Arnold H. Grossman

Arnold H. Grossman
New York University | NYU · Department of Applied Psychology

About

71
Publications
36,014
Reads
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5,451
Citations
Citations since 2016
12 Research Items
3199 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
Introduction

Publications

Publications (71)
Article
Full-text available
The paper proposes a joint mixture model to model non-ignorable drop-out in longitudinal cohort studies of mental health outcomes. The model combines a (non)-linear growth curve model for the time-dependent outcomes and a discrete-time survival model for the drop-out with random effects shared by the two sub-models. The mixture part of the model ta...
Article
Full-text available
LGBTQ youth are at greater risk for compromised health, yet large-scale health promotion programs for LGBTQ young people have been slow to develop. LGBTQ community-based organizations—which provide LGBTQ-focused support and services—have existed for decades, but have not been a focus of the LGBTQ youth health literature. The current study used a co...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine parental responses to transgender and gender nonconforming [TGNC] youths’ gender identities and explore associations of parent support with parental abuse, depressive symptoms, and LGBT-identity disclosure stress. TGNC youth (N = 129), ages 15–21 (M = 18.00, SD = 1.74), completed surveys (2011–2012); experie...
Article
Chosen name use among transgender youth (youth whose gender identities are different from their sex assigned at birth) can be part of the complex process of aligning gender presentation with gender identity and can promote mental health. However, little is known about the factors that predict whether or not transgender youth have a chosen name and...
Article
Gay‐Straight Alliances (GSA) and school policies focused on support for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning youth may reduce bias‐based bullying and enhance social supports in schools. Using multivariate regression, we tested the relationship between youth reports of the presence of GSAs and LGBTQ‐focused policies, independen...
Article
Purpose: This study aimed to examine the relation between chosen name use, as a proxy for youths' gender affirmation in various contexts, and mental health among transgender youth. Methods: Data come from a community cohort sample of 129 transgender and gender nonconforming youth from three U.S. cities. We assessed chosen name use across multiple...
Article
Bisexual youth are at elevated risk for depression when compared with lesbians and gay men. Research on bisexual stigma suggests that these youth are uniquely vulnerable to stress related to sexual identity disclosure. Depression associated with this stress may be buffered by social support from parents and friends. We examined the differential inf...
Chapter
Past research generally assumes that non-normative identities lead to pathology and victimization. Studies examining family influences on development of racial/ethnic and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth have mostly used a nuclear family paradigm and deficit model. In cross-cultural psychology, however, taking a person-centered approach addre...
Article
Full-text available
Prior studies show a strong association between gay–straight alliances (GSAs) and the well-being and safety of sexual minority students at school. However, nearly all existing literature has relied on cross-sectional data. Using data from the first 2 panels of a multisite longitudinal study on risk and protective factors for suicide among lesbian,...
Article
Disparities in psychosocial adjustment have been identified for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth, yet research that explores multiple sources of social support among subgroups of LGB youth is sparse. Social support theory is used as a framework to analyze the ways that different sources of support might promote better psychosocial adjustment...
Article
The interpersonal psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) was used to examine suicidal thoughts and behaviors among 129 transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) youth. Youth were categorized according to their gender identities: female to male (FTM), male to female (MTF), female to different gender (FTDG), and male to different gender (MTDG). Hig...
Article
The experience of minority stress is often named as a cause for mental health disparities among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth, including higher levels of depression and suicidal ideation. The processes or mechanisms through which these disparities occur are understudied. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide posits 2 key mechan...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined harm, hurt, and neglect by caregivers as well as self-neglect and physical and mental health status among 113 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) older adults aged 60-88 years, who attended community-based social and recreation programs or groups in the United States. Reporting on their experiences with caregivers, 22.1% of the par...
Conference Paper
There is a paucity of research on suicide among transgender youth, including suicide ideation and suicide attempts. Using Joiner’s Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide, this study tested the two constructs of the model that Joiner identified as leading to suicide ideation: thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness; and it explore...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined pubertal maturation, pubertal timing and outcomes, and the relationship of puberty and sexual identity developmental milestones among 507 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. The onset of menarche and spermarche occurred at the mean ages of 12.05 and 12.46, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in perceive...
