# Arturo MontoyaUniversity of Texas at San Antonio | UTSA · Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Arturo Montoya

Doctor of Philosophy

## About

81

Publications

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839

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## Publications

Publications (81)

A computationally time-efficient method is introduced to implement pressure load to a Finite element model. Hexahedron elements of the Lagrangian family with Gauss–Lobatto nodes and integration quadrature are utilized, where the integration points follow the same sequence as the nodes. This method calculates the equivalent nodal force due to pressu...

Modularity is essential for ensuring the efficient execution of system-of-systems (SoS) frameworks, demanding the managerial and operational independence of constituent systems. This study explores the feasibility of enforcing displacement compatibility between two interconnected, independent solid mechanics finite element models with a contact int...

This research examines how ductility affects the durability of lunar surface structures against recurring disturbances like moonquakes, micrometeorite impacts, and thermal cycles over an extended period. The structural performance at various levels of ductility was determined by adjusting material parameters and the thickness of a reference multila...

In this research study, the multidual finite element method (ZFEM) was assessed for its accuracy and efficiency in computing second-order derivatives of output variables with respect to input variables in elastic problems. The accuracy of multidual ZFEM in elastic problems was examined by comparing the multi-order derivatives of displacement and st...

Many modern structural health monitoring (SHM) systems use piezoelectric transducers to induce and measure guided waves propagating in structures for structural damage detection. To increase the detection capabilities of SHM systems, gradient-based optimization of sensor placement is frequently necessary. However, available numerical differentiatio...

Advancing RTHS methods to readily handle multi-dimensional problems has great potential for enabling more advanced testing and synergistically using existing laboratory facilities that have the capacity for such experimentation. However, the high internal coupling between hydraulics actuators and the nonlinear kinematics escalates the complexity of...

This paper presents a general procedure to formulate and implement 3D elements of arbitrary order in meshes with multiple element types. This procedure includes obtaining shape functions and integration quadrature and establishing an approach for checking the generated element’s compatibility with adjacent elements’ surfaces. This procedure was imp...

The calculation of accurate arbitrary-order sensitivities of eigenvalues and eigenvectors is crucial for structural analysis applications, including topology optimization, system identification, finite element model updating, damage detection, and fault diagnosis. Current approaches to obtaining sensitivities for eigenvalues and eigenvectors lack g...

In this paper, a simplified numerical approach for finite element dynamic analysis of an inelastic solid structure subjected to solid object impact is presented. The approach approximates the impacting solid as the selected multiple nodes, for which mass of the impactor is distributed. The node-to-segment contact formulation with the penalty constr...

A derivative-based Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) method called HYPAD-UQ that utilizes sensitivities from a computational model was developed to approximate the statistical moments and Sobol' indices of the model output. HYPercomplex Automatic Differentiation (HYPAD) was used as a means to obtain accurate high-order partial derivatives from comput...

Carbonation influences the performance and reliability of reinforced concrete during its lifecycle. Predicting Carbonation Depth (CD) in concrete requires understanding the complex relationship between different variables. The DURACON project (Environment Influence on Concrete Durability) has been active since 2000 to characterize the durability of...

This paper discusses 38 bridge- and eight culvert deterioration models of three bridge and one culvert condition rating stored in the National Bridge Inventory (NBI) as Items 58, 59, 60 and 62. The models were developed by age groups and by families of relevant variables such as span type, deck material, and bridges over water or land. Each model i...

In furtherance of the quest for green renewable and sustainable energy, an effort was made in this laboratory study to generate and harvest electric power from hot-mix asphalt (HMA); a viscoelastic material that is widely used for road construction. The underlying hypothesis is that the mechanical vibrations and strain energy induced by vehicle loa...

The well-known interaction integral, also known as the M-integral or I-integral, is a method to compute the mixed-mode stress intensity factors (SIFs) for fracture mechanics problems. The capabilities of the M-integral are extended here to compute derivatives of the SIFs with respect to the crack extensions for an isotropic linear elastic material...

Finite element (FE) models that simulate wave–superstructure interactions with the coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian (CEL) technique provide a viable and economical solution to estimate wave impact forces on bridge superstructures. One of the main drawbacks of CEL FE models is that they produce solutions distorted by numerical artifacts with very high fr...

