Ashley Banyard

Ashley Banyard
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs | DEFRA · Department of Virology

PhD

About

297
Publications
66,142
Reads
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5,679
Citations
Citations since 2016
110 Research Items
4323 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
Additional affiliations
October 1999 - December 2007
The Pirbright Institute
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (297)
Article
Full-text available
Numerous outbreaks of high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) were reported during 2020-2021. In Africa, H5Nx has been detected in Benin, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Senegal, Lesotho, Namibia and South Africa in both wild birds and poultry. Botswana reported its first outbreak of HPAI to the World Organisation for Animal Health (WOAH) in 2021. An H5N1...
Article
Full-text available
This focus article has been prepared by Marco Falchieri, Scott M. Reid, Craig S. Ross, Joe James, Alexander M. P. Byrne, Madalina Zamfir, Ian H. Brown and Ashley C. Banyard of the APHA; Glen Tyler and Emma Philip of NatureScot; and Will Miles of Scottish Oceans Institute, School of Biology, University of St Andrews.
Article
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Newcastle disease (ND) is caused by virulent forms of avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) and is an economically important disease of poultry world-wide. Pigeon paramyxovirus 1 (PPMV-1), a sub-group of APMV-1 is endemic in Columbiformes and can cause infections of poultry. An outbreak of ND in partridges in Scotland, UK, in 2006 (APMV-1/partridge/UK(Sco...
Article
Full-text available
High pathogenicity avian influenza viruses clade 2.3.4.4 H5 have spread among wild birds worldwide during recent years causing annual die-offs among wild birds and outbreaks in poultry in multiple European countries. The outbreaks significantly impact the poultry and game bird sectors. Infected game birds may act as a bridging species potentially e...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Influenza is a respiratory infection that continues to present a major threat to human health, with ~500,000 deaths/year. Continued circulation of epidemic subtypes in humans and animals potentially increases the risk of future pandemics. Vaccination has failed to halt the evolution of this virus and next-generation prophylactic approac...
Article
Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease of poultry caused by virulent avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) (previously termed avian avulavirus-1 and avian orthoavulavirus-1). APMV-1 is endemic in poultry in many developing countries, whilst outbreaks still occur in developed countries, affecting both commercial and backyard flocks. ND outbr...
Article
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Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) disproportionately affect populations living in resource-limited settings. In the Amazon basin, substantial numbers of NTDs are zoonotic, transmitted by vertebrate (dogs, bats, snakes) and invertebrate species (sand flies and triatomine insects). However, no dedicated consortia exist to find commonaliti...
Article
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Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 lineage (GsGd), which threaten the health of poultry, wildlife and humans, are spreading across Asia, Europe, Africa and North America but are currently absent from South America and Oceania. In December 2021, H5N1 HPAI viruses were detected in poultry and a free-livin...
Article
Full-text available
Phylogenetic evidence from the recent resurgence of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1, clade 2.3.4.4b, observed in European wild birds and poultry since October 2021, suggests at least two different and distinct reservoirs. We propose contrasting hypotheses for this emergence: (i) resident viruses have been maintained, presumab...
Article
Full-text available
High pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) clade 2.3.4.4b has re-emerged in the United Kingdom in 2021–2022 winter season, with over 90 cases of HPAIV detected among poultry and captive birds in England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Globally, HPAIV H5N1 has also had a wide geographical dispersion, causing outbreaks in Europe, North...
Article
Full-text available
Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are classified as either low pathogenicity (LP; generally causing sub-clinical to mild infections) or high pathogenicity (HP; capable of causing significant mortality events in birds). To date, HPAIVs appear o be restricted to the haemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein H5 and H7 AIV subtypes. Both LPAIV and HPAIV H5 and H7...
Article
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Previous studies have described reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) for the rapid detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swab and saliva samples. This multisite clinical evaluation describes the validation of an improved sample preparation method f...
