Arnold Van Huis

Arnold Van Huis
Wageningen University & Research | WUR · Department of Entomology

Prof.Dr. Ir.

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308
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Publications

Publications (308)
Chapter
An overview is given of how insects are harvested from nature and consumed in different parts of the world. Over the last 10 years, insects have increasingly been reared for human food or animal feed. The environmental advantages of producing edible insect compared to that of conventional livestock are: lower emissions of greenhouse gases, less wat...
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Edible insects can be considered for applications other than food or feed. This may be the case when biodegradation is the main purpose and food safety issues are a concern. Multi-purpose applications will also make edible insects more interesting for mass production.
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An overview is given on recent developments in insects as food and food by reviewing the literature which has appeared during the last few years on edible insects. An outlook to the future is provided. About a decade ago, the attention shifted from harvesting insects in the tropics to farming insects all over the world for food and feed application...
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Background In sub-Saharan Africa, there is a wealth of information about insects which is often only orally available. The purpose of the study was to remedy this shortcoming and make an overview of how orthopteran species are utilised, perceived and experienced in daily life across sub-Saharan Africa. Method Ethno-entomological information on Ort...
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The estimated figure of two billion people consuming insects mentioned in the 2013 FAO/WUR report about edible insects has been cited many times over. This editorial asks four questions to determine the accuracy of the estimated figure: how to define an ‘insect-eating’ person; which percentage of the population eats insects; how does insect consump...
Article
Background Edible insects are a nutritious and sustainable alternative source of animal proteins, and consequently are nowadays promoted as human food and animal feed worldwide. Ensuring the quality, safety, and traceability of insect foods is thus critical to maintain a safe and economically sustainable supply chain. Providing a simultaneous analy...
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Globally, the expansion of livestock and fisheries production is severely constrained due to the increasing costs and ecological footprint of feed constituents. The utilization of black soldier fly (BSF) as an alternative protein ingredient to fishmeal and soybean in animal feed has been widely documented. The black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) used a...
Article
Over the last decade, the urgency to find alternative and sustainable protein sources has prompted an exponential increase in the interest in insects as a human food source. Edible insects contribute suitable amounts of energy and protein, fatty acids, and micronutrients to the human diet. Nutritional values of insects can be manipulated to meet sp...
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Children in tropical countries have always eaten insects but are now often discouraged from doing so. Recently, the idea of the consumption of insects has been re-introduced as an answer to malnutrition since edible insects are a potential alternative and sustainable protein and food source. However, in countries where the consumption of insects is...
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An overview is given of the special issue on edible insects covering a number of aspects along the value change. The articles presented cover topics about producing insects both as food for humans and feed for animals, ranging from environmental impact, facility design, (left-over) substrates, the role of microbes, genetics, diseases, nutrition, to...
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In the last 10 years, the interest to use insects as food and feed has increased exponentially. In tropical zones, insects are a common food item as they are more readily available as food in nature than in other climate zones. However, if we want to promote insects as food and feed, harvesting from nature is not an option and the farming of these...
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This special issue presents the outcomes from “Designing sustainable and circular agricultural systems for the year 2100,” the joint scientific workshop of ISOFAR, the Thünen-Institute, and INRA-Morocco, which was held from November 14 to 16, 2019 in Marrakesh, Morocco. Nineteen scientists from a broad array of background and nationalities came tog...
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An overview is given of how beetles are utilised, perceived, and experienced in daily life across sub-Saharan Africa. More than 300 people from 27 countries were interviewed and the results were compared with literature findings. Both the adults and larvae of many beetle species are eaten, mainly from the families Curculionidae, Buprestidae, Ceramb...
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The desert locust is the most destructive locust species in the world. Locusts differ from grasshoppers in behaviour as they can form hopper bands and swarms. During plagues in the past, locusts have been collected or destroyed by mechanical means. One of the control methods that are being suggested is to collect the locusts for consumption instead...
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Six of the 12 living orders of aquatic insects contain species engaged in entomophagy, but few are being harvested effectively, leading to overexploitation and local extinction. Existing practices range from including insects (e.g. dipterans) in the core diets of many indigenous peoples to consumption of selected insects as novelty food (e.g. caddi...
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This study’s purpose was to make an overview of how ants, bees, wasps, and their products, such as honey are utilized, perceived, and experienced in daily life across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethno-entomological information was collected by interviews with more than 300 people from 27 countries and by literature studies. Queens of the ant Carebara vidua...
