Asif M. Khan

Asif M. Khan
Karakoram International University · Department of Earth Sciences

D.I.C; PhD

About

105
Publications
70,562
Reads
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4,235
Citations
Citations since 2017
17 Research Items
1629 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230100200300
20172018201920202021202220230100200300
20172018201920202021202220230100200300
20172018201920202021202220230100200300
Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
June 2014 - February 2016
Karakoram International University
Position
  • HEC Distinguished National Professor & Vice Chancellor
February 1981 - May 2014
University of Peshawar
Position
  • Tenured Professor & Director

Publications

Publications (105)
Article
Full-text available
A seismic hazard map for the national seismic design code of Pakistan (i.e., Building Code of Pakistan) is derived using probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) approach. In order to update the seismic code, an updated seismic zoning map is required that should be based on usage of the recent seismic hazard elements. PSHA of Pakistan is an e...
Article
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This study presents seismic hazard and seismic microzonation maps for the Abbottabad basin and surroundings, which are used in assessment and seismic design of buildings and bridges and other infrastructures. This research work determines microzonation parameters (shear wave velocity, fundamental frequency, and acceleration on ground surface) using...
Article
Clastic rich Hangu Formation of the Early Paleocene exposed at the apex of Hazara-Kashmir syntaxis, is significant in providing evidence of the regional Mesozoic–Cenozoic unconformity and nature of detritus supplied. The current study focuses on U-Pb age dating of the detrital zircons along with spinel geochemistry to interpret tectonic implication...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The standard practice, adopted in many seismic building codes, of a fixed spectral shape scaled to a zonation factor, generally corresponding to the PGA, has two main drawbacks: • first the definition of rather broad seismic zones (e.g. with a PGA varying between 0.2 and 0.3 g) may lead to a considerable over or underestimation of the effective sei...
Article
Karachi is Pakistan’s largest city with population exceeding 18 million and is amongst the top five most congested cities in the world. Karachi has experienced no earthquake related damage in the recorded history of past ~ 175 years. Yet, Karachi is located in a seismically active tectonic setting often compared to Los Angeles with active plate bou...
Article
The seismic provisions for the Building Code of Pakistan were revised after the 2005 Kashmir earthquake and these have resulted in the introduction of a macrozonation ground motion hazard map in the seismic provisions. The macrozonation map proposes a peak ground acceleration (PGA) for the return period of 475 yr for Pakistan for flat rock sites. A...
Article
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The Abbottabad basin is mainly composed of different loose and indurated sediments such as fine to medium grain silt and clay and large to medium sized boulders and cobbles, occupying a low land between the hills. These sediments are primarily stream deposits and variably compacted in the form of rock, suggested name Havelian group after their maxi...
Article
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The Earthquake Model of Middle East (EMME) project was carried out between 2010 and 2014 to provide a harmonized seismic hazard assessment without country border limitations. The result covers eleven countries: Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Cyprus, Georgia, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, Syria and Turkey, which span one of the seismically mos...
Article
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The Earthquake Model of Middle East (EMME) Project aimed to develop regional scale seismic hazard and risk models uniformly throughout a region extending from the Eastern Mediterranean in the west to the Himalayas in the east and from the Gulf of Oman in the south to the Greater Caucasus in the North; a region which has been continuously devastated...
Article
Earthquakes, with their unpredictable and devastating nature, have resulted in large damages worldwide. Seismic site characterization maps (SSCMs) are frequently and effectively used to demarcate the locations that are prone to amplified seismic response. The time-averaged shear wave velocity of top 30 m of earth surface (Vs30) is effectively used...
Article
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We carried U‐Pb‐Hf geochronology of the clastic sequence covering upper Mesozoic‐Cenozoic period. The upper Mesozoic sequence is overlain unconformably by the Cenozoic strata, marking regional K‐T boundary, which is mapped as angular unconformity. This angular relationship may strongly indicate a compressional orogenic event that occurred during th...
Article
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A reliable and homogenized earthquake catalogue is essential for seismic hazard assessment in any area. This article describes the compilation and processing of an updated earthquake catalogue for Pakistan. The earthquake catalogue compiled in this study for the region (quadrangle bounded by the geographical limits 40–83° N and 20–40° E) includes 3...
