Arthur Ouwehand

Arthur Ouwehand
International Flavors & Fragrances Inc. | IFF

About

374
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Publications

Publications (374)
Article
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Akkermansia muciniphila is a well-known bacterium with the ability to degrade mucin. This metabolic capability is believed to play an important role in the colonization of this bacterium in the gut. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of a novel Akkermansia sp. DSM 33459 isolated from human feces of a healthy donor. Phy...
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Development of the gut-brain axis during early-life is an important contributor of brain structural and functional development. Human milk oligosaccharides and gut microbiota have potential beneficial effects on various aspects of development; however, the effects of 2′-fucosyllactose (2′-FL) and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis Bi-26 (Bi-26)...
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Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most prevalent bacterial diseases worldwide. Despite the efficacy of antibiotics targeted against UTI, the recurrence rates remain significant among the patients. Furthermore, the development of antibiotic resistance is a major concern and creates a demand for alternative treatment options. D-mannose,...
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There are different models available that mimic the human intestinal epithelium and are thus available for studying probiotic and pathogen interactions in the gastrointestinal tract. Although, in vivo models make it possible to study the overall effects of a probiotic on a living subject, they cannot always be conducted and there is a general commi...
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Bulletin of International Dairy Federation No. 514/2022, 1-175 is an update of the Bulletin of the IDF No. 377-2002, No. 455-2012 and No. 495-2018
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The microbiota–gut–brain axis is a bidirectional communication pathway that enables the gut microbiota to communicate with the brain through direct and indirect signaling pathways to influence brain physiology, function, and even behavior. Research has shown that probiotics can improve several aspects of health by changing the environment within th...
Chapter
There is increasing evidence for a gut-skin axis and a potential influence of the skin microbiota on skin health. With this in mind, there is an opportunity for probiotics, even though they have traditionally been investigated for their intestinal and immune benefits. The skin has an important function as a barrier. Here, oral and topical probiotic...
Article
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Human milk is rich in oligosaccharides that influence intestinal development and serve as prebiotics for the infant gut microbiota. Probiotics and 2’-fucosyllactose (2’-FL) added individually to infant formula have been shown to influence infant development, but less is known about the effects of their synbiotic administration. Herein, the impact o...
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Optimal gut motility is central to bowel function and gut health. The link between the gut dysmotility related disorders and dysfunctional-intestinal barriers has led to a hypothesis that certain probiotics could help in normalizing gut motility and maintain gut health. This review investigates the roles of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN...
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Background Of the many neurotransmitters in humans, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shows potential for improving several mental health indications such as stress and anxiety. The microbiota-gut-brain axis is an important pathway for GABAergic effects, as microbially-secreted GABA within the gut can affect host mental health outcomes. Understanding...
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Probiotics, either as dietary supplements or vaginal applications, are commonly marketed for women to balance vaginal microbiota and reduce the risk of vaginal disturbances, such as bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). This is supported by clinical research and meta-analyses. However, scientific consensus is lacking whether...
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In 2001, the World Health Organization defined probiotics as “live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host”. This definition was reaffirmed in a recent consensus paper. While this definition appears clear at first glance, the term “probiotic(s)” is sometimes misused, which has led to widespre...
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Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), the third largest solid fraction in human milk, can modulate inflammation through Toll-like receptor signaling, but little is known about their immunomodulatory potential in the oral cavity. In this study, we determined whether the HMOs 2’-fucosyllactose (2’-FL) and 3-fucosyllactose (3-FL) regulate human-beta def...
Article
Objectives Prebiotics and probiotics have been studied for their beneficial effects on various aspects of development, but much remains unknown regarding interactive effects of their supplementation. This study investigated the effects of dietary 2’fucosyllactose (2’FL; prebiotic) and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (Bi-26; probiotic) on beh...
Article
Objectives Human milk is a source of oligosaccharides that promote the growth of beneficial bacteria. Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, a dominant species in breastfed infants, has the capacity to utilize milk oligosaccharides. Herein, the effects of 2'fucosyllactose (2'FL), B. infantis Bi-26 (Bi-26), and a combination thereof on piglet gut m...