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br/> The question addressed here is how to produce palatable food on long-term space flights and during extended tenancy in space colonies. That will be done in closed ecosystems that must be stable, robust, resilient, and sustainable. In these, because of their size, insects will be an obvious food choice. A number of species have been proposed, t...
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The recent interest in using insects as food and feed is based on their capacity to be a sustainable alternative to other protein sources. When farmed as mini livestock, the question is raised as to whether they are ‘sentient beings’ (self-conscious)? In researching this topic, the problem is that humans often expect animals to have the same subjec...
Article
Population growth and unprecedented economic growth and urbanization, especially in low- and middle-income countries, coupled with extreme weather patterns, the high-environmental footprint of agricultural practices, and disposal-oriented waste management practices, require significant changes in the ways we produce food, feed and fuel, and manage...
Chapter
De duurzaamheid van de huidige vleesproductie staat ter discussie door het beslag op het landbouwareaal, gebruik van water, de uitstoot van broeikasgassen en de verzuring van het milieu. De productie van insecten als voedsel en veevoer is voor deze vier aspecten duurzamer per kilogram eiwit dan de productie van andere dierlijke eiwitten.
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When insects occur in large numbers, and these are often insect pests, people want to get rid of them. In countries where insects are already consumed, the idea of eating them is quickly formed. Harvesting them as food can be a strategy to replace other methods of control.
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Industrialised rearing of house flies and black soldier flies in systems for producing protein offers numerous species- specific benefits and challenges. These two dipteran species offer great potential for mass production of protein rich feed ingredients on a global scale. Through this systematic review, various facets of intensive production of t...
Preprint
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Background: The order Hymenoptera has about 117,000 known species of which about 20.000 in the Afrotropical zone. The families covered are ants, bees, and wasps. They belong to the suborder Apocrita, characterized by a constriction between the first and second abdominal segments. The purpose of the study was to make an overview of how ants, bees an...
Article
In the tropics more than 2000 insect species are eaten. Most are only seasonally available, and the local population uses a number of techniques to harvest them. In the western world, insects are not known as food. However, alternative protein sources are needed as the agricultural land available in the world is not enough to satisfy the growing de...
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True crickets belong to the family of the Gryllidae and they can be used not only as food and feed, but also for recreational purposes (fighting or singing). When reared on cheap substrates, they can be used as feed. The house cricket is most often used as human food. The selection of the cricket species may depend on several criteria, such as legi...
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True crickets belong to the family of the Gryllidae and they can be used not only as food and feed, but also for recreational purposes (fighting or singing). When reared on cheap substrates, they can be used as feed. The house cricket is most often used as human food. The selection of the cricket species may depend on several criteria, such as legi...
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An historical overview of the black soldier fly is given and how the appreciation of the insect developed from being harmful to beneficial. The change occurred in 1980, initially for their role in forensic entomology and later when it was realised that the insects can be used both for recycling organic waste streams and for providing nutritious fee...
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Purpose of review: Elucidate the effect of insects as feed and food on nutrition and health of humans and animals. Recent findings: A new sector is developing of insects as food and feed. The academic interest is growing exponentially. In addition to their high nutritional values, there are also health benefits. These relate to prebiotic effects...
Chapter
In Africa, about 470 insect species are recorded as edible, of which caterpillars are most consumed followed by grasshoppers, beetles, and termites. Most of those are collected from nature. There are several insect species, such as locusts and grasshoppers, that are pests of crops but which can be eaten at the same time. There are some edible insec...
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Using larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens; BSF) to convert low-value residual organic resources into high-value products like protein-rich animal feed ingredients and biofuel while managing organic waste has developed into a global industry. Considering the associated exponential increase in publications dealing with diet conversion...
Article
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During the last five years the scientific knowledge on insects as food and feed has been growing exponentially. At the same time, the industrial sector is increasingly engaged in rearing, processing and marketing of edible insects. Considerable attention is given to the black soldier fly as it can convert organic waste streams and transform it into...
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In Africa, livestock production currently accounts for about 30% of the gross value of agricultural production. However, production is struggling to keep up with the demands of expanding human populations, the rise in urbanization and the associated shifts in diet habits. High costs of feed prevent the livestock sector from thriving and to meet the...
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When discussing insect welfare, the distinction is often made between nociception and pain, the first being a reflex response, while the second refers to a negative emotion perceived by the brain. There is some evidence that insects can experience emotions. Anthropomorphism may influence opinions on the question of how smart animals are. For insect...
