Ashley S Hammond

Ashley S Hammond
American Museum of Natural History · Division of Anthropology

PhD

About

50
Publications
22,565
Reads
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443
Citations
Introduction
I am a primate functional morphologist and paleoanthropologist, with paleontological field work in Kenya.
Additional affiliations
June 2018 - present
American Museum of Natural History
Position
  • Asst Curator
August 2017 - May 2018
George Washington University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
October 2015 - May 2016
Howard University
Position
  • Instructor

Publications

Publications (50)
Article
Omo-Kibish I (Omo I) from southern Ethiopia is the oldest anatomically modern Homo sapiens skeleton currently known (196 ± 5 ka). A partial hipbone (os coxae) of Omo I was recovered more than 30 years after the first portion of the skeleton was recovered, a find which is significant because human pelves can be informative about an individual's sex,...
Article
Here we analyze 1.07–0.99 million-year-old pelvic remains UA 173/405 from Buia, Eritrea. Based on size metrics, UA 173/405 is likely associated with an already described pubic symphysis (UA 466) found nearby. The morphology of UA 173/405 was quantitatively characterized using three-dimensional landmark-based morphometrics and linear data. The Buia...
Article
Kamoyapithecus hamiltoni is a potential early hominoid species described from fragmentary dentognathic specimens from the Oligocene site of Losodok (Turkana Basin, northwestern Kenya). Other catarrhine dental materials have been recovered at Losodok, but were not initially included in the Kamoyapithecus hypodigm. Here we present descriptions of the...
Article
Full-text available
Oreopithecus bambolii (8.3–6.7 million years old) is the latest known hominoid from Europe, dating to approximately the divergence time of the Pan -hominin lineages. Despite being the most complete nonhominin hominoid in the fossil record, the O. bambolii skeleton IGF 11778 has been, for decades, at the center of intense debate regarding the specie...
Article
Full-text available
The KNM-ER 2598 occipital is among the oldest fossils attributed to Homo erectus but questions have been raised about whether it may derive from a younger horizon. Here we report on efforts to relocate the KNM-ER 2598 locality and investigate its paleontological and geological context. Although located in a different East Turkana collection area (A...
Article
Understanding the biogeography and evolution of Miocene catarrhines relies on accurate specimen provenience. It has long been speculated that some catarrhine specimens among the early collections from Miocene sites in Kenya have incorrect provenience data. The provenience of one of these, the holotype of Equatorius africanus (NHM M16649), was previ...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how diverse locomotor repertoires evolved in anthropoid primates is key to reconstructing the clade's evolution. Locomotor behaviour is often inferred from proximal femur morphology, yet the relationship of femoral variation to locomotor diversity is poorly understood. Extant acrobatic primates have greater ranges of hip joint mobilit...
Article
Full-text available
A distinctive ancestor There has been much focus on the evolution of primates and especially where and how humans diverged in this process. It has often been suggested that the last common ancestor between humans and other apes, especially our closest relative, the chimpanzee, was ape- or chimp-like. Almécija et al. review this area and conclude th...
Conference Paper
Hominin pelvic form differs dramatically from that of other primates by having more laterally facing iliac blades, a wider sacrum and a larger, transversely broad pelvic inlet. Acetabular orientation may differ as well, plausibly related to differences in load transmission during habitual bipedal posture and locomotion. Here, we test the hypothesis...
Article
Full-text available
The divergence of crown catarrhines—i.e., the split of cercopithecoids (Old World monkeys) from hominoids (apes and humans)—is a poorly understood phase in our shared evolutionary history with other primates. The two groups differ in the anatomy of the hip joint, a pattern that has been linked to their locomotor strategies: relatively restricted mo...
Article
Gorillas occupy habitats that range in elevation from 0 to 3850 m. Populations at higher elevations tend to be less arboreal than lowland populations. Variation in habitat-specific behaviors among closely related populations makes gorillas a unique model to study the relationship between locomotion and morphology. The pelvis reflects differences in...
Article
Substantial differences among the pelves of anthropoids have been central to interpretations of the selection pressures that shaped extant hominoids, yet the evolution of the hominoid pelvis has been poorly understood due to the scarcity of fossil material. A recently discovered partial hipbone attributed to the 10 million-year-old fossil ape Rudap...
Article
Full-text available
