Arthur F Kramer

Arthur F Kramer
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign | UIUC · Department of Psychology

About

667
Publications
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62,818
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Publications

Publications (667)
Article
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Background/objective Negative emotional states, such as depression, anxiety, and stress challenge health care due to their long-term consequences for mental disorders. Accumulating evidence indicates that regular physical activity (PA) can positively influence negative emotional states. Among possible candidates, resilience and exercise tolerance i...
Preprint
Background: Targeted exercise training is a promising strategy for promoting cognitive function and preventing dementia in older age. Despite the utility of exercise as an intervention, variation still exists in exercise-induced cognitive gains and questions remain regarding the type of training ( i.e. , what), as well as moderators ( i.e. , for wh...
Article
Purpose: Childhood obesity is a global health concern, with >340 million youth considered overweight or obese. In addition to contributing greatly to health care costs, excess adiposity associated with obesity is considered a major risk factor for premature mortality from cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, and is also negatively associated wit...
Article
Introduction: Individual differences in brain structure and function in older adults are potential proxies of brain reserve or maintenance and may provide mechanistic predictions of adherence to exercise. We hypothesized that multimodal neuroimaging features would predict adherence to a six-month randomized controlled trial of exercise in 131 olde...
Article
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Physical inactivity is a major public health issue in general populations including college students, 7 because not meeting the recommended minimum amount of regular physical activity is associated with 8 adverse health effects. Plenty of physical activity can support the prevention of chronic diseases, but 9 adherence to planned and structured phy...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives To investigate the effects of exercise on intelligence, executive functions, academic performance and brain outcomes in children with overweight/obesity. In secondary analyses, we explored potential mediators and moderators of the exercise effects. Methods A total of 109 children (8-11.9y) with overweight/obesity were randomized (intent...
Article
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Background and objective Episodic memory enables people to recall and re-experience episodes associated with past spatial and temporal context. This study examined the effect of physical exercise break during prolonged sitting on episodic memory performance. Further, we investigated functional connectivity as a possible mechanisms contributing to e...
Article
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Sedentary behaviors are increasing at the cost of millions of dollars spent in health care and productivity losses due to physical inactivity-related deaths worldwide. Understanding the mechanistic predictors of sedentary behaviors will improve future intervention development and precision medicine approaches. It has been posited that humans have a...
Article
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There is an increasing prevalence of poor health behaviors during childhood, particularly in terms of physical activity and nutrition. This trend has occurred alongside a growing body of evidence linking these behaviors to cognitive function. B-vitamins are thought to be particularly important in the neural development that occurs during pregnancy,...
Article
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Previous studies have shown that engaging in musical activities throughout the lifespan may buffer age-related decline in auditory and motor function, as well as in general cognitive function. MRI studies have demonstrated that individuals with musical training and experience exhibited greater grey matter volume and functional connectivity in exten...
Article
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The study of how engagement in enriching cognitive, physical, and social activities in childhood impacts cognitive function decades later will advance our understanding of how modifiable lifestyle activities promote cognition across the lifespan. Eighty-eight healthy older adults (aged 60–80 years) returned a retrospective questionnaire regarding t...
Article
Mitigating the loss of brain tissue due to age is a major problem for an aging population. Improving cardiorespiratory fitness has been suggested as a possible strategy, but the exact effect on brain morphology has not been studied. To investigate the dependent shifts in brain tissue distribution as a function of cardiorespiratory fitness, we used...
Article
As target-background similarity increases, search performance declines, but this pattern can be attenuated with training. In the present study we (1) characterized training and transfer effects in visual search for camouflaged targets in naturalistic scenes, (2) evaluated whether transfer effects are preserved 3 months after training, (3) tested th...
Article
Previous research has established an impact of acute exercise on cognitive performance, which has inspired investigations into neurobiological mechanisms that may underlie the observed benefits. Pupillary responses have been posited to reflect activation of such underlying neurobiological mechanisms. The current study recruited healthy young adults...
