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This paper describes the BF Calculus, a four-valued extension to Laws of Form in which the Law of Crossing is reinterpreted as a cycle of period four. It serves as a companion to the paper entitled The BF Calculus and the Square Root of Negation . BF is built entirely from a single symbol, the imaginary mark, using a notation based on containmen...
The concept of imaginary logical values was introduced by Spencer-Brown in Laws of Form, in analogy to the square root of -1 in the complex numbers. In this paper, we develop a new approach to representing imaginary values. The resulting system, which we call BF, is a four-valued generalization of Laws of Form. Imaginary values in BF act as cyclic...
This article introduces a new 4-valued propositional logical calculus, which we call B4, and establishes its equivalence to the Bilattice FOUR. B4 is shown to satisfy a series of previously unknown identities-identities which cannot be derived on the basis of the axioms of Boolean Algebra, but require the establishment of a previously unknown axiom...