Arthur L Caplan

Arthur L Caplan
NYU Langone Medical Center | NYUMC · medical ethics

PhD

About

870
Publications
89,145
Reads
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14,570
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 2012 - present
NYU Langone Medical Center
Position
  • Director Division of Medical Ethics

Publications

Publications (870)
Article
Organ transplantation is limited due to the scarcity of donor organs. In order to expand the supply of organs for transplantation, interspecies chimeras have been examined as a potential future source of humanized organs. Recent studies using gene editing technologies in combination with somatic cell nuclear transfer technology and hiPSCs successfu...
Article
The need for organs to transplant is clear. Due to the lack of transplants, people suffer, they die, and the cost of taking care of them until they die is huge. There is general agreement that it would be good to increase the supply of organs in order to meet the demand for organ transplantation.
Article
Public attention has been drawn recently to the commercial availability of noninvasive prenatal screening for rare genetic conditions, despite estimates that the positive predictive value of such tests is low. Many have focused on the importance of educating patients on the difference between screening and diagnostic testing so that they are adequa...
Poster
OBJECTIVE: Posthumous assisted reproduction (PAR) raises complicated ethical and legal issues around the world. Little is known about how posthumous reproduction is regulated as countries vary in their laws, policies, and implementation surrounding PAR. Our objective was to assess the prevalence, policies, and requirements of PAR internationally.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Offering fertility preservation (FP) prior to gonadotoxic therapy, including cancer care and gender-affirming treatment, is now considered standard of care. Periodically, parents and children disagree about whether to pursue FP. However, it is unknown how often this occurs and how disagreement is handled when it arises. Moreover, there...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Emergency use of unproven clinical interventions outside clinical trials – including “off-label” interventions – has surged during the COVID-19 pandemic, with unjustified, unconstrained use of unproven interventions, which raises serious ethical concerns. This document is intended to provide a reminder and an updated version of the ethical framewor...
Article
The practice of modern craniomaxillofacial surgery has been defined by emergent technologies allowing for the acquisition, storage, utilization, and transfer of massive amounts of sensitive and identifiable patient data. This alone has thrust providers into an unlikely and unprecedented role as the stewards of vast databases of digital information....
Article
Full-text available
Ethical considerations are central to all medicine though, likely, nowhere more essential than in the practice of reproductive endocrinology and infertility. Through in vitro fertilization (IVF), this is the only field in medicine involved in creating human life. IVF has, indeed, so far led to close to 10 million births worldwide. Yet, relating to...
Article
Full-text available
This analysis contrasts traditional not-for-profit academic with new corporate practices of reproductive medicine and offers an assessment of risks to quality of patient care with investors entering the for-profit reproductive medicine market. Large corporate enterprises may have a global impact on access to care while at the same time is putting a...
Presentation
Full-text available
Holocaust seminar. free. all zoom
Article
The use of planned oocyte cryopreservation for nonmedical need has been steadily increasing, especially since the experimental label on this procedure was lifted nearly 10 years ago. With this rise, patients’ desires to postpone or conserve their reproductive potential have become increasingly nuanced, and the need for complex individualized counse...
Article
This paper responds to the position statement released by the American College of Physicians (ACP) entitled “Ethics, Determination of Death, and Organ Transplantation in Normothermic Regional Perfusion (NRP) with Controlled Donation after Circulatory Determination of Death (cDCD): American College of Physicians Statement of Concern.” The ACP’s stat...
Article
After witnessing extraordinary scientific and regulatory efforts to speed development of and access to new COVID-19 interventions, patients facing other serious diseases have begun to ask "where's our Operation Warp Speed?" and "why isn't Emergency Use Authorization an option for our health crises?" Although this pandemic bears a number of unique f...
Article
Full-text available
The Covid-19 pandemic has exposed the difficulty of the US public health system to respond effectively to vulnerable subpopulations, causing disproportionate rates of morbidity and mortality. New York Haredi-Orthodox Jewish communities represent a group that have been heavily impacted by Covid-19. Little research has examined their experience or pe...
Article
Since the first case of COVID-19 was identified in the USA in January, 2020, over 46 million people in the country have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Several COVID-19 vaccines have received emergency use authorisations from the US Food and Drug Administration, with the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine receiving full approval on Aug 23, 2021. Whe...
Article
Study question Periodically, parents and children disagree about whether to pursue fertility preservation (FP). How should medical teams navigate these ethically complex situations? Summary answer Several considerations must be weighed, including the minor’s age, the burden of the proposed procedure, and whether the minor or parent seeks to declin...