A complex-variable transient thermomechanical element was developed and used to compute highly accurate sensitivities of the thermal and stress time-dependent responses of a thick-walled cylinder with temperature-dependent material properties with respect to fifteen material, shape, and loading parameters using the complex Taylor series expansion m...

Solving transient heat transfer equations is required to understand the evolution of temperature and heat flux. This physics is highly dependent on the materials and environmental conditions. If these factors change with time and temperature, the process becomes nonlinear and numerical methods are required to predict the thermal response. Numerical...

This paper presents the use of full-field kinematic measurements obtained using the digital image correlation (DIC) procedure and load–displacement data to determine constitutive material properties by solving an inverse finite element optimization problem. A key ingredient in the proposed approach is computing accurate sensitivities with respect t...

The “local” and “global” complex-variable finite element methods were extended for computing the energy release rate (ERR) of materials undergoing nonlinear elastic deformation at both small and large strains. These methods compute the derivative of the strain energy with respect to crack length by applying a virtual crack extension through the ima...

The hypercomplex finite element method, ZFEM, allows the analyst to compute highly-accurate arbitrary-order shape, material property, and loading derivatives by augmenting the traditional finite element method with multiple imaginary degrees of freedom. In ZFEM, the real variables are converted to hypercomplex variables such as multicomplex, multid...

This study aims at designing and developing a new technique to harvest solar energy from asphalt pavements. The proposed energy harvester system consists of a pavement solar box with a transparent polycarbonate sample and a thin-film solar panel. This device mechanism can store energy in a battery charged over daytime and later convert it into elec...

Phononic metamaterials (PMs) exhibit frequency ranges at which elastic waves are attenuated. However, this phenomenon is highly sensitive to geometrical variations and the metamaterial's mechanical properties. It is useful to have accurate sensitivity information to identify the variables that produce the highest impact on band gaps and guide the d...

This presentation will describe the Structure mechanical model of habitat in the MCVT, which simulates the structure's response under operational loads and external disturbances. The process and methods used to develop a physics-based model with damageable-repairable capabilities that can be executed in real-time will be discussed briefly. An illus...

Road surfaces are exposed to solar radiation that generates thermal gradients and heat flow in the pavement layers. The heat stored can be harvested providing an untapped source of renewable energy. This paper presents the design, construction, and assessment of an improved thermoelectric energy system prototype for harvesting heat energy from road...

A new complex-variable version of a cohesive element is presented that provides highly accurate first order derivatives of the nodal displacements with respect to the cohesive fracture parameters. These sensitivities are provided as a byproduct of the analysis using the complex Taylor series expansion method. This information is useful for inversel...

Cracks at the pole-to-base plate connection of high mast illumination poles (HMIPs) are a major source of concern to highway transportation officials. Thermally induced deformations induced during the galvanizing process are known to introduce damages to the pole-to-base plate connection. In this study, finite element analyses were performed to eva...

Coastal bridges are prone to failure during extreme hurricane events. Engineers can prevent failures of coastal bridges during extreme hurricanes by ensuring that wave forces do not exceed the structural capacity of the bridges. To understand the performance of bridges in coastal areas during hurricanes, empirical equations have been applied to sev...

The study of the vulnerability of coastal bridges due to wave impacts through numerical methods requires the correct generation of nonlinear, long-period waves at shallow water conditions. In this paper, waves are generated using the first-order wave theory based on the “Lagrange-plus-remap” finite element method. The free surface elevation was obt...

The hypercomplex-variable finite element method, ZFEM, is extended to compute the mode I and mode II energy release rates (ERR) for functionally graded materials. The ERR is computed using an efficient local stiffness derivative approach, L-ZFEM, that computes the derivative of the stiffness matrix at the element level using the highly accurate com...

Currently, the lack of (1) a sufficiently integrated, adaptive, and reflective framework to ensure the safety, integrity, and coordinated evolution of a real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) as it runs, and (2) the ability to articulate and gauge suitable measures of the performance and integrity of an experiment, both as it runs and post hoc, have pr...