Preprint
Full-text available
Individualized and precision medicine approaches to exercise for cognitive and brain health in aging have the potential to improve intervention efficacy. Predicting adherence to an exercise intervention in older adults prior to its commencement will allow for adaptive and optimized approaches that could save time (no need to demonstrate failure bef...
Article
Individual differences in brain network modularity at baseline can predict improvements in cognitive performance after cognitive and physical interventions. This study is the first to explore whether brain network modularity predicts changes in cortical brain structure in 8‐ to 9‐year‐old children involved in an after‐school physical activity inter...
Article
White matter deterioration is associated with cognitive impairment in healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease. It is critical to identify interventions that can slow down white matter deterioration. So far, clinical trials have failed to demonstrate the benefits of aerobic exercise on the adult white matter using diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging....
Article
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Background: High macular pigment optical density (MPOD) has been associated with improved eye health and better cognitive functions. Genetic variations have been associated with MPOD in adults. However, these associations between genetic variations and MPOD have not been studied in children. Objectives: This was a secondary analysis of the FK2 (...
Article
Sedentary behavior increases the risk for multiple chronic diseases, early mortality, and accelerated cognitive decline in older adults. Interventions to reduce sedentary behavior among older adults are needed to improve health outcomes and reduce the burden on healthcare systems. We designed a randomized controlled trial that uses a self-affirmati...
Article
Introduction: Supervised exercise interventions are expensive and time intensive. However, there are financial costs to consider in addition to the intervention itself, namely: advertising and recruitment, outcome assessments, and other trial-related costs. Objectives: In this analysis, we examine the financial costs associated with the administ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of delivering a supervised physical activity program plus standard exercise counseling (PA + EC) versus a supervised physical activity plus motivationally-enhanced behavioral counseling (PA + BC) in prostate cancer survivors. Secondary outcomes included objectively assessed PA, quality of li...
Article
Enriching early life experiences (e.g., sport, art, music, volunteering, language learning) during a critical period of brain development may promote structural and functional brain changes that are still present decades later (>60 years). We assessed whether a greater variety of enriching early life activities (EELA) before age 13 years were assoc...
Article
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The Stroop task is a traditional measure of cognitive control processes, yet results remain mixed when it comes to assessing age-related differences perhaps in part due to strategies participants use to reduce inhibitory control demands required for success on the task. Thirty-three older adults and 34 younger adults completed a Baseline (tradition...
Article
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Purpose: Studies of reactive and proactive modes of inhibitory control tend to show age-related declines and are accompanied by abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex. We explored which mode of inhibitory control would be more amenable to change and accrue greater benefits following engagement in a 4-week theater acting intervention in older adults...
Article
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Background There is an increasing prevalence of physical inactivity during childhood, which is associated with a variety of health problems. However, the mechanisms by which acute exercise benefits cognition in childhood remains unknown. Here we describe the protocol for a randomized crossover trial called SNEACY (Sympathetic Nervous System & Exerc...
Preprint
Full-text available
Information about a persons available energy resources is integrated in daily behavioral choices that weigh motor costs against expected rewards. It has been posited that humans have an innate attraction towards effort minimization and that executive control is required to overcome this prepotent disposition. With sedentary behaviors increasing at...
Article
Full-text available
Musical practice, including musical training and musical performance, has been found to benefit cognitive function in older adults. Less is known about the role of musical experiences on brain structure in older adults. The present study examined the role of different types of musical behaviors on brain structure in older adults. We administered th...
Article
Full-text available
Full and diverse participant enrollment is critical to the success and generalizability of all large-scale Phase III trials. Recruitment of sufficient participants is among the most significant challenges for many studies. The novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic has further changed and challenged the landscape for clinical trial execution, includ...
Article
Background There is an increasing prevalence of physical inactivity during childhood, concurrent with a rise in obesity rates, which is associated with a variety of health problems. However, the extent to which increased body mass index (BMI) influences acute physical activity (PA) benefits on cognition in childhood remains unknown. The aim of this...