Conference Paper
BACKGROUND: Parental reactions to youths' LGBTQ identity positively or negatively affect the existence of suicidal ideation and other mental health outcomes (Ryan et al., 2009; Rothman et al., 2012). The aim of the current project is to study the effect of parental reactions on suicide risk and resilience of LGQTQ youth in the face of varying level...
Article
This chapter examines more than thirty years of research about lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) older adults. Although it provides a significant portrait of the lives of groups of LGB older adults, it also demonstrates the substantial gaps in our knowledge. Many of the studies address areas of concern related to cohort and period effects, however,...
Article
Full-text available
This cross-sectional study utilized data gathered from 350 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth, and examined the relationship between significant life experiences and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS), with an ultimate goal of analyzing contribution of sexual orientation victimization (SOV) to PSS among LGB youth. Results of bivariate analyses...
Article
Fifty-five transgender youth described their gender development and some of the stressful life experiences related to their gender identity and gender expression. More than two-thirds of youth reported past verbal abuse by their parents or peers related to their gender identity and nonconformity, and approximately one-fifth to one-third reported pa...
Article
Drug and alcohol use have been forms of recreational behavior in almost all human cultures. And in the 20 century, sexual relations became recreational as well as a means to procreation. Both of these current leisure practices contribute significantly to the growth of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Globally, women and young people are increasingly among th...
Article
Full-text available
Dating in adolescence plays an integral part in the development of sexual and social identities. This process is particularly salient for sexual minority youth who face additional obstacles to their identity formation due to their marginalized status. We investigated the influence of participating in a same-sex relationship (SSR) or an opposite-sex...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined factors associated with gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) youths’ parents’ knowledge of their children's sexual orientation. Over a 2-year period, we studied 196 youths whose parents were aware or unaware of their children's sexual orientation, and youths whose sexual orientation became known to their parents. Differences between...
Article
This qualitative study used five focus groups of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth attending public high schools to examine their experiences with school violence. Core themes focused on lack of community and empowerment leading to youth being without a sense of human agency in school. Negative attention themes were indicative of...
Article
This chapter reviews the experiences of older gay and bisexual men that affect physical and mental health. It discusses the unique experiences of older adults who lived during a time when homosexuality was much less visible and accepted. It discusses the effects of being a double minority (being old and gay or bisexual) and the consequences of hidi...
Article
Gerontologists and developmental researchers have neglected the study of sexual orientation among older adults. The apparent assumptions are either that it does not exist or that it is not necessary to know; consequently, older lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults remain invisible groups with the exception of a relatively small number of studies...
Article
Full-text available
A sample of 528 self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth aged 15 to 19 were recruited from three community-based organizations. Sexual orientation milestones and events related to youths' childhood gender atypicality were examined and compared to current self-esteem and internalized homophobia. Three-quarters felt different from other youth...
Article
Parents' and siblings' awareness of GLB youths' sexual orientation and their reactions were examined in a sample of 516 GLB youth. Youth expected unaware parents to have negative reactions. Less than one-quarter lived with siblings who did not know about their sexual orientation. Youth with only one sibling were more likely to be known by these sib...
Article
Sexual minority status is a key risk factor for suicide among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth; however, it has not been studied among transgender youth. Fifty-five transgender youth reported on their life-threatening behaviors. Nearly half of the sample reported having seriously thought about taking their lives and one quarter reported suicide att...
Article
Full-text available
A survey research design was used to examine caregiving, care receiving, and the willingness to provide caregiving among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) older adults recruited from community groups. More than one-third reported receiving care from people other than healthcare providers in the last five years; more than two thirds provided care to...