Article
Study question Periodically, parents and children disagree about whether to pursue fertility preservation (FP). How should medical teams navigate these ethically complex situations? Summary answer Several considerations must be weighed, including the minor’s age, the burden of the proposed procedure, and whether the minor or parent seeks to declin...
Article
In the book Exploiting Hope: How the Promise of New Medical Interventions Sustains Us—and Makes Us Vulnerable, Jeremy Snyder takes on the dominant theory that exploitation in research ethics involves culpable inequity in transactions between parties. He rightly dismisses that economic explanation as inadequate. His theory of exploitation argues tha...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This review explores the bioethical implementation of artificial intelligence (AI) in medicine and in ophthalmology. AI, which was first introduced in the 1950s, is defined as "the machine simulation of human mental reasoning, decision making, and behavior". The increased power of computing, expansion of storage capacity, and compilati...
Article
Full-text available
Solid organ transplant (SOT) candidates and recipients were not included in the COVID-19 vaccine trials that have justified vaccine administration to millions worldwide and will be critical to ending the pandemic. The risks of COVID-19 for SOT candidates and recipients combined with data about this population's response to other vaccines has led to...
Article
Purpose: The aim of the study was to describe factors that may impact pediatric trainees' willingness to disclose medical errors using clinical vignettes. Methods: A single-center cross-sectional anonymous survey of pediatric residents and fellows at a large urban medical center in 2019 was conducted. Trainees were provided with clinical vignett...
Chapter
This new edition provides a much-needed reference book to accommodate emerging and expanding knowledge in fertility preservation, the rapidly growing field of reproductive medicine associated with advances in oncology. Written by a team of world-leading experts in the field and comprehensive in its scope, the book covers the full range of technique...
Article
Coronavirus vaccines have made their debut. Now, allocation practices have stepped into the spotlight. Following Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, states and healthcare institutions initially prioritised healthcare personnel and elderly residents of congregant facilities; other groups at elevated risk for severe complications a...
Article
Human fetal tissue (HFT) has been used in biomedical research for nearly a century and has led to extraordinarily valuable discoveries that have benefitted humankind. Politicization of the use of HFT over recent years has led to the creation of numerous obstacles to scientific progress in this field. In July 2019, the imposition of redundant ethics...
Article
The federal research misconduct regulations finalized in 2005 did not incorporate important principles regarding human subjects protections articulated in The Belmont Report, yet research misconduct can involve harms to research subjects and to subsequent patients whose treatments are based on false research findings. Consistency with the Belmont p...
Article
Immorally acquired information from Nazi experimentation or other sources infects the body of scientific and biomedical knowledge. Responding to this reality ethically means insisting on good teaching about the horrific history of such information's sources and careful deliberation about how it is referenced and described.
Article
Although a safe, effective, and licensed coronavirus vaccine does not yet exist, there is already controversy over how it ought to be allocated. Justice is clearly at stake, but it is unclear what justice requires in the international distribution of a scarce vaccine during a pandemic. Many are condemning ‘vaccine nationalism’ as an obstacle to equ...
Article
Full-text available
Research misconduct (RM) remains an important problem in health research despite decades of local, national, regional, and international efforts to eliminate it. The ultimate goal of every health research project, irrespective of setting, is to produce trustworthy findings to address local as well as global health issues. To be able to lead or part...
Article
Full-text available
Healthcare rationing during pandemics has been widely discussed in global bioethics literature. However, existing scenarios and analyses have focused on high income countries, except for very few disease areas such as HIV treatment where some analyses related to African countries exist. We argue that the lack of scholastic discourse, and by extensi...
Article
Full-text available
In the quest to provide treatment for COVID-19 patients, available therapies that have been approved for other indications but have insufficient evidence of safety and efficacy for use against COVID-19 have been considered. One of the unintended consequences of this approach is the potential creation of shortages, depriving existing patients who ar...
Conference Paper
This talk will review (1) the impact of the covid-19 outbreak on treating cancer patients who were infected with the virus with unapproved and off-label agents under a philosophy of compassionate use including disclosure of conflicts of interest; (2) the ethics of withholding diagnosis and treatment from patients with cancer or who might have acqui...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To assess the presence and content of policies toward posthumous assisted reproduction (PAR) using oocytes and embryos among Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) member clinics in the United States. Design Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. Setting Not applicable. Patient(s) A total of 62 SART member clinics. In...
