Asbjørn Følstad

Asbjørn Følstad
SINTEF | Stiftelsen for industriell og teknisk forskning

PhD

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119
Publications
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3,525
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Publications

Publications (119)
Article
Full-text available
Social chatbots have become more advanced, paving the way for human–chatbot relationships (HCRs). Although this phenomenon has already received some research attention, the results have been contradictory, and there is uncertainty regarding how to understand HCR formation. To provide the needed knowledge on this phenomenon, we conducted a qualitati...
Article
Full-text available
Use of conversational artificial intelligence (AI), such as humanlike social chatbots, is increasing. While a growing number of people is expected to engage in intimate relationships with social chatbots, theories and knowledge of human–AI friendship remain limited. As friendships with AI may alter our understanding of friendship itself, this study...
Article
Understanding the user experience of chatbots for customer service is essential to realize the potential of this technology. Such chatbots are typically designed for efficient and effective interactions, accentuating pragmatic quality, and there is a need to understand how to make these more pleasant and engaging, strengthening hedonic quality. One...
Article
Full-text available
Depression is a common illness worldwide with potentially severe implications. Early identification of depressive symptoms is a crucial first step towards assessment, intervention, and relapse prevention. With an increase in data sets with relevance for depression, and the advancement of machine learning, there is a potential to develop intelligent...
Chapter
Full-text available
Chatbots are increasingly taken up to support organizational functions and processes, particularly in support of the Human Resource Management (HRM) function. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the organizational implications of this support – in particular the operational interplay between the chatbot, the HRM function, and the organization...
Article
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The uptake of chatbots for customer service depends on the user experience. For such chatbots, user experience in particular concerns whether the user is provided relevant answers to their queries and the chatbot interaction brings them closer to resolving their problem. Dialogue data from interactions between users and chatbots represents a potent...
Article
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Chatbots are increasingly becoming important gateways to digital services and information—taken up within domains such as customer service, health, education, and work support. However, there is only limited knowledge concerning the impact of chatbots at the individual, group, and societal level. Furthermore, a number of challenges remain to be res...
Article
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While chatbots have become an important part of customer service operations, there is a knowledge gap concerning organizational aspects of chatbot implementation and management. In response to this gap, we present a study of organizational factors affecting successful chatbot implementation. The study involved six organizations that had implemented...
Conference Paper
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Although social support is important for health and well-being, many young people are hesitant to reach out for support. The emerging uptake of chatbots for social and emotional purposes entails opportunities and concerns regarding non-human agents as sources of social support. To explore this, we invited 16 participants (16–21 years) to use and re...
Article
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Background Symptoms of depression are frequent in youth and may develop into more severe mood disorders, suggesting interventions should take place during adolescence. However, young people tend not to share mental problems with friends, family, caregivers, or professionals. Many receive misleading information when searching the internet. Among sev...
Chapter
Understanding and improving user experience is key to strengthening uptake and realizing the potential of chatbots for customer service. In this paper, we investigate customer satisfaction surveys as a source of insight into such user experience. A total of 5,687 customer satisfaction reports on users’ interactions with a customer service chatbot,...
Article
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There has been a recent surge of interest in social chatbots, and human–chatbot relationships (HCRs) are becoming more prevalent, but little knowledge exists on how HCRs develop and may impact the broader social context of the users. Guided by Social Penetration Theory, we interviewed 18 participants, all of whom had developed a friendship with a s...
Book
This book constitutes the proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Chatbot Research and Design, CONVERSATIONS 2020, which was held during November 23-24, 2020, hosted by the University of Amsterdam. The conference was planned to take place in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, but changed to an online format due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The 14 pa...
Article
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Chatbots represent new opportunities for low-threshold preventive mental health support to youths. To provide needed knowledge regarding how to design chatbots for this purpose, we present an exploratory design study where we designed and evaluated a prototype chatbot to complement the work of school nurses in the school health service. The prototy...
Article
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For chatbots to be broadly adopted by users, it is critical that they are experienced as useful and pleasurable. While there is an emerging body of research concerning user uptake and use of chatbots, there is a lack of theoretically grounded studies detailing what constitutes good or poor chatbot user experiences. In this paper, we present finding...
