avoidance, inherent to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology, is theoretically and empirically linked to the maintenance of PTSD symptom severity. While research indicates traumatized individuals avoid positive and trauma memories, several PTSD treatments focus exclusively on traumatic memories. We examined...
Article
Objectives: The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) is frequently used to assess PTSD symptoms. Extending its psychometric investigations across distinct samples (United States and India), the aims of the present study included investigating the item characteristics, person fit, and differential item functioning (DIF)...
Article
The COVID‐19 pandemic has resulted in substantial changes in individual and socio‐economic factors that may negatively impact sleep health. We examined associations between COVID‐19 related distress and sleep among trauma‐exposed South Asian adults in the United States. Since a health advantage among foreign‐born individuals has been previously not...
Article
Background and objectives: Evidence links posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with positive memory characteristics. To extend this research, we utilized daily diary data to examine (1) concurrent/lagged associations between daily PTSD symptom severity and positive memory vividness/accessibility; and (2) associations between baseline-assessed posi...
Article
Background and aims: A fast-growing body of literature linking emotion dysregulation to substance use has almost exclusively relied on cross-sectional designs and has generally failed to assess dysregulation stemming from positive emotions. The current study measured the momentary associations between both negative and positive emotion dysregulati...
Article
Sleep disturbances are a core feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and can affect PTSD onset, maintenance, and recovery. However, there is conflicting evidence about the directionality of sleep and PTSD symptoms, particularly at the daily level. The current systematic review summarizes the literature on within-person associations between...
Article
Background: Evidence links positive memory characteristics and hazardous alcohol use (HAU). Relevant to the current study, evidence also indicates that trauma-exposed individuals, especially those with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, report difficulties retrieving/accessing positive memories and report HAU. Objective: Considering...
Article
Full-text available
The Posttrauma Risky Behaviors Questionnaire (PRBQ) was developed as a comprehensive, yet brief assessment of the extent of engaging in posttrauma reckless and self-destructive behaviors (RSDBs). Extending upon the initial psychometric investigation of the PRBQ, the current study details a preliminary investigation of measurement (non)-invariance a...
Article
Introduction: The co-occurrence of posttraumatic symptoms (PTS) and impulsivity is associated with higher levels of risky and self-destructive behaviors and consequent safety and health risks. Trauma-related shame (TRS) may influence the association between PTS and impulsivity such that engaging in impulsive behaviors may serve to cope with emotio...
Article
Background: Research examining emotion dysregulation and alcohol use has increased exponentially over the past decade. However, these studies have been limited by their use of cross-sectional designs and narrow definitions of emotion dysregulation. Addressing these significant gaps in the extant literature, this study utilized state-of-the-art met...
Article
Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in substantial changes in social interactions, work schedules, and socioeconomic factors that may negatively impact sleep onset, maintenance, and quality. The ongoing stress of the pandemic also may exacerbate existing racial/ethnic disparities in sleep health. In this study, we examined the effects o...
Article
Background: The co-occurrence of childhood trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent and clinically significant. Existing research emphasizes the role of emotion regulation in the relation between childhood trauma and PTSD. Yet, research in this area has almost exclusively examined the influence of strategies aimed at reg...
Article
Introduction: Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) appears to be a reliable resource for studying clinical populations and accessing hard-to-reach populations. Recent research suggests that MTurk may also be a viable option for military recruitment. Objective: The goal of the current study was to examine the utility of collecting clinical data on mi...
Article
Pregnant Hispanic women are at increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in part due to greater risk of childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence (IPV), and pregnancy-related vulnerabilities. However, PTSD, is a highly heterogenous diagnosis with numerous presentations. Individual PTSD symptoms may be differentially associated...
Preprint
Crowdsourcing platforms have grown in popularity in the last decade. This approach has become an essential data collection method, especially when access to participant pools are limited by location and resources. Concerns about the validity and quality of crowdsourced data persist, however. A recent documented increase in the amount of invalid res...
Article
Background Nursing is a demanding occupation characterized by dramatic sleep disruptions. Yet most studies on nurses’ sleep treat sleep disturbances as a homogenous construct and do not use daily measures to address recall biases. Using person-centered analyses, we examined heterogeneity in nurses' daily sleep patterns in relation to psychological...
Article
Indians comprise a distinct cultural community within the United States (U.S.). In this population, research suggests that differing levels of adherence to ethnic cultural values relate to mental health symptoms, treatment preferences, and treatment-seeking barriers. Uniquely, the current study examined ethnic cultural value typologies and their re...