Orangutan pelves commonly exhibit a large, projecting tubercle in the iliopubic region, historically assumed to homologous to the pubic tubercle in humans. However, it is not clear whether this tubercle is a unique feature of Pongo , or if it is anatomically homologous with the human pubic tubercle when considered as a soft tissue attachment point....
Poster
The environment that facilitated the emergence of Homo erectus in eastern Africa remains unresolved. One of the earliest (~1.87 Ma) fossils attributed to H. erectus in Africa is KNM-ER 2598, a partial occipital bone from Upper Burgi Member (UBM) deposits at East Turkana, Kenya. Although paleoenvironmental data exist for the UBM more broadly, we do...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives It is widely viewed that orangutans lack a ligamentum teres femoris (LTF) inserting on the femoral head because orangutans lack a distinct fovea capitis. Orangutans employ acrobatic quadrumanous clambering that requires a high level of hip joint mobility, and the absence of an LTF is believed to be an adaptation to increase hip mobility....
Article
SUPPLEMENTAL DATA—Supplemental materials are available for this article for free at www.tandfonline.com/UJVP Citation for this article: Alba, D. M., A. S. Hammond, V. Vinuesa, and I. Casanovas-Vilar. 2018. First record of a Miocene pangolin (Pholidota, Manoidea) from the Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2...
Chapter
In this chapter we describe the upper limb musculature musculature of the bonobos dissected by us and by other previous authors, and compare it with that of common chimpanzees. The three major differences between the two chimpanzee species are: (1) the intermetacarpales and flexores breves profundi muscles in the hand of bonobos usually fuse to for...
Chapter
In this chapter we describe the trunk, diaphragmatic, perineal and coccygeal musculature of the bonobos dissected by us and by other previous authors, and compare it with that of common chimpanzees. There are no major differences, for instance concerning the consistent presence of certain muscles in one species versus the consistent absence in the...
Chapter
Strikingly, until the publication of this book comprehensive data about the soft tissues of our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees, was only available for common chimpanzees, as even Miller’s 1952 study of bonobo musculature was incomplete and restricted to a single individual. Few zoos keep bonobos and cadavers are difficult to come by, but...
Chapter
In this chapter we describe the head and neck musculature of the bonobos dissected by us and by other previous authors, and compare it with that of common chimpanzees. The only major difference between the two chimpanzee species is that bonobos usually have a single belly of the omohyoideus, contrary to the two bellies that are usually present in b...
Chapter
In this chapter, we describe the lower limb musculature musculature of the bonobos dissected by us and by other previous authors and compare it with that of common chimpanzees. The three major differences between the two chimpanzee species are that bonobos usually retain a scansorius and have popliteus-fibula and extensor hallucis longus-proximal b...
Book
Full-text available
Chimpanzees, including bonobos and common chimpanzees, are our closest living relatives. However, surprisingly, the information about the soft tissues of bonobos is very scarce, making it difficult to discuss and understand human evolution. This book, which is the first photographic and descriptive musculoskeletal atlas of bonobos (Pan paniscus), a...
Article
Full-text available
Elucidating the pelvic morphology of the Pan-Homo last common ancestor (LCA) is crucial for understanding ape and human evolution. The pelvis of Ardipithecus ramidus has been the basis of controversial interpretations of the LCA pelvis. In particular, it was proposed that the lower ilium became elongate independently in the orangutan and chimpanzee...
Article
Orientation of the iliac blades is a key feature that appears to distinguish extant apes from monkeys. Iliac morphology is hypothesized to reflect variation in thoracic shape that, in turn, reflects adaptations for shoulder and forearm function in anthropoids. Iliac orientation is traditionally measured relative to the acetabulum, whereas functiona...
Article
Objectives: We aimed to test for differences in hip joint range of motion (ROM) between captive and free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), particularly for hip joint abduction, which previous studies of captive macaques have found to be lower than predicted. Materials and methods: Hip ROM was assessed following standard joint measurement...
Book
Chimpanzees, including bonobos and common chimpanzees, are our closest living relatives. However, surprisingly, the information about the soft tissues of bonobos is very scarce, making it difficult to discuss and understand human evolution. This book, which is the first photographic and descriptive musculoskeletal atlas of bonobos (Pan paniscus), a...
Article