Article
Objectives Probiotics and 2’fucosyllactose (2’FL) have been shown to affect immune development in infants, but less is known about their synbiotic administration. Herein, the effects of 2’FL and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (Bi-26) on immune development was investigated in the young pig. Methods Male piglets (N = 53 were provided ad libi...
Article
Objectives Human milk contains both prebiotic oligosaccharides and live bacteria, which are thought to bring health benefits to breastfed infants. Herein, we investigated the impact of formula supplementation with 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL) and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (Bi-26) alone or in combination on growth, organ weights, and intest...
Article
The role of the vaginal fungal community, the mycobiota, in women's health is an emerging area of research. Utilization of novel molecular technology enables more in-depth characterization and identification of fungal diversity, and their potential associations to health. The present study is a substudy of a larger observational clinical trial inve...
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Aims: Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can cause damage to the gastric and duodenal mucosa. Some probiotics have proven useful in ameliorating the harmful side-effects of NSAIDs. Our aim was to evaluate whether oral administration of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 (B420) can attenuate the increase of calprotectin exc...
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Viral infections continue to cause considerable morbidity and mortality around the world. Recent rises in these infections are likely due to complex and multifactorial external drivers, including climate change, the increased mobility of people and goods and rapid demographic change to name but a few. In parallel with these external factors, we are...
Chapter
In general, oral health can be achieved with good oral hygiene, which is directly related to the control of biofilm in the oral cavity. Mechanical control of biofilm plays an important role, with chemical methods being indicated as complementary. Although the available chemical methods are effective, they fail to prevent microbial recolonization, a...
Chapter
Probiotics, by definition, provide health benefits to the consumer. This holds true for both single- and multistrain probiotic products. In some markets, there is a tendency to include even more strains in a product with the suggestion that the number of strains alone is guaranteed for improved efficacy. Here, we have reviewed the literature and co...
Chapter
Aging is a normal fact of life and starts from birth, as a maturation process. Together with this physical and mental maturation, changes in lifestyle, diet and health status occur. It is therefore not surprising that the microbiota changes as well. What is cause and effect in this relation is not always clear. There are, however, major changes in...
Chapter
The intestinal microbiota changes in response to aging. The intestinal microbiota has a profound effect on the functioning of the intestine in health and disease. There are hormonal, immunological and neurological connections between the intestine and other organs systems in the body, and potentially vice versa. The intestinal microbiota may theref...
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The successful development of probiotic foods and dietary supplements rests on three pillars; each with their specific challenges and opportunities. First, strain production; this depends on selecting the right strain with promising technological properties and safety profile. Further the manufacturing of the strain in a stable format at sufficient...
Article
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Objective To evaluate the effects of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019 (HN019) on clinical periodontal parameters (plaque accumulation and gingival bleeding), on immunocompetence of gingival tissues [expression of beta-defensin (BD)-3, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), cluster of differentiation(CD)-57 and CD-4], and on immunological properti...
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Data on characteristics of clinical trials with probiotics, registered at ClinicalTrials.gov were retrieved from the registry . Data on the registration process itself (moment of registration of the trial in relation to date of inclusion of first participant, data of completion of the study) as well as the number of participants were analysed. A tr...
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Over 1,000 clinical studies with probiotics, registered at ClinicalTrials.gov and/or the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) of the World Health Organization, have addressed over 700 different diseases and conditions. The average size of a clinical trial with probiotics (74 participants) is comparable to the overall average of a...
Article
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Still relevant after 19 years, the FAO/WHO definition of probiotics can be translated into four simple and pragmatic criteria allowing one to conclude if specific strains of microorganisms qualify as a probiotic for use in foods and dietary supplements. Probiotic strains must be (i) sufficiently characterized; (ii) safe for the intended use; (iii)...
Article
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Vaginal microbiota dysbiosis and bacterial vaginosis (BV) affect negatively women’s health. Understanding vaginal microbiota fluctuations in BV during and after antibiotic treatment would facilitate accurate decision-making on the treatment regimen, avoid unnecessary antibiotic use, and potentially mitigate recurrence. We investigated vaginal micro...