Article
The world needs to trust science if vaccines are to prove useful, particularly those being developed to combat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). That is what makes the recent appearance of highly visible “do-it-yourself” (DIY) vaccine research so morally troubling. It's an obstacle to securing this trust.
Preprint
p> Abstract Healthcare rationing during pandemics has been widely discussed in global bioethics literature. However, existing scenarios and analyses have focused on high income countries, except for very few disease areas such as HIV treatment where some analyses related to African countries exist. We argue that the lack of scholastic discourse,...
Preprint
p> Abstract Healthcare rationing during pandemics has been widely discussed in global bioethics literature. However, existing scenarios and analyses have focused on high income countries, except for very few disease areas such as HIV treatment where some analyses related to African countries exist. We argue that the lack of scholastic discourse,...
Article
Pediatric patients are excluded from most COVID-19 therapeutic trials. We outline a rationale for the inclusion of children in COVID-19 therapeutic trials with enabled us to include children of all ages in a therapeutic COVID-19 trial at our institution.
Article
Full-text available
Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has or threatens to overwhelm health care systems. Many institutions are developing ventilator triage policies. Objective: To characterize the development of ventilator triage policies and compare policy content. Design: Survey and mixed-methods content analysis. Setting: North American hospi...
Article
Lessons from the Ebola outbreak shows that it is possible to develop rapid and effective clinical research responses without relying on anecdote.
Article
Full-text available
The only curative therapy for diseases such as organ failure is orthotopic organ transplantation. Organ transplantation has been limited due to the shortage of donor organs. The huge disparity between those who need and those who receive transplantation therapy drives the pursuit of alternative treatments. Therefore, novel therapies are warranted....
Article
Neurasthenia was once a diagnosis ubiquitous enough to be household vernacular, but by the 1930s, as physicians became interested in more precise, narrower diagnoses, fewer patients were diagnosed as having this condition.¹ The widespread use of the diagnosis had diluted its utility. In 2019, member states of the World Health Organization accepted...
Article
To the Editor The Viewpoint on organ donation policy maintained that the US opt-in organ donation system performs among the best in the world.¹ Donors per potential eligible donor were used as evidence despite this metric being criticized for potentially overestimating organ procurement organization (OPO) performance.² Organ procurement organizatio...
Article
Controlled heart donation after circulatory determination of death (cDCD) is well‐established internationally with good outcomes and could be adopted in the United States to increase heart supply if ethical and logistical challenges are comprehensively addressed. The most effective and resource‐efficient method for mitigating warm ischemia after ci...
Article
Vaccines for two viruses which cause cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV), are recommended for all children in the United States. Numerous parallels exist between the two vaccines in addition to their roles in cancer prevention, including transmission through sexual contact, multiple doses needed for series completion, and...
Article
Full-text available
Genetic testing is becoming more widespread, and its capabilities and predictive power are growing. In this paper, we evaluate the ethical justifications for and strength of the US legal framework that aims to protect patients, research participants, and consumers from genetic discrimination in employment and health insurance settings in the contex...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To evaluate the availability of information regarding patient access to investigational treatments through clinical trials and non-trial pre-approval access pathways from a sample of patient advocacy organization (PAO) websites in the United States. Results: We systematically analyzed the content of 118 randomly selected PAO websites...
Chapter
Uterus transplants, a form of vascularized composite allograft, have so far, up until January 2019, resulted in eight successful live births in Sweden and additionally two births in the USA, one birth in Brazil, one birth in Serbia/Italy, one birth in India, and one birth in China. Moreover, there are several ongoing pregnancies with expected deliv...
Article
As the field of vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) continues to evolve and technological approaches improve, VCA programs must focus on promoting greater consistency in psychosocial assessment across programs to support the equitable selection of patients. Based on a summary of published reports of VCA, we address the ethical consider...
Article
Hundreds of gene therapies are currently in various stages of research and development. A subset of these involve gene editing technologies such as CRISPR. In this hypothetical case, a patient with chronic pain has initiated a CRISPR-based intervention obtained from a clinic in the Cayman Islands. His physician doubts it is approved by the US Food...
Article
In the U.S., there is no requirement for research sponsors to compensate human research subjects who experience injuries as a result of their participation. In this article, we review the moral justifications that compel the establishment of a better research-related injury compensation system. We explore how other countries and certain institution...