Article
Purpose Without pre- or post-exposure prophylaxis, lyssaviruses cause rabies, an invariably fatal disease responsible for over 59,000 human deaths per year. Rabies virus (RABV) is a lyssavirus, a genus comprising of 17 viral species all capable of causing rabies disease. The lyssavirus genus has been proposed to split into three phylogroups based o...
Article
Full-text available
On 5 January 2022, high pathogenicity avian influenza A(H5N1) was confirmed in an individual who kept a large flock of ducks at their home in England. The individual remained asymptomatic. H5N1 was confirmed in 19/20 sampled live birds on 22 December 2021. Comprehensive contact tracing (n = 11) revealed no additional primary cases or secondary tran...
Article
Full-text available
The UK and Europe have seen successive outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza across the 2020/21 and 2021/22 autumn/winter seasons. Understanding both the epidemiology and transmission of these viruses in different species is critical to aid mitigating measures where outbreaks cause extensive mortalities in both land- and waterfowl. Infecti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 lineage (GsGd), which threaten the health of poultry, wildlife and humans, are spreading across Asia, Europe and Africa, but are currently absent from Oceania and the Americas. In December 2021, H5N1 HPAI viruses were detected in poultry and a free-living gull in St. J...
Article
Full-text available
Avian influenza virus (AIV) is classified as high or low pathogenicity AIV (HPAIV/LPAIV) based on intravenous pathogenicity in chickens and/or the presence or absence of multiple basic residues at the heamagglutinin (HA) cleavage site (CS). Since 2014, Europe has experienced waves of incursions of H5Nx HPAIV. Between November 2020 and March 2021, t...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have described RT-LAMP methodology for the rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 in nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) swab and saliva samples. This study describes the validation of an improved sample preparation method for extraction free RT-LAMP and defines the clinical performance of four different RT-LAMP assay formats for det...
Article
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We report a disease and mortality event involving swans, seals, and a fox at a wildlife rehabilitation center in the United Kingdom during late 2020. Five swans had onset of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection while in captivity. Subsequently, 5 seals and a fox died (or were euthanized) after onset of clinical disease. Avian-origin in...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the evolution of viral pathogens is critical to being able to define how viruses emerge within different landscapes. Host-susceptibility, spread between different species and the subsequent epidemiology of disease is defined by virus detection and subsequent characteriza-tion. Peste des petits ruminant virus is a plague of small rumin...
Article
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Lyssaviruses are an important genus of zoonotic viruses which cause the disease rabies. The United Kingdom is free of classical rabies (RABV). However, bat rabies due to European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2), has been detected in Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) in Great Britain since 1996, including a fatal human case in Scotland in 2002. Across...
Article
Full-text available
Pathogen discovery contributes to our knowledge of bat-borne viruses and is linked to the heightened interest globally in bats as recognised reservoirs of zoonotic agents. The transmission of lyssaviruses from bats-to-humans, domestic animals, or other wildlife species is uncommon, but interest in these pathogens remains due to their ability to cau...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Multiple outbreaks with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) clade 2.3.4.4b viruses, including H5N8 and H5N1, have occurred in the United Kingdom, as well as in other European countries, since late 2020. Methods: This report describes the pathology among poultry species (chickens, turkeys, ducks, and pheasants) and captive...
Article
Full-text available
We developed an influenza hemagglutinin (HA) pseudotype library encompassing Influenza A subtypes HA1-18 and Influenza B subtypes (both lineages) to be employed in influenza pseudotype microneutralization (pMN) assays. The pMN is highly sensitive and specific for detecting virus-specific neutralizing antibodies against influenza viruses and can be...
Preprint
Full-text available
Europe has experienced extensive outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) during the autumn/winter 2020/21 season. These avian influenza A viruses are highly transmissible and have infected over 1000 commercial and backyard poultry premises in Europe in this period causing high mortality. The impact on wild bird populations has also be...