Article
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Writing is a means of communication and part of everybody’s education. Writing as a medium of language has its special features. This study brings to light the fact that teaching English through literature does not render any substantive and positive pay off in developing and honing the ESL/EFL learners’ writing skill. In the Pakistani context, lit...
Article
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The Nagar Parkar area contains three distinct groups of rocks, from oldest to youngest, (1) basement rocks ranging in composition from mafic to (quartz)diorite, tonalite, granite, and younger granodiorite, (2) granite plutons similar in general features to those of the Malani Igneous Suite of Rajasthan, and (3) abundant mafic, felsic and rhyolitic...
Article
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This paper presents the first ever detrital zircon U–Pb–Hf isotopic study for the Late Neoproterozoic–Early Palaeozoic stratigraphic succession exposed in the Hazara Basin, Western Himalaya, North Pakistan. This time span represents the break‐up of the supercontinent Rodinia and final assembly of Gondwana. The detrital record of the Late Neoprotero...
Article
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The northernmost exposures of sub-Himalayan Cenozoic strata in the Hazara–Kashmir syntaxial region of north Pakistan comprises the Paleocene–Eocene marine strata in the lower part and Oligocene–Miocene nonmarine strata in the upper part. This study provides the detrital zircon U–Pb geochronology of the Cenozoic strata in this area. The strong resem...
Article
Microscopic to mesoscopic structural investigations and foliation intersection axes (FIAs) preserved in porphyroblasts reveal a very complex history of deformation and tectonism within the southwestern part of the western hinterland zone along the northern margin of the Indian plate, NW Pakistan. D1, D2, and D3 related structures in the southwester...
Article
Soft sediments make an important component of the subsurface lithology, especially in areas underlain by river/stream basins. Occupying a position directly above the bedrock up to the land surface, these soft sediments can range in thickness from few centimeters to hundreds of meters. They carry a special nuisance in seismic hazards, as they serve...
Article
Soft sediments make an important component of the subsurface lithology, especially in areas underlain by river/stream basins. Occupying a position directly above the bedrock up to the land surface, these soft sediments can range in thickness from few centimeters to hundreds of meters. They carry a special nuisance in seismic hazards, as they serve...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Makran coastal belt is over 1000 km long stretching from Iran to east of Karachi in Pakistan. A major active subduction zone known as Makran subduction zone defined by the under thrusting of the Arabian plate beneath the Eurasian plate runs parallel to the coastline. The subduction zone is associated with a thick accretionary sedimentary wedge...
Article
The 8th October 2005 Kashmir earthquake, in northern Pakistan has triggered thousands of landslides, which was the second major factor in the destruction of the build-up environment, after earthquake-induced ground shaking. Subsequent to the earthquake, several researchers from home and abroad applied a variety of remote sensing techniques, support...
Article
The Chilas Complex is a major lower crustal component of the Cretaceous Kohistan island arc and one of the largest exposed slices of arc magma chamber in the world. Covering more than 8000 km², it reaches a current tectonic width of around 40 km. It was emplaced at 85 Ma during rifting of the arc soon after the collision of the arc with the Karakor...
Article
Thirty horizontal displacement time series from GPS sites in the area around the 2005 Kashmir earthquake show lateral spatial variations in displacement magnitude and relaxation time for the postseismic interval from 2005 to 2012. The observed spatial pattern of surface displacements can only be reproduced by finite element models of postseismic de...
Article
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The Salt Range, Pakistan is the surface expression of an evaporite detachment over which the Potwar Plateau fold-thrust belt has moved. Whilst previous publications regarding this region have focused on the petroleum prospectivity, deformation, and large-scale processes, this paper characterises the Salt Range detachment at the meso-(10cm to 10s of...
Article
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The east central part of the Kohistan magmatic arc is made up principally of the Jaglot Group. From bottom to top it consists of I) paragneisses and schists intercalated with amphibolites and calc-silicates (Gilgit Formation), II) Gashu-Confluence Volcanics (GCV) and III) the Thelichi Formation comprising a volcanic base (Majne volcanics) and turbi...
Article
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The study area is a part of the Western Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt in northern Pakistan and lies in the hanging wall of Panjal Thrust between Hazara-Kashmir and Indus syntaxes (Fig. 1). The present study uses stratigraphic appraisal and structural analysis to understand the tectonic evolution of the western Hazara Ranges. Based on detailed fiel...
