Ashleigh J Filtness

Ashleigh J Filtness
Loughborough University | Lough · Loughborough Design School

Ph.D, BSc.

About

82
Publications
11,410
Reads
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1,093
Citations
Additional affiliations
February 2016 - present
Loughborough University
Position
  • Research Associate
February 2013 - February 2016
Queensland University of Technology
Position
  • Research Associate
February 2011 - February 2013
Monash University (Australia)
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (82)
Article
Bus controllers are an essential part of the London bus network. Although the bus driver is the individual directly in control of the vehicle, inputs from both the controller and driver influence operations. Currently, little research has focused on the dynamic between these parties, and how it works in the day-to-day operation of a bus. In the cur...
Chapter
Conveying the overall uncertainties of automated driving systems was shown to improve trust calibration and situation awareness, resulting in safer takeovers. However, the impact of presenting the uncertainties of multiple system functions has yet to be investigated. Further, existing research lacks recommendations for visualizing uncertainties in...
Article
Full-text available
(1) Background: Passenger vehicles equipped with advanced driver-assistance system (ADAS) functionalities are becoming more prevalent within vehicle fleets. However, the full effects of offering such systems, which may allow for drivers to become less than 100% engaged with the task of driving, may have detrimental impacts on other road-users, part...
Conference Paper
Driver sleepiness and fatigue are important contributors to many transport incidents and significantly increase crash risk. Recently, detection systems have been developed which aim to monitor the state of the driver and detect increasing levels of fatigue. However, there has been less focus on appropriate intervention strategies for drivers once f...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this paper is to cast users of railway level crossings as flexible and adaptive decision-makers, and to apply a cognitive systems engineering approach to discover new behaviour-based insights for improving safety. Collisions between trains and road vehicles at railway level crossings/grade crossings remain a global issue. It is sti...
Article
Full-text available
Objective The objective of this study was to understand the relationship between some of the most common diseases that are known to contribute to excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and traffic injury crashes. Specific focus was on the relationship between disease and crash type (single-vehicle or multiple-vehicle crash) and between disease and inju...
Article
Introduction: Currently, risky driving behaviour is a major contributor to road crashes and as a result, wide array of tools have been developed in order to record and improve driving behaviour. Within that group of tools, interventions have been indicated to significantly enhance driving behaviour and road safety. This study critically reviews mo...
Article
This research represents one of the first qualitative studies to investigate fatigue in the tunnelling sector of the construction industry. It explores the opinions of tunnellers and their managers about how fatigue influences or is influenced by tunnelling, and how this is managed. Fatigue and sleepiness were discussed in six focus groups with fro...
Article
The research represents one of the first major qualitative studies to subjectively investigate fatigue amongst city bus drivers. Funded by TfL (grant no. 94050), the study considers the perspectives of both the bus drivers themselves and their managers. It explores opinion specifically in relation to how fatigue influences or is influenced by bus d...
Article
Driver sleepiness is a leading contributor to road crashes. Sleep-related crashes are more likely to involve collision with a stationary object than non-sleep-related crashes. The mechanism underpinning this is unknown; one potential explanation may be an increased propensity for change blindness. Twenty-four drivers with at least one year of indep...
Article
Sleepiness is an important consideration for workplace safety, especially in relation to shift work. There is limited understanding of how practical applications of countermeasures are used to manage sleepiness in a professional setting. One under-researched group is city bus drivers. This qualitative study investigated the use of individual sleepi...
Article
Driver sleepiness contributes to a substantial proportion of all road crashes. Despite all that is known about driver sleepiness, bus drivers are often overlooked. What is certain is that bus drivers have the potential to suffer from sleepiness as they are shift workers. The current research used a large online survey to investigate sleepiness amon...
Article
Background Truck drivers are vulnerable to driver sleepiness due to pressures of shift work and prolonged driving hours; this is a safety concern as sleepiness more than doubles crash risk. Caffeine is a commonly used countermeasure to driver sleepiness. Previous research with truck drivers has demonstrated a positive impact of caffeine consumption...
Article
Full-text available
Sleep is one of our most important physiological functions that maintains physical and mental health. Two studies examined whether discrete areas of attention are equally affected by sleep loss. This was achieved using a repeated-measures within-subjects design, with two contrasting conditions: normal sleep and partial sleep restriction of 5-h. Stu...
Article
Worker fatigue is an important risk factor in civil engineering and construction projects, particularly when night-time shift working is required. It is a significant cause of accidents and negatively affects health and well-being. Biomathematical models can be used to assess and reduce fatigue risk. Research funded by Tideway, the company delivery...
