Arnoud Arntz

Arnoud Arntz
University of Amsterdam | UVA · Department of Clinical Psychology

About

528
Publications
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Introduction
Arnoud Arntz currently works at the Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, and has an affiliation with Maastricht University. Arnoud does research in Clinical Psychology. His research interests include psychological theories and treatments of personality disorders, PTSD, depression, ocd and anxiety disorders.

Publications

Publications (528)
Article
Background and objectives Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood abuse (CA) is associated with high symptom complexity. This study examined the efficacy of Imagery Rescripting (ImRs) as a stand-alone treatment versus a sequenced approach with Skills training in Affective and Interpersonal Regulation (STAIR) followed by ImRs for C...
Book
Die Schematherapie ist eine wichtige Weiterentwicklung der kognitiven Verhaltenstherapie (KVT) für Patientinnen und Patienten mit Persönlichkeitsstörungen und anderen chronischen psychischen Problemen. In Studien hat sich insbesondere die Arbeit mit dem Schemamodus-Ansatz als hoch wirksam erwiesen. In der aktualisierten Auflage des Bandes, die insb...
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For autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adults there are several diagnostic instruments available with a need for consideration of the psychometric properties. This study aimed to conduct a first psychometric evaluation of a new diagnostic ASD instrument, the NIDA (Dutch Interview for Diagnostic assessment of ASD in adults) in 90 adult males without...
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Background Previous research has emphasized the importance of therapists giving Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM) feedback to their patients. It has been shown that several factors influence therapists’ tendency to provide ROM feedback to their patients. Methods In this qualitative study, using a semi-structured interview followed by thematic analy...
Article
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Clinical psychology finds itself with a paradox: On the one hand, there is abundant empirical evidence showing that aversive experiences increase the risk for psychopathology. In fact, a learning and memory framework forms the foundation of numerous psychological theories and treatments. For example, various CBT approaches aim to target maladaptive...
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According to previous research, borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with high cost-of-illness. However, there is still a shortage of cost-of-illness-studies assessing costs from a broad societal perspective, including direct and indirect costs. Further, there are considerable differences in the results among the existing studies. In...
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Background Personality disorders (PDs) form a substantial part of the mental health disease burden. Effective therapies to treat PDs exist, but they are time-consuming, costly, and difficult to scale up. Delivery through the internet could facilitate the scalability of effective treatment methods. Objective This review summarizes existing evidence...
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Different atypical social interaction styles (SISs) were defined and tested in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Whether these styles can also be distinguished in adults with ASD has not yet been explored. In men with ASD, men with personality disorder (PD), and men from the general population (N = 90), aged 18–65 years,...
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Background Eating disorder patients with posttraumatic stress disorder have worse treatment results regarding their eating disorder than patients without posttraumatic stress disorder. Many eating disorder patients with co-morbid posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms are not treated for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms during an underweight...
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Importance: Schema therapy (ST), delivered either in an individual or group format, has been compared with other active treatments for borderline personality disorder (BPD). To our knowledge, the 2 formats have not been compared with treatment as usual (TAU) or with each other. Such comparisons help determine best treatment practices. Objective:...
Chapter
This chapter outlines schema therapy (ST) as a treatment possibility for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and comorbid personality disorder (PD). The chapter begins with some key considerations concerning the therapeutic relationship and the differential diagnosis of ASD versus PD. ST is introduced, followed by a summary of empirical find...
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Background Specialized evidence-based treatments have been developed and evaluated for borderline personality disorder (BPD), including Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) and Schema Therapy (ST). Individual differences in treatment response to both ST and DBT have been observed across studies, but the factors driving these differences are largely u...
Preprint
Background: Previous research has emphasized the importance of therapists giving Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM) feedback to their patients. It has been shown that several factors influence therapists’ tendency to provide ROM feedback to their patients. Methods: In this qualitative study, using a semi-structured interview followed by thematic anal...
Article
Full-text available
Background A central construct in Schema Therapy (ST) is that of a schema mode, describing the current emotional-cognitive-behavioral state. Initially, 10 modes were described. Over time, with the world-wide increasing and broader application of ST to various disorders, additional schema modes were identified, mainly based on clinical impressions....