Article
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Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) such as 2’-fucosyllactose (2’-FL), and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), a prebiotic carbohydrate mixture, are being increasingly added to infant formulas, necessitating the understanding of their impact on the oral microbiota. Here, for the first time, the effects of 2’-FL and GOS on the planktonic growth and adhes...
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The objective of this study was to investigate probiotic microorganisms for use as starter cultures in dry fermented sausages production. A total of eight strains were studied evaluating technological and safety characteristics including the ability to grow, lactic acid production, gas formation, catalase activity, nitrate reductase activity, prote...
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There is strong evidence that foods containing dietary fibre protect against colorectal cancer (CRC), resulting at least in part from its anti-proliferative properties. This study aimed to investigate the effects of supplementation with two non-digestible carbohydrates, resistant starch (RS) and polydextrose (PD), on crypt cell proliferative state...
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The present study aimed to investigate whether probiotic recovery is affected when consumed together with antibiotics. Fecal samples were collected from an earlier antibiotic associated diarrhea, randomized, placebo-controlled study with a product consisting of a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, Lactobacillus paracasei Lpc-37, and Bif...
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The growing worldwide epidemic of obesity and associated metabolic health comorbidities has resulted in an urgent need for safe and efficient nutritional solutions. The research linking obesity with gut microbiota dysbiosis has led to a hypothesis that certain bacterial strains could serve as probiotics helping in weight management and metabolic he...
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The probiotic definition stipulates “adequate amounts”. Here, we investigated the metabolic output and recovery rate of probiotic strains using a simulated upper gastro-intestinal passage and colonic fermentation. Two different doses, 7 × 109 colony forming units (CFU) and 7 × 1010 CFU, of a probiotic mixture (Bifidobacterium lactis Bl-04, Lactobac...
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Preterm delivery complications are the primary cause of death among children under the age of five. Preventive strategies include the use of pasteurized donor human milk (DHM), its fortification with human milk fortifiers (protein supplements), and supplementation with probiotics. Our aim was to examine the impact of DHM and fortified DHM (FDHM) on...
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Probiotic is little known for its benefits on upper gastrointestinal health. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the efficacy of probiotics in alleviating the frequency and severity of symptoms in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the general adult population. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for pros...
Article
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Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) shape gut microbiota during infancy by acting as fermentable energy source. Using a semi-continuous colon simulator, effect of an HMO, 2′-fucosyllactose (2′-FL), on composition of the infant microbiota and microbial metabolites was evaluated in comparison to galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) and lactose and control wi...
Article
This study provides phenotypic and molecular analyses of the antibiotic resistance of Ensifer adhaerens strain YX1 (CICC 11008s), a strain that was identified using a polyphasic taxonomy approach. The antibiotic resistance profile of E. adhaerens YX1 was assessed using the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Inst. (CLSI) method. The strain was suscepti...
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Xylitol has been widely documented to have dental health benefits, such as reducing the risk for dental caries. Here we report on other health benefits that have been investigated for xylitol. In skin, xylitol has been reported to improve barrier function and suppress the growth of potential skin pathogens. As a non-digestible carbohydrate, xylitol...
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Objectives: Human breast milk contains a high quantity of oligosaccharides (HMOs) which are not digested by infants but are selectively utilized by beneficial gut microbes such as Bifidobacterium species. The gut microbiome in breast-fed infants is dominated by Bifidobacterium species, whereas formula-fed infants have a higher representation of Ba...
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Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) function as prebiotics for beneficial bacteria in the developing gut, often dominated by Bifidobacterium spp. To understand the relationship between bifidobacteria utilizing HMOs and how the metabolites that are produced could affect the host, we analyzed the metabolism of HMO 2′-fucosyllactose (2′-FL) in Bifidoba...
Article
Selected strains of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are known to ameliorate constipation-related symptoms and have previously shown efficacy on digestive health. In this clinical trial, the safety and effectiveness of a probiotic blend containing lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were evaluated in adults with self-reported bloating and functional con...
