Arthur D Stewart

Arthur D Stewart
Robert Gordon University | RGU · Institute for Health and Welfare Research

BSc (Hons); BPE; MPhil; PhD; FCIEHF, C.ErgHF

About

96
Publications
86,199
Reads
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5,178
Citations
Citations since 2017
15 Research Items
2963 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
Introduction
3D body Scanning Anthropometry Body Composition Ergonomics Somatotype Exercise and Health Body Image
Additional affiliations
August 2010 - present
Robert Gordon University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Knowledge Exchange coordinator
January 2009 - August 2013
Robert Gordon University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
January 2005 - January 2009
Robert Gordon University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • Course Leader for Sports and Exercise Sciences

Publications

Publications (96)
Article
Building, bridge or wind turbine maintenance requires manual dexterity tasks by a specialist rope-access trained workforce via two principal means: harness suspension of individual workers from above, or deployment of a suspended platform or cradle from which workers access the structure to be maintained. Currently no published research compares ac...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Fat is a metabolic fuel, but excess body fat is ballast mass, and therefore, many elite athletes reduce body fat to dangerously low levels. Uncompressed subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thickness measured by brightness-mode ultrasound (US) provides an estimate of body fat content. Methods The accuracy for determining tissue borders i...
Article
Objective: To determine minimum egress apertures in healthy adults of different body size. Background: Body space requirements have traditionally been considered from an industrial perspective, facilitating safe confined-space working. However, increased typical body size resulting from global obesity renders traditional assumptions of body size...
Article
Our aim was to identify the best anthropometric index associated with waist adiposity. The six weight-status indices included body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHTR), and a new waist-by-height0.5 ratio (WHT.5R). The association between three waist skinfolds and the six anthropometric indices was conducted using...
Conference Paper
Wind energy technicians are required to be capable of manual ascent of turbines before conducting essential maintenance. This mandates vertical ladder ascent which involves considerable forearm exertion which may have implications for such maintenance tasks. This study aimed to quantify the effect of a simulated and continuous climb of an 80 m turb...
Article
This study aimed to assess whether modifying the pitch of a 75° ladder ergometer to vertical had a cardiorespiratory or psychophysical effect on climbing. Nine male participants climbed a ladder ergometer at 75° and subsequently at 90°, adjusted for an equivalent vertical climb rate, completing three climbing bouts at different vertical speeds. One...
Chapter
Additional resources to support the content in Best Practice Protocols for Physique Assessment in Sport are available at the J.E. Lindsay Carter Kinanthropometry Clinic and Archive (JELCKCA) website jelckca-bodycomp.com, which links you to the YouTube channel http://tinyurl.com/YouTubeChannel-ProfPatria. YouTube videos include introduction of exper...
Chapter
Full-text available
Kinanthropometry can be useful in youth sports for talent development and improving sports performance. We consider the relationship between structure (as measured by anthropometry), physiology, psychology and skill for talent identification and how using these factors in isolation may risk overlooking potential champions. There must be care in pre...
Chapter
Three-dimensional body scanning is used to determine surface anthropometry characteristics such as body volume, segment lengths and girths. Threedimensional scanning systems use laser, light or infrared technologies to acquire shape and software to allow manual or automatically extracted measures. Body posture during scanning is important to ensure...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The aim of this study was to model the egress of visitors from a Neolithic visitor attraction. Background: Tourism attracts increasing numbers of elderly and mobility-impaired visitors to our built-environment heritage sites. Some such sites have very limited and awkward access, were not designed for mass visitation, and may not be mo...
Conference Paper
Introduction Industry fitness standards for occupational groups should reflect the real word demands placed on the workforce and be based on published peer reviewed work (Peterson et al 2016). Currently, very limited research relates to vertical ladder climbing and none relates specifically to wind turbine technicians. This study addressed this gap...
Article
Objectives: In 1984, male UK offshore workers had greater overweight and obesity prevalence and fat content than the general population. Since then, body weight has increased by 19%, but, without accompanying anthropometric measures, their size increase, current obesity, and fatness prevalence remain unknown. This study therefore aimed to acquire...
Article
Male UK offshore workers have enlarged dimensions compared with UK norms and knowledge of specific sizes and shapes typifying their physiques will assist a range of functions related to health and ergonomics. A representative sample of the UK offshore workforce (n = 588) underwent 3D photonic scanning, from which 19 extracted dimensional measures w...
Article
Objectives: Applying geometric similarity predictions of body dimensions to specific occupational groups has the potential to reveal useful ergonomic and health implications. This study assessed a representative sample of the male UK offshore workforce, and examined how body dimensions from sites typifying musculoskeletal development or fat accumu...