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Background: The taxon Lepidoptera is one of the most widespread and recognisable insect orders with 160,000 species worldwide and with more than 20,000 species in Africa. Lepidoptera have a complete metamorphosis and the adults (butterflies and moths) are quite different from the larvae (caterpillars). The purpose of the study was to make an overv...
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p>The role of flies in manure management is discussed. Fly larvae can reduce manure and related chemical and biological contaminants. The products from this process can be used for several purposes. The editorial calls for an exploration of the potential of flies in manure conversion and whether the resulting food/feed products can be safely used.<...
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In sub-Saharan Africa, urban populations are projected to increase by 115% in the coming 15 years. In addition, economic growth and dietary shifts towards animal source foods have put high pressure and demand on agricultural production. The high ecological footprint of meat and dairy production, as well as high feed costs, prevent the livestock sec...
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This special issue was organised in the context of the 22 nd meeting of the Association of African Insect Scientists (AAIS), in Wad Medani, Sudan in 2017. The aim was to ‘support impactful research that will yield genuine edible insects products and sustain value chains that enhance food and nutritional security and support sustained livelihoods in...
Article
A chicken manure management process was carried out through co-conversion of Hermetia illucens L. larvae (BSFL) with functional bacteria for producing larvae as feed stuff and organic fertilizer. Thirteen days co-conversion of 1000 kg of chicken manure inoculated with one million 6-day-old BSFL and 10 9 CFU Bacillus subtilis BSF-CL produced aging l...
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Insects are promising feedstuffs for animal feeds as they contain not only valuable nutrients but also particular compounds that seem to be able to modulate animal microbiota and to optimise animal health. So far, there has been little work on the effects of those insect derived compounds in animal feeding trails but initial investigations show pro...
Chapter
As the land currently available for livestock is not enough to satisfy the growing demand for meat, insects are proposed as an alternative protein source. Examples of insect consumption are given from the Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Nigeria. It is argued that edible insects may qualify as a product with both an ecolabel and an animal welfa...
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How healthy are insects? This is a highly relevant question in view of the global interest in the potential of insects as a sustainable food source in food systems and diets. Edible insects, like other foods, can provide nutrients and dietary energy to meet the requirements of the human body as a part of a varied diet. They also have the potential...
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With a growing world population, increasingly demanding consumers, and a limited amount of agricultural land, there is an urgent need to find alternatives to conventional meat products. Livestock production is, moreover, a leading cause of anthropogenic-induced climate change. To mediate this, more sustainable diets are needed, with reduced meat co...
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p>Is it an impossible task to convince consumers to eat insects? This does not only apply to western consumers who are less familiar with this food habit than consumers in tropical countries. In the tropics too, many people do not consume insects, even though they are easier to collect as food than in temperate zones. Until recently in the western...
Book
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There are no simple solutions in the Anthropocene era. Every single person lives in a highly complex system and is connected to it by his or her actions. By focusing on the example of alimentation, this interconnectedness can be exposed and presented in a form that everyone can understand. Comics as a communication medium not only have the potentia...
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The recent research interest is illustrated by the many refereed articles that appeared during the last years. Only in 2016, there were 47 articles listed in Web of Science (consulted 15 February 2017) when using ‘edible insects’ compared to only 25 during the entire five-year period 2006-2010. At the start of 2017 there are close to 200 start-up c...
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Background The number of termite species in the world is more than 2500, and Africa with more than 1000 species has the richest intercontinental diversity. The family Termitidae contains builders of great mounds up to 5 m high. Colonies are composed of casts: a queen, a king, soldiers and workers. Some species of termite cultivate specialised fungi...
Chapter
The interest in insects as human food in the Western world is increasingly considered as a viable alternative to other protein sources. In tropical countries it is common practice and about 2000 insect species are eaten. Insects emit low levels of greenhouse gases, need little water, and require limited agricultural land. Their protein content is s...
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Innovation as a policy goal, normative practice, and a conceptual framing of purposeful human activity, has received increasing attention. The question of what kinds of purposeful innovation might benefit smallholders in developing countries has been raised. This issue presents and analyses the work of Innovation Platforms (IPs) established by the...
Article
The article synthesises the experiences of innovation platforms (IPs) that engaged in open-ended experimental action to improve the institutional context for smallholder farm development in West Africa. The IPs sought change at the level of the institutional regime covering an entire agricultural domain (such as cocoa, cotton, oil palm or water man...
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The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion ef...
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A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from by-products of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat...