Article
Objective: Stressors and worries related to the COVID-19 pandemic have contributed to the onset and exacerbation of psychological symptoms such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Using a microlongitudinal framework, we uniquely investigated bidirectional associations between daily-level PTSD symptoms and COVID-19 worries. Method: Data from...
Article
Objectives: Emotion dysregulation theoretically and empirically explains the link between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttrauma reckless and self-destructive behaviors (RSDBs). Method: The current study uniquely examined the role of emotion dysregulation in the association between the four heterogeneous PTSD clusters (intrusions, a...
Article
Hispanic women in the United States experience disproportionate mental health impacts of intimate partner violence (IPV). Following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses extension for scoping reviews guidelines, we synthesized the existing knowledge based on IPV and mental health outcomes among Hispanic women in the...
Article
Posttraumatic stress disorder assessments typically require individuals to provide an aggregate report on the frequency or severity of symptoms individuals have experienced over a particular time period. Yet retrospective aggregate assessments are susceptible to memory recall and retrieval difficulties. This study examined the correspondence betwee...
Article
Objective Emotion regulation is a transdiagnostic mechanism with relevance to the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of a wide range of clinically relevant outcomes. This study applied systematic review methods to summarize the existing literature examining racial and ethnic differences in emotion regulation. Methods We systematically searched f...
Article
Military sexual harassment (MSH) and assault (MSA) are associated with serious mental and physical health outcomes among military personnel and veterans. However, less is known about how these experiences relate to risky, impulsive, and health-compromising behaviors. The goal of the current study was to assess MSH and MSA in relation to a wide rang...
Article
To examine the existing knowledge base on trauma experiences and positive memories, we conducted a scoping review of trauma and post-trauma factors related to positive memory count. In July 2019, we searched PubMed, Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, and PTSDpubs for a combination of...
Article
There has been exponential growth in research on emotion regulation and substance use in the past decade. The current meta-analysis evaluated variability in the magnitude of the relation between aspects of emotion regulation and substance use. A search of PsycINFO, Embase, PubMed, CINAHL Plus, and PILOTS in December 2020 resulted in 6,642 initial s...
Article
Objective: Traumatic event (TE) types have been shown to relate to adverse psychological outcomes. However, research in this area has relied almost exclusively on linear analysis and has been limited to Western countries with similar cultural values. Addressing these limitations, this study examined (a) presence and nature of relations between num...
Article
Objective Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are prevalent and deleterious among individuals who have experienced a sexual assault. Although an emerging field of research has established a link between positive emotion dysregulation and PTSD symptoms, there is a limited understanding of mechanisms underlying this relation. Individuals wh...
Article
Objective Individuals with a history of sexual victimization are at increased odds of developing an eating disorder in their lifetime. Emotion dysregulation has been identified as an outcome of sexual victimization and a vulnerability factor in the emergence and maintenance of disordered eating. However, research in this area has been limited by it...
Article
Background and Objectives: Research provides robust support for an association between traumatic exposure and emotion dysregulation. Less understood is the relation of emotion dysregulation stemming from positive emotions to traumatic exposure, or the extent to which negative and positive emotion dysregulation may be uniquely related to specific tr...
Article
Objectives Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity relates to positive memory retrieval difficulties. One variable potentially influencing this relation is sleep difficulties. We examined moderating effects of sleep difficulties (duration and quality) on relations between PTSD severity and count of specific positive memories covarying for age...
Article
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) includes changes in processes such as encoding and retrieval for both traumatic and positive memories. However, most work has predominantly focused on traumatic memories. Thus, Contractor and colleagues (2018) proposed a Positive Memory‐PTSD model, which highlighted potential benefits associated with and mechani...
Article
Full-text available
The Posttrauma Risky Behaviors Questionnaire (PRBQ) assesses extent of engagement in posttrauma reckless and self-destructive behaviors (RSDBs). Given PRBQ’s recent development with limited psychometric investigations, we used item response theory to examine (a) item analysis, (b) person fit, and (c) differential item functioning (DIF) across gende...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Previous work has found clear associations between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and disordered eating in adulthood. However, further research is needed to clarify factors that may influence this relationship. The current study advanced existing research by examining the moderating influence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom...
Article
Objective: Theoretical and empirical evidence links emotional avoidance to the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, few studies have tested whether these findings extend to positive emotional avoidance. Addressing this important gap in the literature, the current study examined the moderating role...