Article
‘Climb assist’ claims to reduce strain when climbing ladders; however, no research has yet substantiated this. The purpose of this study was to assess the physiological and psychophysical effects of climb assist on 30 m ladder climbing at a minimum acceptable speed. Eight participants (six male and two female) climbed a 30 m ladder at 24 rungs per...
Article
Rationale: It is currently unknown how body size affects buoyancy in submerged helicopter escape. Method: Eight healthy males aged 39.6 ± 12.6 year (mean ± SD) with BMI 22.0-40.0 kg m(-2) wearing a standard survival ('dry') suit undertook a normal venting manoeuvre and underwent 3D scanning to assess body volume (wearing the suit) before and aft...
Article
Full-text available
Background Precise and accurate field methods for body composition analyses in athletes are needed urgently. Aim Standardisation of a novel ultrasound (US) technique for accurate and reliable measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Methods Three observers captured US images of uncompressed SAT in 12 athletes and applied a semiautomatic ev...
Article
Offshore workers are subjected to a unique physical and cultural environment which has the ability to affect their size and shape. Because they are heavier than the UK adult population we hypothesized they would have larger torso dimensions which would adversely affect their ability to pass one another in a restricted space. A sample of 210 male of...
Article
404 male offshore workers aged 41.4 ± 10.7 y underwent 3D body scanning and an egress task simulating the smallest helicopter window emergency exit size. The 198 who failed were older (P < 0.01), taller (P < 0.05) and heavier (P < 0.0001) than the 206 who passed. Using all extracted dimensions from the scans, binary logistic regression identified a...
Article
The quantitative objective is to identify the known and/or potential health effects of working in the wind power generation industry. More specifically the objectives are to identify: 1. The musculoskeletal and other physical health risks to onshore wind technicians associated with the repeated climbing of vertical ladders; 2. The musculoskeletal a...
Article
Background: The onshore wind power generation sector is set to expand its workforce dramatically in the next decade. As the industry matures, it is increasingly important to understand the potential health effects of the work carried out by wind technicians, who are required to ascend and descend wind turbines, several times daily. Whilst most risk...
Article
Full-text available
Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is rapidly becoming more accessible and popular as a technique to monitor body composition, especially in athletic populations. Although studies in sedentary populations have investigated the validity of DXA assessment of body composition, few studies have examined the issues of reliability in athletic populat...
Article
Full-text available
This study sought to identify existing and desired somatotypes among eating disorder patients and controls based on the somatotype theoretical model, using a novel three-dimensional (3D) scanning approach. Sixty-three female adult volunteers comprising 31 eating disorder patients and 32 controls underwent digital photography and 3D body scanning as...
Article
Full-text available
It was the aim of the present study to expand on previous correlation analyses that have attempted to identify factors that influence performance of jumping, sprinting and changing direction. This was achieved by employing a regression approach to obtain linear models that combined anthropometric, strength and other biomechanical variables. Thirty...
Article
Full-text available
A focus on low body weight and body fat content, combined with regulations in some weight-sensitive sports, are considered risk factors for extreme dieting, eating disorders (EDs) and related health consequences among athletes. At present there are, from a health perspective, no generally accepted optimum values for body weight or percentage of fat...
Conference Paper
The recent development of portable 3D scanning systems for industries such as animation and museum artefact digitisation have considerable potential for applications involving human body measurement. However, this requires a system for validation of measurements against a criterion, which this study aimed to provide. Forty four adult males were sca...
Conference Paper
Confined space working is common place within the offshore oil and gas infrastructure and it is a person’s absolute size that governs his/her fit within this built environment. The design and adjustability of the environment must be based on the assumed size of the workforce, most commonly assumed to bethe 95th percentile of the male size. The last...
Chapter
Body composition, which is an important health and athletic performance variable. Assessing human body composition has formed a central part of medical research for the best part of a century. Laboratory methods are often used for assessing body composition of athletes, but there exists wide variation in their accuracy and precision. This chapter r...
Article
Successful performers in weight-sensitive sports are characterised by low body mass (BM) and fat content. This often requires chronic energy restriction and acute weight loss practices. To evaluate current use of body composition (BC) assessment methods and identify problems and solutions with current BC approaches. A 40-item survey was developed,...
Article
Abstract Over 12 weeks, supervised physical activity (PA) interventions have demonstrated improvements in morphological and health parameters, whereas community walking programmes have not. The present study piloted a self-guided programme for promoting PA and reducing sedentary behaviour in overweight individuals and measured its effect on a range...
Article
Very low body mass, extreme mass changes, and extremely low per cent body fat are becoming increasingly common in many sports, but sufficiently reliable and accurate field methods for body composition assessment in athletes are missing. Nineteen female athletes were investigated (mean (SD) age: 19.5 (±3.3) years; body mass: 59.6 (±7.6) kg; height:...