Objectives: The ability to reconstruct hip joint mobility from femora and pelves could provide insight into the locomotion and paleobiology of fossil primates. This study presents a method for modeling hip abduction in anthropoids validated with in vivo data. Methods: Hip abduction simulations were performed on a large sample of anthropoids. The m...
Conference Paper
Molecular divergence estimates place hominoid origins in the Oligocene, but direct paleontological evidence for such an ancient split of apes from Old World monkeys is currently limited to ~25.2 Myr dental material from Tanzania. The limited fossil evidence, and complete absence of postcranial fossils older than 20 Myr, has precluded efforts to und...
Article
The tubercle on the posterior aspect of the femoral neck (the crista trochanterica) has been repeatedly remarked upon because of its presence in early fossil apes, yet the function of this tubercle has eluded researchers. The prevailing explanation for the tubercle is that it relates to a strong ischiofemoral ligament, although none of the hypothes...
Article
Femoral head size provides important information on body size in extinct species. Although it is well-known that femoral head size is correlated with acetabular size, the precision with which femoral head size can be estimated from acetabular size has not been quantified. The availability of accurate 3D surface models of fossil acetabular remains o...
Article
Le diamètre de la tête fémorale de Regourdou 1 a été estimé à partir des dimensions de la portion ischiatique de l’acétabulum. Cette mesure permet d’estimer certaines variables corporelles et apporte ainsi de nouvelles données sur la taille et les proportions corporelles des hommes du Pléistocène supérieur. L’estimation de ce diamètre s’est faite e...
Article
Hominoids and atelines are known to use suspensory behaviors and are assumed to possess greater hip joint mobility than nonsuspensory monkeys, particularly for range of abduction. This assumption has greatly influenced how extant and fossil primate hip joint morphology has been interpreted, despite the fact that there are no data available on hip m...
Article
Hip joint diameter is highly correlated with body size in primates and so can potentially provide important information about the biology of fossil hominins. However, quantifying hip joint size has been difficult or impossible for many important but fragmentary specimens. New three-dimensional technologies can be used to digitally fit spheres to th...
Chapter
This chapter explores the species characterized as "non-robust australopiths": Australopithecus anamensis, Australopithecus afarensis, Australopithecus africanus, and Australopithecus sediba, and also discusses Kenyanthropus platyops. Even though Australopithecus may not be a proper genus because all species do not share a unique common ancestor wi...
Article
Variation in mechanical loading is known to influence chondrogenesis during joint formation. However, the interaction among chondrocyte behavior and variation in activity patterns is incompletely understood, hindering our knowledge of limb ontogeny and function. Here, the role of endurance exercise in the development of articular and physeal cartil...
Article
Full-text available
Human mothers wean their children from breast milk at an earlier developmental stage than do ape mothers, resulting in human children chewing solid and semi-solid foods using the deciduous dentition. Mechanical forces generated by chewing solid foods during the post-weaning period travel through not only the deciduous teeth, but also the enamel cap...
Article
The adaptive growth response of cartilage, or chondral modeling, can result in changes in joint and limb proportions during ontogeny and ultimately contribute to the adult form. Despite Hamrick's (1999) reevaluation of the mechanisms of chondral modeling, the process of chondral modeling remains poorly studied in animal models. Here, we characteriz...

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Project (1)
Project
The Iberian Peninsula offers a remarkable opportunity for the study of primate evolution, due to the existence of continuous and well-exposed continental sedimentary sequences spanning the entire Cenozoic and recording the most important moments in the evolutionary history of primates: their first radiation in the Eocene, the drastic decrease in their abundance related to the global cooling at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, as well as the latter appearance, diversification and extinction of great apes during the Miocene. The continental record of some Iberian basins, as well of the infilling of karstic cavities, also documents the subsequent dispersal of other primate groups during the Pliocene and Pleistocene, including cercopithecoids and, particularly, the genus Homo. The present project proposes a continuation of the successful research line led by the Institut de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont and pretends to focus not only on finding, describing and analyzing new primate fossil remains, but also on situating the primate record from the Iberian Peninsula in an accurate biochronological, paleobiogeographic and paleoenvironmental context.