Preprint
Full-text available
White matter (WM) deterioration is an important mechanism of cognitive decline in healthy aging and dementia. Engaging in aerobic exercise to improve cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is considered one of the most promising ways to improve cognitive and brain health in aging. Yet, no randomized controlled trials have reported benefits of aerobic exer...
Article
The present study aims (i) to examine the association of physical fitness components (i.e., cardiorespiratory fitness, speed-agility, and muscular fitness) with brain current source density during working memory; and (ii) to examine whether fitness-related current density was associated to working memory performance and academic achievement. Eighty...
Article
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Scholastic performance is the key metric by which schools measure student's academic success, and it is important to understand the neural-correlates associated with greater scholastic performance. This study examines resting-state functional connectivity (RsFc) associated with scholastic performance (reading and mathematics) in preadolescent child...
Article
Objectives Physical fitness is a modifiable factor associated with enhanced brain health during childhood. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to examine: (i) whether physical fitness components (i.e., cardiorespiratory, motor and muscular fitness) are associated with resting state functional connectivity of hippocampal seeds to differ...
Article
Aerobic exercise and physical activity (PA) are known to benefit cognition in adulthood. However, a typical older adult spends most of the day sedentary or in light PA, behaviors that are typically poorly captured by questionnaires. To better understand the associations between time spent in different intensities of lifestyle PA and cognition, we m...
Article
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Standard anatomical atlases are common in neuroimaging because they facilitate data analyses and comparisons across subjects and studies. The purpose of this study was to develop a standardized human brain atlas based on the physical mechanical properties (i.e., tissue viscoelasticity) of brain tissue using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). MR...
Article
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This review examines longitudinal studies of changes in components of attention following mindfulness training. A total of 57 retreat studies, non-randomized trials, and randomized controlled trials were identified. Employing the classical taxonomy proposed by Posner and Petersen (Annual Review of Neuroscience, 13(1), 25–42, 1990), outcome measures...
Article
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Introduction: Brain network modularity is a principle that quantifies the degree to which functional brain networks are divided into subnetworks. Higher modularity reflects a greater number of within-module connections and fewer connections between modules, and a highly modular brain is often interpreted as a brain that contains highly specialized...
Article
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How daily physical activity and sedentary time relate to human judgement and functional connectivity (FC) patterns that support them remains underexplored. We investigated the relationships between accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time to decision-making competence (DMC) in young adults using a comp...
Article
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Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy provides measures of brain chemistry that are sensitive to cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition. The concentration of N-acetyl aspartic acid (NAA) is of particular interest because it is a marker of neuronal integrity and cognition. The ratio of NAA to creatine, a standard reference metabolite, has been sho...
Article
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The aim of the current study was to examine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and electroencephalogram-based neural oscillations, using midfrontal theta, during an inhibitory control task in children. One-hundred seventy-one school-aged children (mean age = 8.9 ± 0.6 years; 46% girls) were recruited. Cardiorespiratory fitness was as...
Article
Background Children with overweight/obesity have poorer sleep and smaller gray matter volume (GMV) than normal‐weight children. No studies have investigated the associations of objectively‐assessed sleep and GMV in children with overweight/obesity, or their implications for academic and cognitive outcomes. Objectives To explore the associations of...
Article
Full-text available
Background Physical activity (PA) is beneficial for cognitive and brain health during preadolescence. Given that childhood obesity (OB) is a public health concern, investigating this effect in children with OB is an important societal consideration. Objectives To identify the effects of weight status and PA on neuroelectric indices of executive fu...
Article
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Recent studies investigated the association of cardiorespiratory fitness with white matter microstructure in children, yet little work has explored to what extent other components of physical fitness (i.e., muscular or motor fitness) are associated with white matter microstructure. Indeed, this association has not been previously explored in childr...
Article
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Objective: To examine the differential effects of acute exercise duration on domains of executive function and processing speed in patients with breast cancer. Methods: Participants (N = 48, Mage = 56.02 ± 10.99) completed two sessions in counterbalanced order: moderate-intensity treadmill walking and sitting. Participants were also randomized t...