Chapter
Schema therapy (ST), developed by Jeffrey Young, is an evidenced-based treatment approach for patients with personality disorders (PDs) and other chronic mental health problems. ST is a therapy method based on a cognitive model, integrating elements and techniques from various theoretical orientations such as attachment theory, cognitive, behaviora...
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Citation: Rameckers, S.A.; Verhoef, R.E.J.; Grasman, R.P.P.P.; Cox, W.R.; van Emmerik, A.A.P.; Engelmoer, I.M.; Arntz, A. Effectiveness of Psychological Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder and Predictors of Treatment Outcomes: A Multivariate Multilevel Meta-Analysis of Data from All Design Types. Abstract: We examined the effectiveness...
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Background Trauma-focused treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are commonly delivered either once or twice a week. Initial evidence suggests that session frequency affects treatment response, but very few trials have investigated the effect of session frequency. The present study’s aim is to compare treatment outcomes of twice-weekly...
Article
Imagery rescripting (IR) has been proven effective in several studies applied to different disorders. It is unclear, however, what the elements of change are according to patients and therapists and whether they agree on this. In this study, we examined the perspectives of patients and therapists and their degree of agreement regarding the elements...
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Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) have high comorbidity. Although prior research indicated that PTSD can effectively be treated with Prolonged Exposure (PE) in these patients, reported effects are small and treatment dropout rates high. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and Imagery R...
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Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is characterized by an increased emotional sensitivity and dysfunctional capacity to regulate emotions. While amygdala and prefrontal cortex interactions are regarded as the critical neural mechanisms underlying these problems, the empirical evidence hereof is inconsistent. In the current study, we aimed to sys...
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Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently have comorbid diagnoses such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders (AD). Studies into the impact of these comorbidities on the outcome of PTSD treatment have yielded mixed results. The different treatments investigated in these studies might explain the varied outcome....
Preprint
Full-text available
Background; Eating disorder patients with a posttraumatic stress disorder have worse treatment results regarding their eating disorder than patients without a posttraumatic stress disorder. Many underweight eating disorder patients with co-morbid posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms are not treated for their posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms...
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Full-text available
Objective Within the network approach to psychopathology, cross-sectional partial correlation networks have frequently been used to estimate relationships between symptoms. The resulting relationships have been used to generate hypotheses about causal links between symptoms. In order to justify such exploratory use of partial correlation networks,...
Article
Background Childhood maltreatment is relatively common and is related to a range of negative consequences, such as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). There are indications that various maltreatment types are related to PTSD severity, although not all types, such as emotional abuse, meet the PTSD Criterion-A. Objective The aim of the present stu...
Article
Background and objectives In Schema Therapy (ST) for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) patients the empty chair technique (EC) is often used to diminish the ‘punitive parent mode’ (PP). The present study is a first attempt to assess whether EC is more effective in reducing the PP than a standard Cognitive Behavioral Therapy technique (CT). Met...
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Background Violent criminal offenders with personality disorders (PD's) can cause immense harm, but are often deemed untreatable. This study aimed to conduct a randomized clinical trial to test the effectiveness of long-term psychotherapy for rehabilitating offenders with PDs. Methods We compared schema therapy (ST), an evidence-based psychotherap...
Article
Background Previous research suggests a relationship between measurement frequency of selfreported depressive symptoms and change in depressive symptom scores for the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). The goal of the current study was to investigate the differential effects of weekly and monthly completion of the BDI-II and Quick Inventory of...
Article
Substance use disorders (SUDs) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) are highly comorbid. In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the differences between BPD and BPD with comorbid SUD (BPD + alcohol use disorder [AUD]), by studying impulsivity and schema modes (i.e., maladaptive moment-to-moment emotional states and coping respo...
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Purpose of the Review Delivery of psychological therapies via telehealth has increased with the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therapists may be hesitant in moving to telehealth when delivering therapies targeting memories of traumatic experiences. This paper collates the clinical experiences of clinicians and clients who have delivered or rec...
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This study aimed to explore patients’ and therapists’ experiences with trauma-focused treatments in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder from childhood trauma (Ch-PTSD). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients (n = 44) and therapists (n = 16) from an international multicentre randomised clinical trial comparing two trauma-foc...