Article
Full-text available
One hundred and thirty-three lesbian and gay youth were interviewed about their interests in long-term relationships, same-sex marriage, and becoming parents. One-third of the males and one-half of the females considered future long-term relationships extremely important; 61% of the males and 82% of the females expected such relationships to be mon...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined childhood gender atypicality, lifetime victimization based on sexual orientation, and current mental health, including trauma symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), among 528 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. Nearly 80% reported verbal victimization, 11% physical, and 9% sexual, with males reporting significantly mor...
Article
Developmental and educational researchers have overlooked the development of sexual orientation among adolescents and youth, even as they study sexual development and identity development during adolescence. This paper examines some conceptual, practical, and ethical considerations involved in conducting research on lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth...
Article
Full-text available
Twenty-four female-to-male (FTM) and 31 male-to-female (MTF) transgender youth reported on their gender development and expression, and parental responses to their gender nonconformity. Both groups of youth felt different from others of their same birth sex at a mean age of seven and one-half years. The age when parents suggested they were differen...
Article
Full-text available
This study used three focus groups to explore factors that affect the experiences of youth (ages 15 to 21) who identify as transgender. The focus groups were designed to probe transgender youths' experiences of vulnerability in the areas of health and mental health. This involved their exposure to risks, discrimination, marginalization, and their a...
Article
Thirty-one male-to-female transgender youth reported on their gender identity, gender expression, gender atypicality, and their parents' responses. Youth felt, acted, and were told they were different between eight and nine years of age. Many were called sissies and told to change their behavior by parents; more gender-atypical youth reported child...
Article
In this study predictors of serious suicide attempts among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth were examined. Three groups were compared: youth who reported no attempts, youth who reported attempts unrelated to their sexual orientation, and youth whose attempts were considered related to their sexual orientation. About one third of respondents r...
Article
Full-text available
Fifty-five transgender youth described their gender development and expression, parent' reactions to their gender nonconformity, and initial and current mother' and father' reactions to their transgender identity. All of the youth reported feeling different from others in early childhood. Forty-three of the participant' mothers and 26 of their fath...
Article
This study used a sample of 293 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth to examine factors that differentiated youth whose parents knew of their sexual orientation from youth whose parents did not know. Earlier awareness and disclosure of same-gender attractions, greater childhood gender atypicality, and less internalized homophobia were characteristic of...
Article
Full-text available
Transgendered young people—transsexuals, cross‐dressers, gender benders/ blenders—challenge recreation and leisure professionals because their gender identity and expressions differ from society's role expectations of what it means to be male or female. These young people confront traditional “girl‐boy” activities associated with gender stereotypin...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined mental and physical health, perceived social support, and experiences with HIV/AIDS of 416 lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults aged 60 to 91. Most participants reported fairly high levels of self-esteem; however, many experienced loneliness. Most also reported low levels of internalized homophobia, but men reported significantly h...
Article
This study examined the lifetime victimization based on sexual orientation of 416 lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) older adults aged 60 or older. Participants reported the ages at which they were aware of their sexual orientation, self-identified as LGB, and first disclosed their sexual orientation to anyone. Frequencies of nine kinds of verbal and...
Article
In a previously reported study we sought to assess the usefulness of the theory of planned behavior in explaining the exercise behavior of 73 adults enrolled in an exercise program over a 5-mo. period. The correlation between scores on Intention to Exercise and Exercise Behavior was moderate and inverse, conflicting with a primary tenet of the Theo...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined aspects of mental health among 416 lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults aged 60 to 91 years old, attending social and recreational programs. Mental health indicators were perceived mental health status; self-esteem; internalized homophobia; loneliness; alcohol and drug abuse; and suicidality. Better mental health was correlated wit...
Article
Using the Theory of Planned Behavior as a framework, the Fitness Attitude, Expectations of Others, Perceived Behavioral Control, and Intention to Exercise Scales were developed. Professionals in exercise physiology generated items for the instruments. Experts in clinical psychology and exercise physiology established content validity. Each of the s...
Article
The social support networks of 416 lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults aged 60 to 91 years were examined. Participants averaged 6 people in their support networks, most of whom were close friends. The gender composition of support networks was greatly influenced by the gender of the respondent. Most support network members knew about respondents' sex...