Article
Introduction Alcohol consumption on college campuses is a major public health concern. Extant literature has identified trauma exposure as a robust risk factors for problematic alcohol use in this at-risk population. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are less well-studied. Research indicates that bodily arousal is a fundamental fe...
Article
Objectives Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized in part by negative alterations of cognition or mood, including alterations in emotional expressivity, or the extent to which one outwardly displays emotions. Yet, research in this area has relied on predominantly white samples and neglected to consider the potential role of gender, d...
Article
Full-text available
The scoping review examines and summarises the available knowledge base on intervention techniques focused on positive memories. An iterative series of PsycInfo and Medline searches was conducted up to April 2021 following PRISMA-ScR guidelines. Thirty-nine studies, spanning 12 intervention techniques, were selected and described including: (1) the...
Article
Given the disproportionate rate of alcohol misuse among veterans and related outcomes as compared to the general population, the examination of predictors of alcohol misuse in this population is imperative. Potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs), defined as severe transgressions of a moral code, have been positively associated with alcohol mi...
Article
Introduction Nurses may experience frequent nightmares due to stressful work environments. Some studies estimate that 35% of nurses experience nightmares related to experiences at work. Nightmares may also exacerbate stress among nurses, although this has yet to be tested empirically. We examined daily bidirectional associations between stress seve...
Article
Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms may impact cognitive processes underlying encoding and retrieval of positive memories. Contractor and colleagues thus proposed a Positive Memory-PTSD model outlining hypothesized pathways (e.g., improved cognitions and affect) linking active processing of positive memories and PTSD symptoms....
Article
Introduction Functional models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) underscore the role of internally-driven negative reinforcement. However, with the focus of these models being on negative emotions broadly, there is limited understanding of the effect of alcohol use to down-regulate specific forms of negative emo...
Article
Background The co-occurrence of childhood abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among United States military veterans is highly prevalent and clinically significant. Emotion dysregulation is one factor that has been found to underlie the association between childhood abuse and PTSD, yet past research has focused exclusively on dysregulatio...
Article
Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are common in the immediate aftermath of a trauma, but it is their persistence over time that leads to a diagnosis. This pattern highlights the critical role of symptom maintenance to understanding and treating the disorder. Relatively few studies have explored whether PTSD symptoms may be in...
Article
Nurses may experience frequent nightmares due to stressful work environments. Nightmares may also exacerbate stress among nurses, although this has yet to be tested empirically. We examined daily bidirectional associations between stress severity and nightmares, and moderation by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. 392 nurses (92% female...
Article
Emotion dysregulation is associated with increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs) and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). However, research in this area has focused almost exclusively on dysregulation stemming from negative emotions. The present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by examining the associations between the...
Article
The Posttrauma Risky Behaviors Questionnaire (PRBQ) is a screening measure for posttrauma reckless and self-destructive behaviors (RSDBs). We examined (1) PRBQ's predictive relations with clinical (vs. not) endorsements of distinct RSDBs, and (2) PRBQ's optimal cutoff score yielding the most appropriate balance of sensitivity and specificity statis...
Article
Background: Military veterans are at greater risk for substance misuse. Positive emotional intensity is one well-established antecedent of substance misuse in this population. Positive emotional avoidance, or attempts to alter the form, frequency, or context of positive emotions, may help to explain this association. While clinical practice typical...
Article
Background Alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes are a major preventable cause of death in the United States. One potential factor that may modulate the influence of alcohol on driving-related cognitions and decision-making is trauma-related stress. Indeed, in addition to compelling research indicating that both acute trauma-related stress and acut...
Article
Alcohol misuse is a serious and pervasive problem among US military Veterans. The commission or omission of acts that transgress important moral standards, known as potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs), has been theoretically and empirically linked to alcohol misuse in this population. Emotion dysregulation has been implicated in the pathog...
Article
Objectives We examined moderating effects of positive emotion dysregulation and fear of positive emotions in the relation between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity and positive memory count. Method Participants were 205 trauma‐exposed community individuals (Mage = 35.44; 61.50% female). Results Moderation analyses indicated interactio...
Article
Full-text available
Single‐case experimental designs (SCEDs) involve obtaining repeated measures from one or a few participants before, during, and, sometimes, after treatment implementation. Because they are cost‐, time‐, and resource‐efficient and can provide robust causal evidence for more large‐scale research, SCEDs are gaining popularity in trauma treatment resea...
Preprint
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are common in the immediate aftermath of a trauma, but it is their persistence over time that leads to a diagnosis. This pattern highlights the critical role of symptom maintenance to understanding and treating the disorder. Relatively few studies have explored whether PTSD symptoms may be interacting o...