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Adults with posttraumatic stress disorder from childhood trauma (ch‐PTSD) described their ‘worst’ traumatic event (a single or repeated event) pre‐post treatment for PTSD during an international clinical trial. The memory reports were coded for specificity (Episodic vs General) and level of detail. Repeated Event narratives contained more generic a...
Article
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe psychiatric disorder accompanied by multiple comorbidities. Neuroimaging studies have identified structural abnormalities in BPD with most findings pointing to grey matter volume reductions in the fronto-limbic network, although results remain inconsistent. Similar alterations were found in posttrau...
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A fundamental question in psychotherapy is whether interventions should target client problems (i.e., problem‐focused approaches) or client strengths (i.e., strength‐focused approaches). In this study, we first propose to address this question from a network perspective on schema modes (i.e., healthy or dysfunctional patterns of co‐occurring emotio...
Preprint
Full-text available
A fundamental question in psychotherapy is whether interventions should target client problems (i.e., problem-focused approaches) or client strengths (i.e., strength-focused approaches). In this study, we first propose to address this question from a network perspective on schema modes (i.e., healthy or dysfunctional patterns of co-occurring emotio...
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This article presents a clinical illustration of group schema therapy (GST) for cluster-C personality disorders (CL-C PDs) to provide therapists an example on how one can perform GST for CL-C PDs and break through persistent avoidance and control mechanisms. A summary of evidence supporting the effectiveness of GST for CL-C PD's is given followed b...
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Objectives: Recovery and empowerment have evolved into key objectives in the treatment and care of people with severe mental illness (SMI), and interest has grown in the role of social relationships in recovery. This study is the first to explore whether attachment styles are related to levels of empowerment, and secondly, whether attachment anxie...
Article
Full-text available
Imagery Rescripting (IR) is a therapeutic technique that is used in a wide spectrum of therapeutic methods for various mental disorders. As an important component of Schema Therapy (ST), IR is frequently used in the treatment of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, little is known about how IR is experienced by individuals...
Article
Full-text available
Impulsivity is a characteristic syndromal and neurobehavioral feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Research suggests an important interaction between high negative emotions and low behavioral inhibition in BPD. However, knowledge about the generalizability across stimulus categories and diagnosis specificity is limited. We investigated...
Preprint
Background: Previous research suggests a relationship between measurement frequency of self-reported depressive symptoms and change in depressive symptom scores for the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). The goal of the current study was to investigate the differential effects of weekly and monthly completion of the BDI-II and Quick Inventory o...
Article
Full-text available
This study adds to the understanding of why some adolescent boys react to unfair situations with anger and aggression, whereas others do not. We used an experimental design to test whether early maladaptive schemas influence the causal links between perceived injustice, negative affect, and aggression. Thirty-seven adolescent boys (13–18 years old;...
Chapter
Cognitive techniques can be used both to analyze and alter dysfunctional beliefs the patient has about both current and past events. The following are common cognitive distortions that can dominate the patient's thought processes: overgeneralization, emotional reasoning, personalization, bad luck does not exist, and thinking in black and white. Thi...
Chapter
Until relatively recently, many therapists were convinced that the only achievable goal for borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients was a bit of stability in their lives. In the study by Giesen‐Bloo et al. it appeared that 52% of patients no longer met the criteria for BPD upon completion of schema therapy (ST), and almost 70% improved relia...
Chapter
This chapter illustrates important elements of the therapeutic relationship between the borderline personality disorder (BPD) patient and the therapist. Limited reparenting can be viewed as a form of restricted parenthood in which the therapist's demeanor forms the basis for the therapeutic process. The chapter describes the different elements that...
Chapter
The behavioral techniques will be used very often during the final phase of therapy to learn new skills and solve problems. The last phase of therapy often involves some kind of mourning process when the patient must accept the fact that her parents will not change and that she will not be able to return to childhood and experience the things she m...
Chapter
Schema therapy (ST) for patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) is not only applied in the outpatient mental health care system, but also in day‐treatment and in full‐time clinical settings. This chapter discusses nonverbal therapies, group therapy for patients with BPD, and couples therapy with couples where one of the partners has BPD...