Article
The social support networks of 416 lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults aged 60 to 91 years were examined. Participants averaged 6 people in their support networks, most of whom were close friends. The gender composition of support networks was greatly influenced by the gender of the respondent. Most support network members knew about respondents' sex...
Article
Significant mental and physical morbidity occurs among gay and bisexual men because health care providers are often unaware of their actual or potential health concerns. Mental health problems include anxiety, depression, suicide, and both alcohol and substance abuse. Physical health concerns include HIV disease, hepatitis, and other sexually trans...
Article
Professional management personnel (N = 73) who exercise were studied to assess the efficacy of the theory of planned behavior in predicting intention to exercise and amount of exercise. Four rating scales were used for the assessment of attitude toward fitness, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention to exercise. In addition, f...
Article
Many gay male and lesbian youth experience isolation, self-hatred, and other emotional stressors related to harassment and abuse from peers and adults, leading to risk factors associated with alcohol and substance abuse, suicide, prostitution, running away, and school problems. Research findings have indicated that high levels of self-esteem and so...
Article
The support networks of 90 self-identified urban gay male and lesbian youth (ages 14 to 21 years) are examined. The youth, who are predominantly black and Latino/a, indicated an average of eight persons in their support networks, most of whom were close friends. Other significant groups included were parents, siblings, other relatives, and lovers o...
Article
Being a lesbian, gay or bisexual youth means having the stigma of homosexuality or bisexuality. A stigma is anything that discredits an individual and leads to one being assigned a “spoiled identity.” With reference to lesbian, gay and bisexual youth, the stigma is considered a blemish on one's character that often leads to stereotyping and stigmat...
Article
Explores the risks faced by lesbian, gay, or bisexual youth who have the stigma of homosexuality and suggests approaches and strategies for working with these at-risk youth. Although society is becoming more tolerant of homosexuality and bisexuality, there has not been a corresponding decrease in cultural homophobia. (SLD)
Article
Older gay men over the age of 50 have been and continue to be an invisible part of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The reasons for this phenomenon are many, but among them are societal beliefs, myths, and stereotypes emanating from ageism and homophobia. In addition, HIV/AIDS is sometimes misdiagnosed in older adults because many of its symptoms mimic other...
Article
Whether they "come out" or hide their sexual orientation, most gay and lesbian youth experience the effects of prejudice and stigmatization emanating from society's homophobia. Having to cope with a disparaging and oppressive society creates unique stresses and developmental variations in identity development that are cofactors for HIV infection an...
Article
Explores the psychosocial issues confronting health care professionals (HCPs) working with people with AIDS, especially therapeutic recreation specialists (TRSs). TRSs have professional training and expertise in stress reduction, self-expression, relaxation, appropriate nutrition intake, socialization, and diversionary recreation activities. They c...
Article
Social workers, nurses, and other health care professionals who work with people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are experiencing burnout from the excessive demands on their energy, strength, and resources. Support groups, with their focus on awareness, shared experiences, supportive and helping...
Article
Growing up as a gay or lesbian person in American society frequently means experiencing extreme physical and verbal abuse, emotional stresses, educational problems and rejection and isolation from family and peers. For some, it means shortened lives. The leisure service delivery system can make a difference. It is the author's contention that recre...
Article
Prejudice and stigmatization experienced by lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth, the resulting isolation of these youth, and approaches that recreation and education professionals can use to create nonthreatening, supportive environments that are inclusive of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth will be discussed in this article.
Article
Many men with HIV/AIDS are and will continue to be homosexual or bisexual. Effective care requires understanding the impact of the double stigma of being gay and having HIV/AIDS. While providers have traditionally focused on gay men with HIV disease as individuals, this article directs providers' attention to the importance of social dimensions in...
Article
Approximately 20 percent of those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are adolescents, of whom 90 percent do not know they are infected. The article discusses HIV prevention education, the role of recreation professionals, approaches or strategies, and techniques to enhance HIV/AIDS educational approaches. (SM)

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