Article
Abstract Waist girth is recognised as a better predictor of obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, compared to other measures. Although several protocols for waist girth exist, arm position is either ignored, or not specified in unambiguous terms. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if arm position influenced anthropometric wais...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Somatotyping is the quantification of human body shape, independent of body size. Hitherto, somatotyping (including the most popular method, the Heath-Carter system) has been based on subjective visual ratings, sometimes supported by surface anthropometry. This study used data derived from three-dimensional (3D) whole-body scans as inputs...
Article
Background: Relationships between sitting height (SH) and leg length (LL) in adults are almost always studied in terms of ratios such as the Cormic Index (CI), SH/stature, rather than as primary variables. They are affected by genetics and childhood nutrition. Aim: To characterize these relationships and test whether the CI is ideal as an index...
Article
These were to examine the relationship between leg cross-sectional areas (CSAs) and leg length while making allowance for other factors, such as fatness and the load on the legs. Body mass, stature, and sitting height were directly measured and volumes and leg CSAs were obtained by 3D scanning for 155 men and 162 women. Leg CSAs were regressed simu...
Article
We piloted three-dimensional (3D) body scanning in eating disorder (ED) patients. Assessments of 22 ED patients (including nine anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, 12 bulimia nervosa (BN) patients, and one patient with eating disorder not otherwise specified) and 22 matched controls are presented. Volunteers underwent visual screening, two-dimensional...
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanics of the traditional squat with 2 popular exercise variations commonly referred to as the powerlifting squat and box squat. Twelve male powerlifters performed the exercises with 30, 50, and 70% of their measured 1 repetition maximum (1RM), with instruction to lift the loads as fast as possible...
Article
One of the most popular exercises for developing lower-body muscular power is the weighted vertical jump. The present study sought to examine the effect of altering the position of the external load on the kinematics and kinetics of the movement. Twenty-nine resistance-trained rugby union athletes performed maximal effort jumps with 0, 20, 40, and...
Article
Full-text available
Quantifying human body composition has played an important role in monitoring all athlete performance and training regimens, but especially so in gravitational, weight class and aesthetic sports wherein the tissue composition of the body profoundly affects performance or adjudication. Over the past century, a myriad of techniques and equations have...
Article
Full-text available
Morphological and functional changes associated with a 12-week self-guided exercise programme of overweight adults: a pilot study - Volume 71 Issue OCE1 - A. D. Stewart, C. Rolland, A. Gryka, S. Smith, J. Jones, S. Findlay, HIM. Davidson
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the deadlift could be effectively incorporated with explosive resistance training (ERT) and to investigate whether the inclusion of chains enhanced the suitability of the deadlift for ERT. Twenty-three resistance trained athletes performed the deadlift with 30, 50, and 70% 1-repetition maximum (1...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the investigation was to compare the kinematics and kinetics of the deadlift performed with 2 distinct barbells across a range of submaximal loads. Nineteen male powerlifters performed the deadlift with a conventional straight barbell and a hexagonal barbell that allowed the lifter to stand within its frame. Subjects performed trials...
Article
This study examined differences in physique and skeletal dimensions between 1146elite Caucasian athletes classified into endurance, strength, speed, upper body orcombined sports categories and controls, to test the hypothesis that athletes of certaintypes of sport would exhibit a distinct morphology commensurate with their task.Participants were me...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to identify when body mass index (BMI) is unlikely to be a valid measure of adiposity in athletic populations and to propose a simple adjustment that will allow the BMI of athletes to reflect the adiposity normally associated with non-athletic populations. Using data from three previously published studies containin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Use of kinanthropometry in youth sports for talent development and improving sports performance
Conference Paper
3D SCANNING AND ANTHROPOMETRY: BEGINNING OF THE END OR THE END OF THE BEGINNING? Stewart, Arthur D. Robert Gordon University, Centre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Aberdeen, UK. Anthropometry. In the civilisation of ancient Greece, many important scientific discoveries were made. Hippocrates attributed health to an appropriate balance o...
Chapter
This study examined differences in physique and skeletal dimensions between 1146 elite Caucasian athletes classified into endurance, strength, speed, upper body or combined sports categories and controls, to test the hypothesis that athletes of certain types of sport would exhibit a distinct morphology commensurate with their task. Participants wer...
Article
Objective: To quantify waist girth at alternative locations using 3D photonic scanning and to identify the relationship between shape and size in a heterogeneous sample. Methods: Sixty-two male and 32 female healthy adults (aged 30.1 + 14.5 y) were assessed for stature, mass and 3D shape via photonic scanning, which enables the digital analysis of...