Article
The Chagai–Raskoh arc is an east–west trending subduction-related magmatic belt in the western part of Pakistan. The initial Cretaceous to Paleocene volcanism in the arc is tholeiitic, and from the Eocene onwards, it becomes calcalkaline in nature. The Oligocene volcaniclastic rocks are found in the western part of the Chagai–Raskoh arc. These rock...
Article
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Pakistan is a seismically active country and its capital Islamabad is located close to an active thrust fault (Main Boundary Thrust). After the 2005 Kashmir earthquake, earthquake engineers worked on the important aspects of ground excitation that effect the structures. Seismic hazard assessment approaches are introduced by the researchers together...
Conference Paper
The Aluli area, Western Hazara Ranges, comprises of Precambrian Tanawal Formation, Early Cambrian Abbottabad Formation and Recent alluvium. These formations consist of variety of lithological units including phyllite, quartzites, quartz mica schist, sandstones, siltstones, conglomerates, dolomites, limestones and alluvium. The geological mapping of...
Article
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This article summarizes a recent study in the framework of the Global Earth model (GEM) and the Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) project to establish the new catalog of seismicity for the Middle East, using all historical (pre-1900), early and modern instrumental events up to 2006. According to different seismicity, which depends on geoph...
Article
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This paper attempts stratigraphic characterization of the Early Cambrian Abbottabad Formation exposed in the Sherwan area, west of Abbottabad. A regional correlation is carried out with the rest of the Early Paleozoic sequences exposed in northern Pakistan including Abbottabad, Peshawar basin and Salt Range. Stratigraphic sections are measured at A...
Conference Paper
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Natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, tornados and drought are natural phenomenon, however, with devastating impact on economy and society. We can mitigate their impacts through effective disaster management planning and management. Earthquakes with their unpredictability and most devastating nature is become a challenge for scientists and...
Article
Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) are frequently and effectively used in exploration and sustainable utilization of mineral resources. Minerals of economic importance can play a significant role in the socio-economic development of the society. The initial step in mineral exploration at a regional scale is the stream sedim...
Article
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The Sillai Patti carbonatite has been intruded along a NNE–SSW striking, southward dipping Sillai Patti Fault at the contact of the metasediments with the granitic gneiss. Both, time of emplacement and the sense of movement of the blocks on either side of this fault are under considerable dispute. Fission-track analysis on apatite from five carbona...
Conference Paper
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Watersheds are a complex of soils, landforms, water, vegetation and land uses; watershed management forms a crucial step in Sustainable Utilization and Management of Natural Resources, especially, soils, surface and groundwater, forests and agriculture. Dry lands are the most fragile and vulnerable bio-physical systems. Dry lands are characterized...
Article
The Chitral district of northern Pakistan lies in the eastern Hindu Kush Range. The population in this high-relief mountainous terrain is restricted to tributary-junction fans in the Chitral valley. Proximity to steep valley slopes renders these fans prone to hydrogeomorphic hazards, including landslides, floods and debris flows.This paper focuses...
Article
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The Nagar Parkar igneous complex consists of a variety of Late Proterozoic granitic rocks emplaced in a basement of amphibolitic rocks. These were intruded by mafic rocks that range from veins to dykes commonly no more than 300×5 m in surface exposures; but a few are thicker and longer, with one extending up to 2 km. The dykes can be divided into t...
Article
The Raskoh arc is about 250 km long, 40 km wide and trends in an ENE direction. The oldest rock unit in the Raskoh arc is an accretionary complex (Early to Late Jurassic), which is followed in age by Kuchakki Volcanic Group, the most wide spread unit of the Raskoh arc. The Volcanic Group is mainly composed of basaltic to andesitic lava flows and vo...
Article
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The Sillai Patti carbonatite complex represents the second largest carbonatite body of the Peshawar Plain Alkaline Igneous Province of northern Pakistan. It is situated about 20 km west of Malakand, near Sillai Patti village. Here, the carbonatite occurs along a fault in the form of a sheet striking in the NNE–SSW direction and dipping towards sout...
Article
For the past eight years we have monitored crustal deformation in Ladakh, the Karakoram, Kohistan, Zanskar, Salt Range and Pir Pinjal, using a combination of fixed and campaign GPS measurements, to provide quantitative constraints on the rates of convergence in the NW syntaxis of the Himalaya. We find a 13-17 mm convergence rate with maximum SSW ve...