Article
Sleepiness is an important and often underestimated factor in the occurrence of motor vehicle and work-related incidents, contributing to approximately 15-20% of global road traffic crashes. Increased sleepiness has been shown to impair reaction time, vigilance, and cognitive decision making, skills which are vital to safety critical tasks such as...
Article
This paper examines simulators to deliver driver education programs for two very different populations (a) those who have specific impairments or intellectual disabilities and (b) those who may suffer disadvantage associated with their ethnicity. To do this we addressed two research questions (a) What role, if any, can simulation play as an educati...
Article
p>This study uses Russell's Circumplex Model of Affect to examine whether motorcycle rider emotion is contingent on the environment and behavior. If it is contingent then it becomes predictable. If it is predictable it becomes potentially usable for innovating new ways to improve the safety and utility of this important transport mode. Eighteen mot...
Article
Professional driver education and training has often been found in evaluations to not provide additional safety benefits for young drivers. However, it is possible that identifying how psychosocial factors affect perceptions of driver education may contribute to improve program design, content and implementation. The Goals for Driver Education (GDE...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As a consequence of insufficient situation awareness and inappropriate trust, operators of highly automated driving systems may be unable to safely perform takeovers following system failures. The communication of system uncertainties has been shown to alleviate these issues by supporting trust calibration. However, the existing approaches rely on...
Article
The objective of this paper is the review and comparative assessment of infrastructure related crash risk factors, with the explicit purpose of ranking them based on how detrimental they are towards road safety (i.e. crash risk, frequency and severity). This analysis was carried out within the SafetyCube project, which aimed to identify and quantif...
Article
Driving simulators may be used to augment young driver education programs. However, little research has examined what young drivers and driver educators think about these devices. If driver educators and young drivers do not believe that simulator training will be effective, it is unlikely that they will be used to their full potential. Eight focus...
Article
Full-text available
Conveying the overall uncertainties of automated driving systems was shown to improve trust calibration and situation awareness, resulting in safer takeovers. However, the impact of presenting the uncertainties of multiple system functions has yet to be investigated. Further, existing research lacks recommendations for visualizing uncertainties in...
Article
The so-called ‘fatal five’ behaviours (drink and drug driving, distraction and inattention, speeding, fatigue, and failure to wear a seat belt) are known to be the major behavioural contributory factors to road trauma. However, little is known about the factors that lead to drivers engaging in each behaviour. This article presents the findings from...
Article
Operators of highly automated driving systems may exhibit behaviour characteristic for overtrust issues due to an insufficient awareness of automation fallibility. Consequently, situation awareness in critical situations is reduced and safe driving performance following emergency takeovers is impeded. A driving simulator study was used to assess th...
Article
Evaluation research suggests that professional driver education and training has little effect on reducing the crash involvements of young drivers. Driver education and training programs have been criticised as being unsystematically designed and lacking an empirical or theoretical basis. The Goals for Driver Education (GDE) is a theoretical framew...
Conference Paper
Recent findings have indicated that the communication of uncertainties is a promising approach for overcoming human factors challenges associated with overtrust issues. The existing approaches, however, are limited in that they require operators to monitor the instrument cluster to perceive changes. As a consequence, significant changes may be miss...
Conference Paper
Safe manual driving performance following takeovers in conditionally automated driving systems is impeded by a lack in situation awareness, partly due to an inappropriate trust in the system's capabilities. Previous work has indicated that the communication of system uncertainties can aid the trust calibration process. However, it has yet to be inv...
Conference Paper
The communication of system uncertainties may be key for overcoming challenges related to overtrust in automated driving. Existing approaches are limited to conveying uncertainties using visual displays in the instrument cluster. This requires operators to regularly monitor the display in order to perceive changes which impedes the execution of non...
Article
The European Road Safety Decision Support System (roadsafety-dss.eu) is an innovative system providing the available evidence on a broad range of road risks and possible countermeasures. This paper describes the scientific basis of the DSS. The structure underlying the DSS consists of (1) a taxonomy identifying risk factors and measures and linking...
Chapter
Purpose – Driver education and licensing are two mechanisms used to reduce crash rates. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of these countermeasures and consider how simulators can be used to augment more traditional approaches. Approach – A literature review was undertaken evaluating key concepts in driver licensing including gra...
Article
Full-text available
The EU research project SafetyCube pays specific attention to serious road injuries, defined as nonfatal road traffic casualties with an injury severity level of MAIS3+. By means of surveys, information was collected on current practices concerning the estimation of the number of MAIS3+ casualties and on costs related to serious road injuries in di...