Article
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Our jobs can provide intellectually and socially enriched environments but also be the source of major psychological and physical stressors. As the average full-time worker spends >8 h at work per weekday and remains in the workforce for about 40 years, occupational experiences must be important factors in cognitive and brain aging. Therefore, we s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Full and diverse participant enrollment is critical to the success and generalizability of all large-scale Phase III trials. Recruitment of sufficient participants is among the most significant challenges for many studies. The novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic has further changed and challenged the landscape for clinical trial execution, includ...
Article
Full-text available
Acute cognitive enhancement has been sought by healthy young individuals to improve academic and professional performance. Among several methods, physical exercise interventions and transcranial direct current brain stimulation (tDCS) have shown promise in impacting executive functions. Here, we observed a set of new findings about the causal effec...
Article
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We investigated the associations of different sedentary behaviors (SB) with gray matter volume and we tested whether SB related to gray matter volume is associated with intelligence. Methods: 99 children with overweight or obesity aged 8-11 years participated in this cross-sectional study. SB was measured using the Youth Activity Profile-Spain qu...
Article
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The aim of this study was to examine whether metabolically healthy overweight/obese children have greater global and regional gray matter volumes than their metabolically unhealthy peers. We further examined the association between gray matter volume and academic achievement, along with the role of cardiorespiratory fitness in these associations. A...
Article
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Background The purpose was to prospectively examine the effects of sedentary behaviors on subjective memory impairment in breast cancer survivors (BCS) and the extent to which sleep disturbances mediated this pathway. Methods BCS (N = 380; Mage = 57.38 ± 9.25 years) completed questionnaires assessing demographics, health history, sitting behaviors...
Article
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A central aim of research in the psychological and decision sciences is to establish interventions that enhance performance, investigating the efficacy of modern approaches to improve human inference and decision-making. Whereas the decision sciences have established interventions to reduce decision biases by promoting strategies for critical thoug...
Article
Introduction: Physical activity and sleep quality have been consistently associated with quality of life (QOL) in a number of clinical and non-clinical populations. However, mechanisms underlying this relationship are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally test a model examining how changes in physical activity and sle...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Deterioration of white matter (WM) is one of the age-related changes in brain health. However, human WM aging has been studied predominantly using a single technique, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). DTI model is non-specific to any histological mechanism and no single MRI measure can fully capture WM health. Therefore, we propose a novel multimodal...
Article
Background Fluid intelligence (Gf) is a critical cognitive ability that is predictive of real-world outcomes, and it has been a persistent aim to characterize its neural architecture. Procedure We advance our prior research by applying latent class analysis to evaluate individual differences in the neural cognitive foundations of Gf over the cour...
Article
Objective: Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) have been utilized to study the cognitive implications of health-related behaviors, although many questions remain regarding the neural correlates underlying the cognition and adiposity relationship in childhood. Specifically, it is unknown whether excess fat mass is associated with the neural corre...
Poster
Full-text available
Identifying the effects of exercise and body composition on cognitive and neuroelectric indices of attentional allocation in preadolescent children.
Article
Early life factors may influence brain and academic outcomes later in life, especially during childhood. Here we investigate the associations of early life factors (i.e., birth weight, birth length, and breastfeeding) with gray matter volume, adjusted for body mass index and cardiorespiratory fitness, and ii) we test whether early-life factor-relat...
Article
Despite the ubiquity of normal age-related cognitive decline there is an absence of effective approaches for improving neurocognitive health. Fortunately, moderate intensity exercise is a promising method for improving brain and cognitive health in late life, but its effectiveness remains a matter of skepticism and debate because of the absence of...
Article
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Purpose: Obesity during adolescence has multi-system health consequences. The objective of this work was to determine whether pre-adolescent overweight/obese children's bones respond to a 9-month physical activity intervention by increasing bone density similar to healthy-weight children. Methods: Participants included overweight/obese (BMI >85%...