Article
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We have investigated the geometry and tectonic significance of porphyroblast inclusion trails in 61 oriented samples from the Swat region of north Pakistan (NW Himalaya). The studied samples represent the Indian-plate cover sequence, deformed and metamorphosed to medium- and high-grade during the Himalayan orogeny. Two complementary techniques were...
Article
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Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive alpha particle emitting colorless, odorless and tasteless gas produced by radioactive decay of uranium and thorium. It plays a dual role in man’s life, being a fatal health hazard to mine workers and common people living in their homes on one hand and a very useful geological tool on the other hand. As...
Article
Detailed rupture–fracture analyses of some of the well-studied earthquakes have revealed that the geometrical arrangement of secondary faults and fractures can be used as a geological tool to understand the temporal evolution of slip produced during the mainshock. The October 8, 2005 Mw 7.6 Kashmir earthquake, NW Himalaya, surface rupture provides...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Flood Inundation Map (FIM) is one of the most essential prerequisites for any flood management plan. FIMs provide information on the spatial extent and depth of flood waters in a given area. Since these provide spatial distribution of floods in an event, they clearly define which cities, towns, villages, roadways, streets, buildings, airports, etc....
Article
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[1] Convergence of 29 ± 1 mm/yr between the NW corner of the Indian plate and Asia is accommodated by a combination of thrust and strike-slip faulting on prominent faults and apparent distributed deformation within the Hindu Kush, Pamir, South Tien Shan and Kohistan Ranges. An upper bound to the slip rate of known faults is obtained by ignoring dis...
Article
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The main exposures of the Paleocene lava flows occur in an east-west trending subduction related magmatic belt known as Chagai Arc in the western part of Pakistan. The volcanism in this arc was initiated during the Late Cretaceous, which intermittently continued up to the Quaternary period. In the regional geotectonic context this arc belongs to th...
Article
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The Chagai arc is part of the southern Afghan block, a microcontinent of Gondwanan affinity accreted at the southern margin of Eurasia (Jacob and Quittmeyer, 1979). The arc, together with an over 300 km wide classic accretionary prism to its south (Platt and others, 1986), overrides the active Makran subduction zone (MSZ). The Gulf of Oman (and ass...
Article
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The Plio-Pleistocene volcanic rocks, which are designated as Koh-e-Sultan Volcanic Group, occur in an east-west trending subduction related magmatic belt known as Chagai arc in the western part of Pakistan. The volcanism in this arc was initiated during the Late Cretaceous due to an intra-oceanic convergence in the Ceno-Tethys, which intermittently...
Article
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Shortly after the 2005 Kashmir earthquake, scientists from three Pakistan Universities collaborated with US, and through them, Indian scientists to monitor seismotectonic deformation and crustal velocities on the western edge of the Indian plate. Twelve GPS receivers were installed at key locations in Pakistan, with some sites monitored continuousl...
Article
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An earthquake of magnitude 7.6 Mw occurred 100 km NE of Islamabad at 0850 local time (0350 GMT) on October 08, 2005. The epicenter of the main shock was located 19 km northeast of Muzaffarabad. Designated as the deadliest earthquake in Pakistan, it took a death toll of more than 80,000 human lives. It also caused a widespread destruction in Kashmir...
Article
By combining global positioning system observations of surface displacements and the locations of aftershocks, we infer that the 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake occurred on multiple fault planes. Mean slip of ˜5.1 m occurred on a rupture between Bagh and Balakot with strike 331° and dip 29°. Additional slip occurred at depth on a NNE-dipping faul...
Article
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The Waziristan Ophiolite is located in the suture zone between the Indian Plate to the east and Afghan Block to the west. It is highly dismembered and divisible into three main sheets or nappes, which from east to west are: the Vezhda Sar Nappe, entirely comprised of pillow basalts; the Boya Nappe, made up of ophiolitic melange with an intact secti...
Article
A discontinuous time series of surface displacements measured with GPS following the 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake provides lower bounds on the effective viscosity of the lithosphere in the Pakistan Himalaya. The surface displacement field also provides limited additional information about slip geometry and distribution during the main rupture...
Article
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The Peshawar Plain Alkaline Igneous Province (PAIP) is exposed north of the Peshawar Plain in NW Pakistan. It stretches from Tarbela in the east up to Loe-Shilman near the Pakistan–Afghanistan border in the west. Within the PAIP, carbonatites are found at Loe-Shilman, Sillai-Patti, Jambil, Koga and Tarbela. Small isolated sill-like bodies and plugs...