Chapter
Full-text available
Analysing and improving chatbot dialogues – so-called chatbot ‘training’ – is key to the successful implementation and maintenance of chatbots for customer service. Nevertheless, the details of this practice and what service providers may learn from the analysis of such dialogues is not investigated in current research on chatbots. As a first step...
Chapter
Due to the complexity of natural language, chatbots are prone to misinterpreting user requests. Such misinterpretations may lead the chatbot to provide answers that are not adequate responses to user request – so called false positives – potentially leading to conversational breakdown. A promising repair strategy in such cases is for the chatbot to...
Book
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Chatbot Research and Design, CONVERSATIONS 2019, held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in November 2019. The 18 revised full papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 31 submissions. The papers are grouped in the following topical sec...
Conference Paper
Companies are increasingly using chatbots to provide customer service. Despite this trend, little in-depth research has been conducted on user experience and user motivation for this important application area of conversational interfaces. To close this research gap, we interviewed 24 users of two chatbots for customer service. Our results demonstr...
Article
Chatbots are predicted to play a key role in customer service. Users’ trust in such chatbots is critical for their uptake. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning users’ trust in chatbots. To bridge this knowledge gap, we present a questionnaire study (N = 154) that investigated factors of relevance for trust in customer service chatbots....
Conference Paper
In the last five years, work on software that interacts with people via typed or spoken natural language, called chatbots, intelligent assistants, social bots, virtual companions, non-human players, and so on, increased dramatically. Chatbots burst into prominence in 2016. Then came a wave of research, more development, and some use. The time is ri...
Chapter
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Chatbots are emerging as interactive systems. However, we lack knowledge on how to classify chatbots and how such classification can be brought to bear in analysis of chatbot interaction design. In this workshop paper, we propose a typology of chatbots to support such classification and analysis. The typology dimensions address key characteristics...
Article
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Advances in artificial intelligence strengthen chatbots' ability to resemble human conversational agents. For some application areas, it may be tempting not to be transparent regarding a conversational agent's nature as chatbot or human. However, the uncanny valley theory suggests that such lack in transparency may cause uneasy feelings in the user...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Chatbots are increasingly offered as an alternative source of customer ser-vice. For users to take up chatbots for this purpose, it is important that users trust chatbots to provide the required support. However, there is currently a lack in knowledge regarding the factors that affect users' trust in chatbots. We present an interview study addressi...
Chapter
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What makes some experiences enjoyable, and other experiences not? How can we understand enjoyment in human factors design; what components should we consider when we are designing for enjoyment? This chapter explores a theoretical model for understanding the components and nature of enjoyment, and how HCI (Human Computer Interaction) professionals...
Conference Paper
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Customer research is key to service design. However, current methods to obtain in-depth customer insight are resource demanding and rarely utilise available customer reports. In this study, we explore the widely used transactional Net Promoter Score (NPS) as a potential source of customer insight for service designers. Specifically, we explore the...
Article
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While the concept of “customer journeys” is widely taken up to support service design and management, practical frameworks for routine monitoring of customer experience in the context of customer journeys are lacking. This article proposes a framework for applying the widely used transactional Net Promoter Score (NPS) as a means for gathering insig...
Conference Paper
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The emerging sharing economy has important policy implications. To strengthen the basis for policy making, we present an interview study involving sharing economy service owners, policy maker representatives, and research experts. Here, we analyse sharing economy services as human-machine networks, with particular attention to the networked actors...
Conference Paper
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In current conversational agents, productivity-oriented interaction and relational interaction are strictly compartmentalised. We suggest that UX in future conversational agents may benefit from a more integrated approach to these two forms of interaction. The suggestion is backed by reference to existing studies. Future directions are suggested.
Conference Paper
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Chatbots are emerging as an increasingly important area for the HCI community, as they provide a novel means for users to interact with service providers. Due to their conversational character, chatbots are potentially effective tools for engaging with customers, and are often developed with commercial interests at the core. However, chatbots also...
Article
Purpose Customer journeys have become an increasingly important topic in service management and design. The purpose of this paper is to review customer journey terminology and approaches within the research literature prior to 2013, mainly from the fields of design, management, and marketing. Design/methodology/approach The study was conducted a...
Article
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As part of usability evaluation, users may be invited to offer their reflections on the system being evaluated. Such reflections may concern the system’s suitability for its context of use, usability problem predictions, and design suggestions. We term the data resulting from such reflections users’ design feedback. Gathering users’ design feedback...