Article
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Psyllium and lactitol have been reported to increase fecal volume, moisture content and bowel movement frequency (BMF). However, the benefits of their combined use on constipation has not been examined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 4-week intervention with lactitol and/or psyllium on bowel function in constipated volunteer...
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p>The different levels of knowledge described in a translational pipeline (the connection of molecular mechanisms with pre-clinical physiological and human health effects) are not complete for many probiotics. At present, we are not in a position to fully understand the mechanistic basis of many well established probiotic health benefits which, in...
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To successfully deliver probiotic benefits to the consumer, several criteria must be met. Here, we discuss the often-forgotten challenges in manufacturing the strains and incorporating them in consumer products that provide the required dose at the end of shelf life. For manufacturing, an intricate production process is required that ensures both h...
Article
This review summarizes health benefits of a combination of a four-strain probiotic consisting of L. paracasei Lpc-37, B. lactis Bl-04, L. acidophilus La-14, and L. plantarum Lp-115. The safety of the individual strains for absence of transferable antibiotic resistance and adverse events in human intervention studies has been documented. The strains...
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The addition of fiber is one of the most important dietary means to relieve constipation through lifestyle modification. Polydextrose (PDX) has been reported in several studies to increase fecal bulk, soften stools, and increase the number of defecations. However, there are few studies on the effect of PDX on colonic transit time (CTT). Therefore,...
Book
Lactic acid bacteria have throughout history had an important role for human health and well-being as well as food and feed processing. Thus, there has been a need for a book covering the areas in a multidisciplinary manner and our book has been the classic compendium in the area. This is now the fifth edition of Lactic Acid Bacteria, which include...
Article
Probiotics are investigated as single-strain and multistrain products. In the market, however, there is an increasing tendency to work with multistrain probiotics, in particular, products with a high number of different strains. There are some thoughts behind this: more strains imply more chances of success; it can mean a broader spectrum of effica...
Article
The present study introduces a novel triple-phase (liquids, solids and gases) approach, which employed uniformly labelled [U-13C] polydextrose (PDX) for the selective profiling of metabolites generated from dietary fiber fermentation in an in vitro colon simulator using human fecal inocula. Employing 13C NMR spectroscopy, [U-13C] PDX metabolism was...
Article
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Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019 (HN019) ameliorates chronic idiopathic constipation. Our aim was to determine the efficacy and safety of 28-day supplementation with 1 × 10⁹ or 1 × 10¹⁰ CFU of HN019/day for constipation. A total of 228 adults who were diagnosed with functional constipation according to the Rome III criteria were randomi...
Article
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The human gut microbiome plays a crucial role in the compositional development of gut microbiota. Though well documented in western pediatrics population, little is known about how various host conditions affect populations in different geographic locations such as the Indian subcontinent. Given the impact of distinct environmental conditions, our...
Article
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Although probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are generally considered safe by various regulatory agencies, safety properties, such as absence of transferable antibiotic resistance, must still be determined for each strain prior to market introduction as a probiotic. Safety requirements for probiotics vary regionally and evaluation methods are...
Article
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Background: Probiotic formulations can be single- or multi-strain. Commercially, multi-strain preparations have been suggested to have improved functionality over single-strain cultures. Probiotics are often tested as single-strain preparations but may subsequently be commercially formulated as multi-strain products. Objective: The aim of this stud...
Article
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Few laboratory methods exist for evaluating the cariogenicity of food ingredients. In this study, a dental simulator was used to determine the effects of commercial sucrose and xylitol mint products on the adherence and planktonic growth of Streptococcus mutans. Solutions (3% w/v) of sucrose, xylitol, sucrose mints, xylitol mints, xylitol with 0.02...
Chapter
The skin is one of the body’s main barriers to the outside world. Similar to many other such barriers, the skin is colonized by a variety of microbes; their composition appears to depend on the place of the skin but is also influenced by age. Furthermore, a number of skin diseases are associated with an altered skin microbiota; cause and effect of...