Chapter
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients do not do homework in the “usual” manner of homework assignments in behavioral therapy. There are a number of medications commonly prescribed for BPD patients. We often see BPD patients with unintentional results of pharmacological therapy such as addiction and medicine abuse. The prescribed medication...
Chapter
Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have problems constantly changing moods, their relationships with others, unclear identities, and impulsive behaviors. Prevalence in the general population is estimated at 1.1–2.5% and varies in clinical populations depending on the setting, from 10% of the outpatients up to 20–50% of inpatients....
Chapter
When the therapist discusses important problems that recently occurred, it is explored what modes were triggered and how they influenced the patient's feeling, thinking and behaving. This chapter describes how the therapist can best deal with the quick and constantly changing modes during therapeutic sessions. The treatment techniques for the detac...
Chapter
Behavioral techniques can be used when the patient lacks the skills to translate new insights into new behavior. Experiments are the natural progression of cognitive therapy techniques, as they are a manner in which the patient can actively try out her newly acquired insights. Because of the patient's past and her lack of healthy experiences, it is...
Chapter
Therapeutic techniques that are directed at feelings—also referred to as “experiential techniques”—have an important role in treating borderline personality disorder with schema therapy. This chapter on imagery rescripting and historical role play is based on a paper by the author and Weertman. It discusses the theoretical background of these metho...
Chapter
The process of change in schema therapy (ST) for borderline personality disorder (BPD) takes place along three distinct channels: feeling, thinking, and doing. These channels correspond to the three levels of knowledge representation that are present in the schemas: explicit knowledge (thinking), implicit “felt” knowledge (including emotional repre...
Chapter
Before the development of specialized psychotherapies for borderline personality disorder (BPD), such as schema therapy (ST), BPD was treated primarily from a psychoanalytical perspective. The results of empirical studies indicated that ST is a highly acceptable and effective treatment, which is cost‐effective despite its relative high intensity. A...
Article
While the Competitive Reaction Time Task (CRTT) is the most used behavioral aggression paradigm, it is characterized by methodological heterogeneity and quantification strategies for its' outcome are unstandardized. Therefore, the standards of measuring aggression should be improved. This article contributes on such an improvement by providing: (a)...
Article
Background: Investigation of treatments that effectively treat adults with post-traumatic stress disorder from childhood experiences (Ch-PTSD) and are well tolerated by patients is needed to improve outcomes for this population. Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two trauma-focused treatments, imagery rescripting...
Article
Full-text available
Trauma, voice hearing, and dissociation tend to be closely linked. Cognitive models of voice hearing largely agree that traumatic events may predispose people to voice hearing via dissociative processes. While treating trauma in voice hearers may help to reduce voice distress and frequency, dissociation may be a barrier to this therapeutic work. Th...
Article
Background and objectives Negative beliefs about other's judgments play an important role in the development and maintenance of social anxiety disorder. The present experiment examined the effects of role-playing followed by role reversal compared to role-playing twice on altering these negative cognitions. Methods Thirty-six adult social anxiety...
Chapter
A growing body of research indicates that imagery facilitates more direct access to emotions, thereby providing a unique opportunity for change. Indeed, imagery has a greater impact on negative and positive emotions than verbal processing of the same information (Cuthbert et al., 2003; Holmes, Mathews, Dalgleish & Mackintosh, 2006). In effect, imag...
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Full-text available
Improved conflict handling is important to reduce relational discord. Touch potentially has beneficial effects on three important characteristics of conflict discussions, i.e., physiological reactivity, affect and communication behavior. We studied effects of hand-holding between partners during conflict discussions (N = 47 student couples) and aft...
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Full-text available
Background Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is generally considered to be the most effective psychological treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Nevertheless, many patients with SAD are still symptomatic after treatment. The present pilot study aimed to examine integrating CBT, with a focus on cognitive and behavioral techniques, and psych...
Article
Objective: Although the effectiveness of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and cognitive therapy (CT) for major depression has been established, little is known about how and for whom they work and how they compare in the long term. The latter is especially relevant for IPT because research on its long-term effects has been limited. This overview...