Preprint
Full-text available
Infection with the rabies virus (RABV) causes fatal encephalitis and paralysis in humans and animals. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) consists of vaccination and the injection of anti-rabies immunoglobulins (RIGs) around the (bite) wound. This is 100% effective in preventing disease if administered in a timely manner. However, the costs, the requir...
Preprint
Full-text available
We have developed an influenza hemagglutinin (HA) pseudotype library encompassing Influenza A subtypes HA1-18, and Influenza B subtypes (both lineages) to be employed in influenza pseudotype microneutralization (pMN) assays. The pMN is highly sensitive and specific for de-tecting virus-specific neutralizing antibodies against influenza viruses and...
Article
Full-text available
Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by an important group of viruses within the Lyssavirus genus. The prototype virus, rabies virus, is still the most commonly reported lyssavirus and causes approximately 59,000 human fatalities annually. The human and animal burden of the other lyssavirus species is undefined. The original reports for the novel...
Article
Since 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5 subtype have been maintained in poultry, periodically spilling back into wild migratory birds and spread to other geographic regions, with re-introduction to domestic birds causing severe impacts for poultry health, production and food sustainability. Successive waves of infecti...
Article
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 virus was first detected in late 2019 and circulated globally, causing COVID-19, which is characterised by sub-clinical to severe disease in humans. Here, we investigate the serological antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection during acute and convalescent infection using a cohort of (i) COVID-19 patients admitted to hospital, (ii) hea...
Article
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 virus was first detected in late 2019 and circulated globally, causing COVID19, which is characterised by sub-clinical to severe disease in humans. Here, we investigate the serological antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection during acute and convalescent infection using a cohort of (i) COVID-19 patients admitted to hospital, (ii) heal...
Article
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The long-term control strategy of SARS-CoV-2 and other major respiratory viruses needs to in-clude antivirals to treat acute infections, in addition to the judicious use of effective vaccines. Whilst COVID-19 vaccines are being rolled out for mass vaccination, the modest number of an-tivirals in use or development for any disease bears testament to...
Article
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Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is the cause of severe fetal malformations when immunologically naïve pregnant ruminants are infected. In those malformed fetuses, a “hot-spot”-region of high genetic variability within the N-terminal region of the viral envelope protein Gc has been observed previously, and this region co-localizes with a known key immunog...
Article
Full-text available
Analyses of HPAI H5 viruses from poultry outbreaks across a wide Eurasian region since July 2020 including the Russian Federation, Republics of Iraq and Kazakhstan, and recent detections in migratory waterfowl in the Netherlands, revealed undetected maintenance of H5N8, likely in galliform poultry since 2017/18 and both H5N5 and H5N1. All viruses b...
Article
Full-text available
Rabies is a fatal neurologic disease caused by lyssavirus infection. Bats are important natural reservoir hosts of various lyssaviruses that can be transmitted to people. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of rabies in bats are poorly understood, making it difficult to prevent zoonotic transmission. To further our understanding of lyssavirus pathoge...
Article
Full-text available
The rapid emergence of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, and its dissemination globally has caused an unprecedented strain on public health. Animal models are urgently being developed for SARS-CoV-2 to aid rational design of vaccines and therapeutics. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation techniques that facilitate reliable and...
Article
We describe the optimisation of a simplified sample preparation method which permits rapid and direct detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA within saliva, using reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). Treatment of saliva samples prior to RT-LAMP by dilution 1:1 in Mucolyse™, followed by dilution in 10 % (w/v) Chelex© 100 Resin...
Article
Full-text available
Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) often result in the infection of millions of poultry, causing up to 100% mortality. HPAIV has been shown to emerge from low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in field outbreaks. Direct evidence for the emergence of H7N7 HPAIV from a LPAIV precursor with a rare di-basic cleavage...