To develop a physics-based model that predicts how a dome-structure responds to operational stimuli, inputs from other subsystems, and external disturbances. This model will be used as the framework to explore the effectiveness of safety controls on minimizing the impact of hazards on the structural integrity of the dome. The developed code must be...

This work presents the results of a numerical study evaluating the response of coastal bridges due to hurricane-induced waves. The analyses were conducted using the Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) approach, available on the commercial finite element software Abaqus, which allows modeling the interaction between water and the bridge. The work conc...

This study investigates the distortion behavior of steel plate girders under the cumulative influence of welding and hot-dip galvanizing processes and is presented in two papers. This paper presents the results of a parametric study on the effects of girder geometry (length, depth, flange and web thickness, and stiffener placement) on distortions d...

This paper, the second of a two-part series, presents a parametric study investigating the influence of welding and galvanizing practices on the susceptibility of welded plate girders to distortion during and after galvanizing. Three methods of welded fabrication were studied: welding in lay-down position, welding in the trough, and welding in the...

A “local” hypercomplex-variable finite element method, L-ZFEM, is proposed for the computation of the energy release rate (ERR) using the stiffness derivative equation. This approach is analogous to the stiffness derivative method proposed by Parks and Hellen but has superior numerical accuracy. In addition, this method is significantly more effici...

Hot-dip galvanizing is a protective coating process widely-used to prevent corrosion damage in steel structures. Although the protective coating greatly reduces corrosion rates, there have been many documented cases in which cracks have formed in steel members during the galvanizing process, and the root causes of those cracks remain poorly underst...

The complex Taylor series expansion method for computing accurate first order derivatives is extended in this work to quaternion, octonion and any order Cayley-Dickson algebra. The advantage of this new approach is that highly accurate multiple first order derivatives can be obtained in a single analysis. Quaternion and octonion-based finite elemen...

Cracks that develop during galvanization of High Mast Illumination Poles (HMIPs), often at the pole-to-base plate connection, are an important concern to US fabricators and highway officials. If they are not detected during fabrication and are allowed to propagate during service, these cracks can pose a significant risk to the public due to the ubi...

Roadway pavements are repeatedly subjected to two different types of energy sources—solar radiation and kinetic energy from passing vehicles. Therefore, they have great potential to be utilized as sustainable energy sources. In this study, an electromagnetic speed bump energy harvester (ESE) prototype was developed to harvest energy from the kineti...

The incorporation of residual stress states into structural components is often used to improve fatigue performance. However there is frequently significant uncertainty regarding the magnitude of the induced residual stresses due to variation in material properties, loading, geometry, the thermo/mechanical processes, and measurement uncertainty. Th...

The frequency and intensity of recent hurricanes have demonstrated the need of taking proactive actions to prevent major damages during an extreme weather event. This work presents the results of a numerical study evaluating the hydrodynamic response of coastal bridges during an extreme hurricane event. A finite element model of a concrete bridge g...

The virtual crack extension (VCE) approach for computing the energy release rate using a complex-variable finite element method (ZFEM) is extended to nonlinear materials undergoing plastic deformation. The method consists of performing a numerical derivative of the potential energy with respect to a crack extension via the complex Taylor series exp...

Hot-dip galvanizing is the process of submerging steel elements into molten zinc to form a metallurgically bonded zinc coating that serves as corrosion protection for the steel substrate. Used with great success on an industrial scale for many decades, hot-dip galvanizing is a ubiquitous process. On occasion, cracks in steel members develop during...

Energy harvesting is a process that captures unused ambient energy such as heat, vibration, stress or movement that would otherwise be lost. Highway pavements infrastructure exposed to energy-potential resources from vehicle vibrations and traffic loading strains that could be harvested. Piezoelectric transducers (PZT) are potential materials for h...

Hot-dip galvanizing can be an attractive choice as a corrosion protection system for steel bridge designers and owners. During the hot-dip galvanizing process, steel bridge components are submerged in an approximately 840F bath of zinc to form a metallurgically-bonded zinc coating. The existence of larger kettle sizes has made it possible to hot-di...

A virtual crack extension (VCE) technique using the complex-valued finite element method (ZFEM) has been
developed and demonstrated for thermoelastic fracture problems. This VCE approach provides an accurate
computation of the energy release rate (G) as a byproduct of the complex-valued finite element analysis and obviates the use of energy conserv...