Article
Objective Although research has established a link between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs), little is known about factors that may accentuate this relation. This study evaluated the influences of negative and positive emotion dysregulation on the association between PTSD symptoms and STBs amo...
Article
Positive memories play an important role in the aetiology and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, most trauma research/clinical work has focused solely on the role of traumatic memories. Thus, we examined the relationship between count of retrieved positive memories and PTSD severity, factors associated with count of retri...
Article
Objective: There are ethnic-racial differences in the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the factors underlying these differences are not well studied or understood. The goal of this study was to explore the relation of strength of ethnic-racial identity to PTSD. Specifically, we examined whether strength of ethnic-racial...
Article
Despite substantial evidence linking posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and positive memory processes, existing trauma research and clinical work focuses primarily on traumatic memories. In light of this limitation, Contractor and colleagues proposed a conceptual model linking PTSD to positive memories; this provided the backdrop to develop a man...
Article
Background and Objectives: Most individuals experience multiple potentially traumatizing events (PTEs); hence, it is important to consider count and types of PTEs (polytraumatization) in relation to post-trauma health. Notably, no research has examined polytraumatization typologies in relation to positive memory count and phenomenology. We examined...
Article
Objective: Military veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit heightened rates of deliberate self-harm, yet few studies have explored underlying mechanisms. Addressing this critical gap in the literature, the present study examined the roles of negative and positive emotion dysregulation in the relation between PTSD severity and d...
Article
Introduction: Alcohol misuse is a significant clinical concern among military and veteran populations, particularly among individuals who have experienced military sexual trauma (MST). Emotion dysregulation may be an important factor influencing alcohol misuse among individuals with a history of MST. Objective: The current study thus examined th...
Article
Reckless and self-destructive behaviours (RSDBs), common among traumatised individuals, are associated with negative health consequences. Gaining a stronger understanding of factors associated with an increased likelihood of RSDBs among traumatised individuals offers potential new avenues for research and treatment. Mounting evidence indicates rela...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: There is a lack of research on primary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and substance use among trauma-exposed populations. To guide the development of more effective prevention efforts, the current study sought to identify underlying coping mechanisms that impact PTSD-substance use co-occurrence. Method: A...
Article
Experiences of potentially traumatic events (PTE), commonly assessed with the Life Events Checklist for DSM-5 (LEC-5), can be both varied in pattern and type. An understanding of LEC-assessed PTE type clusters and their relation to psychopathology can enhance research feasibility (e.g., address low base rates for certain PTE types), research commun...
Article
Alcohol and drug misuse is prevalent and problematic among women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV). Emotional dysfunction has been identified as a key mechanism in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of alcohol and drug misuse. However, existing research has not considered the role of race/ethnicity in the relations between emotio...
Article
Evidence suggests that individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms exhibit deficits in positive internal experiences. This study critically reviewed empirically validated PTSD interventions to determine (1) whether positive memories, cognitions, and emotions were explicitly addressed and (2) the goals of focusing on these positi...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Objective . A growing body of literature indicates a significant contribution and role of positive and negative emotions (specifically expressivity) in post-traumatic stress disorder's (PTSD) symptomatology. The current study examined the facet-level relationships between emotional expressivity and PTSD. Specifically, we investigated...
Article
Introduction: The co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol misuse presents a pervasive and clinically relevant concern among US military veterans. Objective: The current investigation sought to examine the role of positive emotion dysfunction in the relation between PTSD symptomatology and alcohol misuse. To do so, we ex...
Article
Full-text available
The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL) is widely used in research and clinical settings to assess posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology, including to examine PTSD symptoms/severity across diverse groups. However, the validity of these studies depends on the degree to which the PCL captures a conceptually equivalent construc...
Article
There is a widespread notion of the ‘college sophomore problem’ in social science research that posits that college student samples are samples of convenience with little generalizability to the general population. To address this concern, we conducted a critical review of the literature on college student samples in trauma research. Specifically,...
Article
Criterion E2 (“reckless or self-destructive behavior”) was added to the DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria to reflect the established association between PTSD and risky and unhealthy behaviors (RUBs); however, previous research has questioned its clinical significance. To determine whether criterion E2 adequately captures reckless/...
Article
Objective: The relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anger is well established. However, further investigation into the underlying mechanisms of this PTSD-anger relationship is needed. Rumination, a construct with a known association to PTSD symptoms, theoretically may mediate this PTSD-anger relationship. Design: We cond...