Article
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The 26th January 2001 Bhuj earthquake occurred in the Kachchh Rift Basin which has a long history of major earthquakes. Great Triangulation Survey points (GTS) were first installed in the area in 1856–60 and some of these were measured using Global Positioning System (GPS) in the months of February and July 2001. Despite uncertainties associated wi...
Article
The 26th January 2001 Bhuj earthquake occurred in the Kachchh Rift Basin which has a long history of major earthquakes. Great Triangulation Survey points (GTS) were first installed in the area in 1856-60 and some of these were measured using Global Positioning System (GPS) in the months of February and July 2001. Despite uncertainties associated wi...
Article
Early Tertiary, coesite-bearing eclogites crop out in the internal zones of the Indian Plate in the Kaghan Valley of North Pakistan. Field and geochronological data suggest that UHP metamorphism, at c. 46 Ma, accompanied subduction of the leading edge of continental India beneath Kohistan. A new U-Pb rutile age of 44.1 +/- 1.1 Ma can be interpreted...
Article
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Coesite, recognized petrographically and confirmed by in situ Raman microprobe spectroscopy, is reported from an eclogite from the Kaghan valley, Pakistan, and represents the first record of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism in the Himalaya. The formation conditions of >27 kbar implied by the presence of coesite are supported by garnet-pyroxene- phen...
Article
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Within the syntaxial bends of the India-Asia collision the Himalaya terminate abruptly in a pair of metamorphic massifs. Nanga Parbat in the west and Namche Barwa in the east are actively deforming antiformal domes which expose Quaternary metamorphic rocks and granites. The massifs are transected by major Himalayan rivers (Indus and Tsangpo) and ar...
Article
The products of Late Cretaceous–Paleogene Andean style magmatism along the southern margin of Asia are preserved in the 2500 km long Trans-Himalayan (Kohistan–Ladakh–Gangdese) granitoid batholith, together with scattered volcanic outcrops (basalts, andesites, rhyolites and pyroclastics). Andean–type magmatism began in northern Pakistan as early as...
Article
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The Waziristan Ophiolitic is located in the western Himalaya, northwest Pakistan, demarcating a suture zone between the Indian plate to the east and Afghan block to the west. It is a highly dismembered ophiolite, however an intact ophiolite sequence is found at a single locality. This intact ophiolite sequence from bottom to top consists of (i) the...
Article
We present a newly compiled detailed geological map (1:100 000 scale) of the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh massif based on our field work during the 1995-8 continental dynamics collaborative project, building from previous work by others (references on the map, and below), and supplemented by interpretation from an excellent cloud-free Landsat thematic map...
Article
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Main Mantle Thrust (MMT) represents the tectonic boundary between metamorphic shield and platform rock of the Indian plate hinterland, and dominantly mafic and ultramafic ruck of the Kohistan-Ladakh are complex in Pakistan. In some areas, this boundary is a sharp planar fault with development of mylonite; in other areas, it is a brittle ductile imb...
Article
We present an analysis of the tectonic evolution of the southwestern portions of the Nanga Parhat massif, Pakistan Himalaya, based upon detailed mapping and structural analyses from the Bunar, Biji, Diamir, Airl, Niat and SW Rupal valleys. Mainly metasedimentary cover rocks of the Indian plate are divided into upper and lower cover. There is a mark...
Article
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Extract Often described as a natural laboratory, the Himalaya are probably the ideal place in which to study ongoing continent-continent collision. This volume focuses on the geology of the northwestern part of the Himalaya which provides the most complete and best-exposed transect across the range. Here, in northern Pakistan and in Ladakh in north...
Article
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The Kohistan arc terrane comprises an intraoceanic island arc of Cretaceous age separating the Indian plate to the south from the Karakoram (Asian) plate to the north within the Indus suture zone of north Pakistan. The intra-oceanic arc volcanics (Chalt, Dras Group) were built on a foundation of dominantly mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-related amph...
Article
Detailed mapping and geochronologic investigations from the eastern, southern, and western Nanga Parbat Haramosh massif reveal two thrust-displacement shear zones that have a spatial and temporal link with granite plutonism from ca. 10 to 1 Ma. The shear zones define a crustal-scale antiformal pop-up structure, with dominant west-northwest vergent...