Article
Full-text available
To determine accurately the number of serious injuries at EU level and to compare serious injury rates between different countries it is essential to use a common definition. In January 2013, the High Level Group on Road Safety established the definition of serious injuries as patients with an injury level of MAIS3+(Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale...
Article
Improving the safety at passive rail crossings is an ongoing issue worldwide. These crossings have no active warning systems to assist drivers’ decision-making and are completely reliant on the road user perceiving the approach of a train to decide whether to enter a crossing or not. This study aimed to better understand drivers’ judgements regardi...
Article
Background: Information about the burden of (non-fatal) road traffic injury is very useful to further improve road safety policy. Previous studies calculated the burden of injury in individual countries. This paper estimates and compares the burden of non-fatal serious road traffic injuries in six EU countries/regions: Austria, Belgium, England, T...
Article
Driver sleepiness is a significant road safety problem. Sleep-related crashes occur on both urban and rural roads, yet to date driver-sleepiness research has focused on understanding impairment in rural and motorway driving. The ability to detect changes is an attention and awareness skill vital for everyday safe driving. Previous research has demo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Inappropriate trust in the capabilities of automated driving systems can result in misuse and insufficient monitoring behaviour that impedes safe manual driving performance following takeovers. Previous studies indicate that the communication of system uncertainty can promote appropriate use and monitoring by calibrating trust. However, existing ap...
Article
Many rail level crossings (RLXs) have only passive protection, such as static signs instructing road users to stop, yield, or look for trains. Stop signs have been suggested as a low-cost option to improve safety at passive RLXs, as requiring drivers to stop should encourage safe behaviour. However, field observations have noted high rates of non-c...
Article
Drink-driving remains a major road safety concern that creates a significant social burden. Licence disqualification continues to play a key role in drink driving deterrence and sanctions together with police enforcement to address the problem in most motorised countries. However, on-going questions remain regarding the differing effect of licence...
Article
Background As road complexity increases the requirement for number of road signs also increases, although the amount of road side space does not. One practical strategy to address this is to present multiple road signs on the same gantry (sign co-location). However, there is very little research on the safety implications of this practice. Method...
Article
Fatigue is an important workplace risk management issue. Within the rail industry, the passing of a stop signal (signal passed at danger; SPAD) is considered to be one of the most major safety breaches which can occur. Train drivers are very aware of the negative consequences associated with a SPAD. Therefore, SPADs provide a practical and applied...
Article
The ability to detect changes is crucial for safe driving. Previous research has demonstrated that drivers often experience change blindness, which refers to failed or delayed change detection. The current study explored how susceptibility to change blindness varies as a function of the driving environment, type of object changed, and safety releva...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The ability to detect changing visual information is a vital component of safe driving. In addition to detecting changing visual information, drivers must also interpret its relevance to safety. Environmental changes considered to have high safety relevance will likely demand greater attention and more timely responses than those conside...
Article
Background: Very little is known about the characteristics of sleep related (SR) crashes occurring on low speed roads compared with current understanding of the role of sleep in crashes occurring on high speed roads e.g. motorways. To address this gap, analyses were undertaken to identify the differences and similarities between (1) SR crashes occ...
Conference Paper
The third edition of the Australian Standard AS1742 Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices Part 7 provides a method of calculating the sighting distance required to safely proceed at passive level crossings based on the physics of moving vehicles. This required distance becomes greater with higher line speeds and slower, heavier vehicles so that...
Article
Full-text available
Driver fatigue has received increased attention during recent years and is now considered to be a major contributor to approximately 15-30% of all crashes. However, little is known about fatigue in city bus drivers. It is hypothesized that city bus drivers suffer from sleepiness, which is due to a combination of working conditions, lack of health a...
Conference Paper
The paper presents initial findings from an Austroads funded project NT1782 Ability to Absorb Information through Electronic and Static Signs. The paper aims to investigate how easily messages displayed on co-located signs can be absorbed, and if drivers can absorb messages and take appropriate action without any adverse impact on the safety and ef...
Article
Driver sleepiness is a major contributor to severe crashes and fatalities on our roads. Many people continue to drive despite being aware of feeling tired. Prevention relies heavily on education campaigns as it is difficult to police driver sleepiness. The video sharing social media site YouTube is extremely popular, particularly with at risk drive...
Article
Sleep-related (SR) crashes are an endemic problem the world over. However, police officers report difficulties in identifying sleepiness as a crash contributing factor. One approach to improving the sensitivity of SR crash identification is by applying a proxy definition post hoc to crash reports. To identify the prominent characteristics of SR cra...