Article
The primary objective of this study was to investigate current powerlifting training methods in light of anecdotal evidence purporting increased similarity with the explosive training practices of weightlifters. The study also assessed the prevalence of contemporary training practices frequently recommended for powerlifters in the popular literatur...
Article
Full-text available
In this population-based cohort of 1,254 older Scottish women we found significant interactions between the mechanical component of self-reported habitual physical activity (PA) and dietary calcium (Ca) in BMD, independent of other risk factors. At low and/or medium Ca intakes BMD was higher amongst the most active people. Although there is general...
Article
Historically, body image research has relied on generic, whole body outlines, which may not be suited to obese individuals. The development of computer generated, individualized digital images to represent body image may be more effective. Sixty volunteers participated, with three categories of subject: lean, obese and lean regular exercisers. Body...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Measurement of cross-sectional lean limb area using physical anthropometry is usually performed in the standing position, but sometimes this may be impractical. Our aim was to determine the effect of different positions on cross-sectional lean area of the upper arm, calf and thigh derived from girth and skin-fold measurements. Methods: Tw...
Article
The aims of this study were to assess 1) whether the stature-adjusted body mass index (BMI) is a valid proxy for adiposity across both athletic and nonathletic populations, and 2) whether skinfold measurements increase in proportion to body size, thus obeying the principle of geometric similarity. The research design was cross-sectional, allowing t...
Article
It is well known that sport and exercise play an important role in stimulating site-specific bone mineral density (BMD). However, what is less well understood is how these benefits dissipate throughout the body. Hence, the aim of the present study was to compare the BMD (recorded at nine sites throughout the skeleton) of 106 male athletes (from nin...
Article
Human physique classification by somatotype assumes that adult humans are geometric similar to each other. However, this assumption has yet to be adequately tested in athletic and nonexercising human populations. In this study, we assessed this assumption by comparing the mass exponents associated with girth measurements taken at 13 different sites...
Article
Thirty-six adults (24 males, 12 females) were assessed for anthropometric somatotype and body image (perception and satisfaction) by a novel technique using quantitative distortion of a digital still image. Software produced random distortions in nine body regions. The participants manipulated interactive slider controls to adjust each body feature...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To compare the maximum oxygen uptake V0(2max) of elite endurance athletes and to explain why the body mass exponent, necessary to render V0(2max) independent of body mass, appears to be greater than 0.67. Methods: Study 1: V0(2max) of 174 international sportsmen and women was assessed. Athletes were recruited from seven sports (middle-...
Article
Full-text available
There is still considerable debate as to whether bone mineral content (BMC) increases in proportion to the projected bone area, A(p), or an estimate of the skeletal bone volume, (A(p))(3/2), being assessed. The results from this study suggest that the bone mass acquisition of elite athletes' arms and legs increases in proportion to the projected bo...
Article
Thigh muscle volume is a useful determinant of functional fitness. However, anthropometric prediction of muscle content is influenced by the variability of adipose tissue accumulation. The aims of this study were to predict thigh muscle and adipose tissue volumes from anthropometry and to assess the validity of the method by examining the various c...
Article
Calf circumference has been cited as an independent risk factor for hip fracture. Correcting this measured girth for subcutaneous adipose tissue or fluid accumulation provides a more valid estimate of lean tissue, but has not been reported in elderly populations. Two hundred eighty-eight randomly selected female volunteers, aged >or=70 years, were...
Article
There is a widely held belief that exercise leads to lipid peroxidation. Plasma hydroxy fatty acids originate from the diet and possibly from lipid peroxidation in vivo. We examined whether acute exercise (1 h at ∼76% of predicted maximal aerobic capacity) leads to an increase in plasma hydroxy fatty acids without the confounding influence of the d...
Article
Male athletes who were runners (N = 12), cyclists (N = 14), or both (N = 13) were compared with nonexercising age-matched controls (N = 23) for total and regional bone mineral density (BMD). All athletic subjects had competed for a minimum of 3 yr and trained for a minimum of 4 h x wk(-1). Runners undertook no cycling and cyclists undertook no runn...
Article
Athletes have traditionally been evaluated for body composition by percent fat, percent muscle, and somatotype. Since the late 1980s, dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has offered total and regional body composition of bone mineral content (BMC), lean tissue and fat, but studies involving athletes are rare (11) and have not included regional tissue d...
Article
The ability of bioelectrical impedance analysis and anthropometry to predict fat mass and fat-free mass was compared in a sample of 82 male athletes from a wide variety of sports, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference method. The percent fat measured by DXA was 10.9+/-4.9% (mean +/- s), and fat mass was predicted with a stan...
Article
The range of methods now available to estimate body composition is extensive. In most cases there is a relationship between cost, complexity and information content. The consequence is that choices can still be made depending on the finances available and the needs of the health professional. This paper reviews four methods ranging in availability...