Preprint
Full-text available
We describe the optimization of a simplified sample preparation method which permits rapid and direct detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA within saliva using reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). Treatment of saliva samples prior to RT-LAMP by dilution 1:1 in MucolyseTM, followed by dilution (within the range of 1 in 5 to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The European H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) epizootic during 2016-2017 resulted in both wild bird and poultry deaths throughout the EU. This in vivo study investigated the potential for indirect infection of naïve birds through contaminated drinking water or feed, to assess potential disease incursion into a high biosecurity c...
Article
The European polecat (Mustela putorius) almost became extinct in Britain in the early twentieth century, but populations are now recovering. As seen in other endangered carnivore populations, disease is one potential threat to recovery. This study assessed exposure of wild polecats (n = 149) to three, multi-host pathogens which could limit reproduc...
Chapter
Rabies has shaped humanity for centuries and continues to be one of the few pathogens that have a near 100% case fatality rate following the onset of clinical disease. Rabies virus, as with all related viruses within the Lyssavirus genus, is spread via the mechanistic action of the bite of an infected animal. Lyssaviruses are strongly neurotropic a...
Article
Full-text available
Many high-consequence human and animal pathogens persist in wildlife reservoirs. An understanding of the dynamics of these pathogens in their reservoir hosts is crucial to inform the risk of spill-over events, yet our understanding of these dynamics is frequently insufficient. Viral persistence in a wild bat population was investigated by combining...
Article
Rabies is a major neglected zoonotic disease and causes a substantial burden in the Asian region. Currently, Pacific Oceania is free of rabies but enzootic areas throughout southeast Asia represent a major risk of disease introduction to this region. On September 25-26, 2019, researchers, government officials and related stakeholders met at an IABS...
Chapter
The infection of bats with rabies has been described for decades. Rabies is caused by members of the lyssavirus genus and currently 16 different lyssaviruses have been defined. Bat rabies in the New World is predominantly associated with vampire bats across Central and South America although with the elimination of terrestrial rabies in North Ameri...
Article
Full-text available
The use of the rabies vaccine for post-exposure prophylaxis started as early as 1885, revealing a safe and efficient tool to prevent human rabies cases. Preventive vaccination is the basis for the control of canine-mediated rabies, which has already been eliminated from extensive parts of the world, including Europe. Plans to eliminate canine-media...
Article
Full-text available
Rabies virus causes an invariably fatal encephalitis following the onset of clinical disease. Despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines, the clinical stages of rabies encephalitis remain untreatable, with few survivors being documented. A principal obstacle to the treatment of rabies is the neurotropic nature of the virus, with the bl...
Article
Full-text available
Following the successful eradication of rinderpest, the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) have set a goal to globally eradicate Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) by 2030. To support the eradication programme we have quantified the levels of PPR virus (PPRV) nucleic acid excreted in body fluids...
Article
Full-text available
Following the successful eradication of rinderpest, the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) have set a goal to globally eradicate Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) by 2030. To support the eradication programme we have quantified the levels of PPR virus (PPRV) nucleic acid excreted in body fluids...
Article
Full-text available
: Bats in the EU have been associated with several zoonotic viral pathogens of significance to both human and animal health. Virus discovery continues to expand the existing understating of virus classification, and the increased interest in bats globally as reservoirs or carriers of zoonotic agents has fuelled the continued detection and character...
Article
In October 2018, the order Mononegavirales was amended by the establishment of three new families and three new genera, abolishment of two genera, and creation of 28 novel species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).
Article
Full-text available
Background Estimates of current global rabies mortality range from 26,000 to 59,000 deaths per annum. Although pre-exposure prophylaxis using inactivated rabies virus vaccines (IRVs) is effective, it requires two to three doses and is regarded as being too expensive and impractical for inclusion in routine childhood immunization programmes. Method...
Data
Kinetic of antibody responses across all groups shown in Fig 2A. Panel A shows ELISA-measured antibody induction following immunization by AdHu5, ChAd63, and ChAdOx1 adenovirus-vectored rabies vaccines as compared to Rabipur and Nobivac Rabies IRVs. Individual mice are represented by points, with lines linking the week 4 (left, circles) and week 12...