This paper presents the results of a theoretical and experimental study aiming to develop a stress-based roadway energy harvesting system. It describes two prototypes using piezoelectric elements. Prototype I consisted of 4, 8, and 16 8-mm-diameter cylindrical piezoelectric elements sandwiched between two copper plates. Prototype II consisted of a...

The application of the complex variable finite element method, ZFEM, to structures containing residual stresses is detailed. A thick-walled sphere model is subjected to an autofrettage process to induce the residual stress field and solved using ZFEM. The stress results from ZFEM are compared to an analytical solution and to standard finite element...

Abaqus can be used to simulate welding processes, but the procedure can be time consuming due to a large number of steps necessary to generate weld beads and the associated thermal loads and convective film interactions. Recent development of the Abaqus Welding Interface (AWI) addresses these challenges, as the AWI utility automatically creates all...

The transportation infrastructures serve a critical societal need to rapidly move goods and people across the nation. Using these infrastructures as a source of renewable energy by harvesting them from the roadways is a novel idea that has not been fully explored yet. Highway pavements are exposed to energy-potential resources from vehicle vibratio...

This article presents the complex finite element method (ZFEM) for the sensitivity analysis of thermoelastic systems. ZFEM, based on the complex Taylor series approach, performs finite element procedures using complex variables such that the response variables (temperature, stress) and their sensitivities with respect to an input parameter of inter...

This paper presents a preview of an ongoing study to develop an energy harvesting system based on piezoelectric elements embedded into the pavements structure. The system development involved designing and testing a number of prototypes in the laboratory under controlled stress conditions. In addition, it involved numerical modeling of the stress d...

Roadways are major infrastructure for connecting people and providing access and mobility. The traffic-induced strains and stresses generated by the vehicles can be potentially used for energy harvesting purposes. Piezoelectric devices are ideal candidates for harvesting energy in asphalt pavement roadways as they convert mechanical strain energy i...

This paper presents preliminary results of the evaluation of several prototype systems
for harvesting energy from the action of traffic on roadways. These systems utilize piezoelectric
elements that respond to traffic-induced compressive stresses, and are referred to as HiSEC
(highway sensing and energy conversion) modules. The evaluation of the Hi...

The complex-valued finite element method, ZFEM, is proposed as a new virtual crack extension method to compute the energy release rate. The energy release rate is computed as a numerical derivative of the strain energy with respect to a crack extension using the complex Taylor series expansion method (CTSE). This is accomplished using a finite elem...

The complex finite element method (ZFEM) has been extended to perform sensitivity analysis for mechanical and structural systems undergoing creep deformation. ZFEM uses a complex finite element formulation to provide shape, material, and loading derivatives of the system response, providing an insight into the essential factors which control the be...

The complex variable FEM (ZFEM) has been enhanced in this research to compute derivatives with respect to shape, material properties (elastic modulus, yield stress, plastic modulus, hardening parameters), and loads for a nonlinear solid mechanics model undergoing plastic deformation. This method presents a new and novel approach that uses complex v...

A new methodology to determine the safety of suspension bridge main cables is proposed in this paper and illustrated by simulating the failure of a corrosion-deteriorated cable composed of 9,061 wires. The approach is the first to use a finite-element (FE) model to predict the failure load, account for load recovery due to friction in broken wires,...

The complex variable finite element method, ZFEM, has been enhanced in this research to compute derivatives with respect to shape, material properties, and loads for a nonlinear solid mechanics model undergoing plastic deformation. This method presents a new and novel approach that uses complex variables to estimate derivatives within an incrementa...

A new methodology to determine the safety of suspension bridge main cables is proposed and illustrated on a corrosion-deteriorated cable composed of 9061 wires. The approach is the first one incorporating a finite element (FE) model to predict the cable's failure load, accounting for load recovery due to friction in broken wires and simulating the...

A new simplified contact model aimed at capturing the load transfer and recovery length in parallel steel wires, commonly used in main cables of suspension bridges, is presented. The approach is based on placing elastic-perfectly plastic spring elements at the contact region between the objects. These springs have varying stiffness (Model I) or yie...

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