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Because of growing demand for meat and declining availability of agricultural land, there is an urgent need to find alternative protein sources. Edible insects can be produced with less environmental impact than livestock. Insect meal can replace scarce fishmeal as feed ingredient, in particular in the fast growing aquaculture industry. Edible inse...
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There is growing interest in insects as human food in academia, food and agricultural industries, public institutions and the public at large. Yet many of the words and concepts used to describe these organisms and the human practices surrounding them are still rudimentary, compared to the diversity of the organisms themselves and the existing comp...
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Securing protein for the approximate 10 billion humans expected to inhabit our planet by 2050 is a major priority for the global community. Evidence has accrued over the past 30 years that strongly supports and justifies the sustainable use of insects as a means to produce protein products as feed for pets, livestock, poultry, and aquacultured spec...
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The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important pest of highland banana in East and central Africa. It causes yield loss of up to 100% in heavily infested fields. Studies were carried out in Uganda to evaluate the efficacy of the the plant base incision trap in attracting C. sordidus and to determine th...
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The world population is increasing and it could find the solution to its demand for protein un ever-smaller animals. Even though almost everyone still turns their nose up at the idea, researchers, chefs, politicians, and farmers are engaged in the challenge of feeding the planet, at least in part, with an invaluable and definitely sustainable resou...
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The Asian weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina is of importance to Southeast Asian livelihoods as a source of human food and animal feed and as biological control agent in tree crops including mango and citrus. The introduction of weaver ants in plantations requires the inclusion of the reproductive queen. We report on locating the gravid queen in a ma...
Article
Neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) alone and combined with the ento-mopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (isolate Bb11) was applied to control cotton pests. The efficacy of these treatments was compared with that of synthetic insecticides applied either in a calendar based application or in the 'Lutte Etag ee Cibl ee' (LEC)...
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The conference Insects to feed the world, that took place from 14 to 17 May 2014 in the Netherlands, acted as the impetus to the launching of this new journal. The contribution of four keynote speakers of the conference are published in this first issue of Journal of Insects as Food and Feed. More keynote speaker papers will be published in subsequ...
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An experiment was conducted to compare the suitability of chicken, pig, and cow manure as feed for larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (L.); Diptera: Stratiomyidae). Newly hatched larvae were inoculated on moistened manure (33% dry matter). Water and dried manure were added three times per week, until the first prepupae appeared. Sur...
Article
In the present study, the synergistic effects of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv. Vuill.) (isolate Bb11) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner) with neem oil were evaluated in three agroecological zones in Bénin. Four bioinsecticide treatments (neem oil, neem oil and B. bassiana used separately for different target pests, neem oil mixed...
Article
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Insects are the most abundant and most diverse group of animal organisms on earth. The economic benefits of the ecological services provided by insects are enormous. Examples of two pest species with a global impact are given. During the last 30 years Integrated pest management projects started all over the world, but institutional contexts are oft...
Article
Neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) alone and combined with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (isolate Bb11) was applied to control cotton pests. The efficacy of these treatments was compared with that of synthetic insecticides applied either in a calendar-based application or in the ‘Lutte Etagée Ciblée’ (LEC) st...
Article
Full-text available
Agricultural research designs tend to be bounded by agroecological conditions, farming systems and other dimensions assumed to be homogeneous for the population of interest (that is, a recommendation domain or population for whom a technology or practice is expected to be relevant). Scaling is then a question of 'rolling out' results across the dom...
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Insects are part of the traditional diets of approximately 2 billion people worldwide. Insects can contribute to food security and be a part of the solution to protein shortages, given their high nutritional value, low emissions of greenhouse gases, low requirements for land and water, and the high efficiency at which they can convert feed into foo...
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It is generally hypothesized in the innovation systems literature that institutions can create production incentives for farmers. This paper examines whether the introduction in 1984 of the Producer Price Review Committee (PPRC) in Ghana's cocoa sector has improved the transmission of world prices to farmers. We test how fast and to what extent wor...
Article
The immediate consequences of the 2009 reform of the cotton sector in Benin are assessed from the farmers' perspective. Using a policy arrangements approach, we analyse how farmers experienced the transformations brought about by the reform and how it influenced their day-to-day activities. The new farmer cooperatives established after the reform w...
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This paper describes why inter- and trans-disciplinary research, accompanied by innovation platforms, is essential in the context of agricultural development in West Africa. The institutional context in West Africa can become a trap for smallholder farmers and for society at large. Therefore, we argue that an enabling institutional context is neces...