Conference Paper
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There is a growing interest in chatbots, which are machine agents serving as natural language user interfaces for data and service providers. However, no studies have empirically investigated people’s motivations for using chatbots. In this study, an online questionnaire asked chatbot users (N = 146, aged 16–55 years) from the US to report their re...
Conference Paper
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Involving users in the design of sharing economy services is important to realize the expected growth in this market. However, such involvement may be challenging due to the complexity and networked character of the service context. We present a case study showing how users’ online feedback on novel design concepts may represent a viable approach t...
Conference Paper
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Efficient human-machine networks require productive interaction between human and machine actors. In this study, we address how a strengthening of machine agency, for example through increasing levels of automation, affect the human actors of the networks. Findings from case studies within air traffic management, crisis management, and crowd evacua...
Article
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While services for fact-checking and verification to counter fake news in social media have increased, little research has investigated how journalists and the public perceive such services. This study reflects the outcomes of REVEAL, a three-year European Union research project investigating the use and impact of services for fact-checking and ver...
Article
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˽ Though fact-checking services play an important role countering online disinformation, little is known about whether users actually trust or distrust them. ˽ The data we collected from social media discussions—on Facebook, Twitter, blogs, forums, and discussion threads in online newspapers—reflects users’ opinions about fact-checking services. ˽...
Article
A key outcome of the HUMANE project is a series of policy roadmaps which provide guidance for improving Human-Machine Networks (HMNs) in different social domains. In order to achieve this, we need to foresee future trends in these social domains, examine the broader impact and implications of HMNs, the technical and regulatory challenges, and set t...
Article
In this deliverable we present the final HUMANE typology and method, intended to support the analysis and design for human-machine networks (HMN). The typology serves to characterize HMNs on dimensions pertaining to the actors of the network, the relations between the actors, network extent and network structure. The method supports profiling HMNs...
Article
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A key outcome of the HUMANE project is a series of policy roadmaps which show a clear path for improving Human‐Machine Networks (HMNs) in different social domains. In order to achieve this, we need to examine the broader impact and implications of HMNs in these social domains, the technical and regulatory challenges, and policy interventions that c...
Chapter
Successful services depend on the meeting between customers and companies to be one of co-creation. The chapter provides an overview of current perspectives on co-creation. The author discusses these in terms of trust. In particular, a synthesizing perspective is provided on co-creation of service design and co-creation of service value, seeing the...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework based on customer journeys for a structured portrayal of service delivery from the customer’s point of view. The paper also introduces customer journey analysis (CJA) for empirical investigation of individual service experiences in a multichannel environment. Design/methodology/approach...
Article
An important goal in the HUMANE project is to set out the implications for future thinking and policy making in Human‐ Machine Networks (HMN). In this deliverable, we explore relevant characteristics and implications of HMNs in a number of innovative domains that have high potential for bringing fundamental social changes: the sharing economy, eHea...
Article
In the HUMANE research project, we aim to support analysis of, and design for human‐machine networks. Towards this end, we have developed a HUMANE typology and method. The typology serves to characterize human‐machine networks on dimensions pertaining to the level of agency in the actors of the network, the strength of the relations between the act...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While some researchers and practitioners argue for the benefit of services that delight customers, others argue that service providers rather should focus on efficient service delivery. We present a study on customer experience in the context of service recovery to show how these diverging perspectives may be reconciled. The study includes 312 cust...
Article
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This special issue on "Social media use and innovations" of the Journal of Media Innovation provides an engaging view into innovative uses of social media as well as approaches for utilizing social media in innovation. With three papers included, we cover experiences with an online social network for children (Stephanie Valentine and Tracy Hammond)...
Article
Full-text available
Youth civic identities and social media practices are changing rapidly, and civic organisations are struggling to exploit the potential of social media to reach youth. One major challenge concerns the genera-tional culture gap between the networked culture of today's youth and the top–down culture characteristic of many civic organisations. This st...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we outline an initial typology and framework for the purpose of profiling human-machine networks, that is, collective structures where humans and machines interact to produce synergistic effects. Profiling a human-machine network along the dimensions of the typology is intended to facilitate access to relevant design knowledge and exp...
Article
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Organizations aiming to foster civic engagement, such as government bodies, news outlets, political parties and non-governmental organizations, struggle to purposefully use social media to engage young people. To meet this challenge and to inform future design, we interviewed 17 innovators in engaging youth, that is, frontrunners in using social me...