Conference Paper
Alcohol is a major factor in road deaths and serious injuries. In Victoria, between 2008 and 2013, 30% of drivers killed were involved in alcohol-related crashes. From the early 1980s Victoria progressively introduced a series of measures, such as driver licence cancellation and alcohol interlocks, to reduce the level of drink-driving on Victoria's...
Research
Full-text available
Background: Driver fatigue contributes to 15-30% of crashes, however it is difficult to objectively measure. Fatigue mitigation relies on driver self-moderation, placing great importance on the necessity for road safety campaigns to engage with their audience. Popular self-archiving website YouTube.com is a relatively unused source of public percep...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Hot air ballooning incidents are relatively rare; however, they have a high potential to be fatal. In order to inform appropriate safety interventions it is first necessary to understand the causal factors which lead to incidents and near-misses, which requires a formal incident report database. The Australian Balloon Federation (ABF) advocates the...
Article
Shift workers are prone to obesity and associated co-morbidities such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Sleep restriction associated with shift work results in dramatic endocrine and metabolic effects that predispose shift workers to these adverse health consequences. While sleep restriction has been associated with increased caloric intake,...
Article
Full-text available
Filtness AJ, Goode N, Cook RW. Causal factors of hot air ballooning incidents: identification, frequency, and potential impact. Aviat Space Environ Med 2014; 85:1190-8. Hot air ballooning incidents are relatively rare; however, when they do occur they are likely to result in a fatality or serious injury. Human error is commonly attributed as the ca...
Article
Collisions between different types of road users at intersections form a substantial component of the road toll. This paper presents an analysis of driver, cyclist, motorcyclist and pedestrian behaviour at intersections that involved the application of an integrated suite of ergonomics methods, the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork (EAST) framewo...
Article
Full-text available
Sleep disruption strongly influences daytime functioning; resultant sleepiness is recognised as a contributing risk-factor for individuals performing critical and dangerous tasks. While the relationship between sleep and sleepiness has been heavily investigated in the vulnerable sub-populations of shift workers and patients with sleep disorders, po...
Article
Full-text available
The majority of individuals appear to have insight into their own sleepiness, but there is some evidence that this does not hold true for all, for example treated patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. Identification of sleep-related symptoms may help drivers determine their sleepiness, eye symptoms in particular show promise. Sixteen participants...
Article
Musculoskeletal pain is commonly reported by police officers. A potential cause of officer discomfort is a mismatch between vehicle seats and the method used for carrying appointments. Twenty-five police officers rated their discomfort while seated in: (1) a standard police vehicle seat, and (2) a vehicle seat custom-designed for police use. Discom...
Article
Collisions between different road users make a substantial contribution to road trauma. Although evidence suggests that different road users interpret the same road situations differently, it is not clear how road users' situation awareness differs, nor is it clear which differences might lead to conflicts. This article presents the findings from a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Improving safety at rail level crossings is an important part of both road and rail safety strategies. While low in number, crashes between vehicles and trains at level crossings are catastrophic events typically involving multiple fatalities and serious injuries. Advances in driving assessment methods, such as the provision of on-road instrumented...
Conference Paper
Collisions between distinct road users (e.g. drivers and motorcyclists) make a substantial contribution to the road trauma burden. Although evidence suggests distinct road users interpret the same road situations differently, it is not clear how road users' situation awareness differs, nor is it clear which differences might lead to conflicts. This...
Conference Paper
Driver behaviour at rail level crossings represents a key area for further research. This paper describes an on-road study comparing novice and experienced driver situation awareness at rural rail level crossings. Participants provided verbal protocols while driving a pre-determined rural route incorporating ten rail level crossings. Driver situati...
Conference Paper
Crashes between vehicles and trains at highway-rail grade crossings are low in number but are catastrophic events typically involving multiple fatalities and serious injuries. Advances in driving assessment methods, such as the development of on-road instrumented test vehicles, now enable researchers to understand driver behaviour at such crossings...
Article
Fatigue/sleepiness is recognised as an important contributory factor in fatal and serious injury road traffic incidents (RTIs), however, identifying fatigue/sleepiness as a causal factor remains an uncertain science. Within Australia attending police officers at a RTI report the causal factors; one option is fatigue/sleepiness. In some Australian j...
Article
Full-text available
Situation awareness, ones understanding of 'what is going on', is a critical commodity for road users. Although the concept has received much attention in the driving context, situation awareness in vulnerable road users, such as cyclists, remains unexplored. This paper presents the findings from an exploratory on-road study of cyclist situation aw...