Article
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In the current hyper-connected era, modern Information and Communication Technology systems form sophisticated networks where not only do people interact with other people, but also machines take an increasingly visible and participatory role. Such human-machine networks (HMNs) are embedded in the daily lives of people, both or personal and profess...
Article
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Online social platforms, such as blogs, discussion forums and social networking sites, are increasingly explored as venues for user-centred evaluations; in particular, for design feedback from users. We present a multi-case study providing needed knowledge on such evaluations. Our findings are based on analyses of the design feedback and post-factu...
Article
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The verification of social media content and sources are increasingly critical to journalists and news organisations. In this study we report on findings from qualitative interviews conducted with 24 journalists working with social media in major news organizations in Europe. Our findings contribute to new knowledge on journalists' social media wor...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Though customer support is argued to be a useful source of usability insight, how to benefit from customer support in usability evaluation is hardly made the subject of scientific research. In this paper, we present an approach to gather usability insight from users when they call customer support. We also present a case implementation of this appr...
Conference Paper
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It has been argued that participatory design and service design share many of the basic ideas, such as the perspective of design as a participatory and co-creative effort involving designers and stakeholders alike. Interestingly, when participatory approaches are applied within design thinking these seems to support change and breakthrough innovati...
Conference Paper
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Design thinking, a methodology originating from the design disciplines, oriented towards problem solving through a human-centered approach, rapid prototyping and abductive reasoning, has huge impact on innovation in business, education, health and other crucial domains. Many similarities, and differences, can be found between design thinking and a...
Conference Paper
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Though substantial research efforts have been spent on understanding the role of political party websites, there is a lack of in-depth knowledge con-cerning how such webpages are experienced by their users. In this paper, we present an interview study addressing users' experiences of political party web-sites. Eleven users of a political party webs...
Conference Paper
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The customer journey approach is increasingly being taken up by practitioners and researchers to support the design and management of services. As part of this approach, customers and internal resources are often involved as contributors of input in design and management processes. In the current literature on customer journeys, a broad variety of...
Conference Paper
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Customer care is a critical aspect of service provision. A customer-centric approach to the design of services depends on knowledge of customers' preferences and expectations for customer care. In this paper, we present a study on customers' near future expectations for customer care within selected service sectors. As part of a future scenario pro...
Article
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Political interest and voter turnout is in steady decline. In an attempt to renew interest for political matters, political parties and governments have attempted to create new digital meeting places, with the hope that social media can contribute to renew the public sphere and thereby increase political awareness in the population. Communicating i...
Data
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Online communities are changing how companies and non-profits innovate, lower costs, tap talent, and realize new socio-economic opportunities. In this paper, online communities are predicted to be an important resource in open innovation processes, based on the emerging online community trend of sharing and collaboration among non-professional user...
Article
Social design feedback is a novel approach to usability evaluation where user participants are asked to comment on designs asynchronously in online ad-hoc groups. Two key features of this approach are that (1) it supports interaction between user participants and development team representatives and (2) user participants can see and respond to othe...
Article
Social media are often argued to change political communication, decreasing the distance between politicians and citizens, and increasing citizens' influence on policymaking. This paper presents findings from a study of how the Norwegian Labour Party uses social media, focusing on the community platform MyLabourParty. Interviews with politicians an...
Conference Paper
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The rapidly increasing importance of multimedia services delivered over telecommunication networks has heightened the need for technologies that adapt efficiently to users’ needs. It is of particular interest to understand users of such services. This paper proposes a unified approach to modelling users’ behaviour and experiences in the context of...
Conference Paper
Social media are becoming an increasingly relevant channel for user involvement. However, their uptake in Living Labs environments, as a means to engage users in innovation processes, is still limited. The aim of this paper is to explore challenges and opportunities related to the usage of social media for user involvement in co-creative processes,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this discussion paper we outline two approaches to the use of social media for public sector innovation. The two approaches are described as two roles that can be assigned to social media. The co-creation role concerns the use of social media for collaborative contributions to research and development, exemplified by public sector idea portals....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Online political debate is increasing in importance, both as a real world phenomenon and as an object of scientific study. We present a survey study exploring people's motivations for engaging in online political debate and how such debate may impact their general political engagement. The survey was conducted among 90 participants of an online env...