Arno Tausch

Arno Tausch
University of the Free State | ufs · Department of Political Studies and Governance

Univ. Doz. Dr. habil.
Research on the Middle East; research on the world economy, Covid-19 and how it will affect our future

About

321
Publications
111,743
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,231
Citations
Citations since 2017
95 Research Items
624 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
Introduction
Arno Tausch is per May 1, 2022 nominated as Visiting Professor of Political Studies and Governance at the University of the Free State in Bloemfontain, South Africa; he is also associated with Innsbruck University in Austria. He authored or co-authored books and articles for major international publishers and journals, among them 25 books in English, 2 in French, 8 books in German, and over 100 articles in peer-reviewed journals
Additional affiliations
May 2022 - present
University of the Free State
Position
  • Adjunct Professor
Description
  • International Politics, Quantitative Development and Peace Research
September 2011 - February 2012
Université de Fribourg
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
March 2009 - April 2022
University of Vienna
Position
  • Adjunct Professor of International Development
Description
  • Adjunct Professor (Universitaetsdozent) of International Development
Education
October 1977 - November 1988
University of Innsbruck
Field of study
  • Political Science (International relations with special emphasis on quantitative peace and development research)
October 1969 - October 1976
University of Salzburg
Field of study
  • Political Science and Mass Communication Research (Publizistik)

Publications

Publications (321)
Article
Full-text available
This article evaluates Arab public opinion with the " Arab Opinion Index " by the Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS) in Doha, Qatar. The Index covers 12 Arab countries with 85 percent of the population of the entire Arab world. The data was weighted by UNDP population figures in order to arrive at conclusions about the totality of...
Article
Full-text available
The present article is based on a 175-nation, 26 standard predictor variables study on the determinants of seven important indicators of social conditions on a global scale. The standard predictors cover all major development accounting theories today, including a) Demographic factors, b) Dependency and world systems approaches, c) Feminist paradig...
Article
Full-text available
Following the attempt by Alesina and Guiliano (2013) to measure global culture and to project these measurements onto real choropleth geographical world maps, we utilize the data from the World Values Survey (WVS) to arrive at robust measurement scales of global economic, political and social values and to assess Turkey’s place on them. Our study,...
Article
Full-text available
This article reevaluates the April 2013 PEW data on " The World's Muslims " covering 23 countries and comprising at least 56.6 percent of the total global Muslim population. It presents population-weighted estimates of the 18 PEW indicators for the entire adult Muslim population in these 23 countries. The article also presents a UNDP type Index of...
Article
Full-text available
At just the right moment in global history, the Anti-Defamation League 1 of the B'nai Brith organization 2 has released new data on antisemitism in over 100 countries. 3 This data is based on solid opinion surveys and for the first time includes large parts of the Muslim world, not only Western countries. 4 This article presents these data with ran...
Data
This book, written by a political scientist born in the global North but now based in one of the departments of his discipline in the Republic of South Africa, is an attempt to focus on the global geography of political science and its global reach. All too often, the world view of scholars is shaped by the 'lens' of the global North, and there is...
Chapter
Unsere Daten stammen aus zwei Reihen zuverlässiger und regelmäßig wiederholter globaler Meinungsumfragen: dem World Values Survey (WVS) und dem European Social Survey (ESS). Unsere statistischen Berechnungen wurden mit dem routinemäßigen und standardmäßigen Statistikprogramm IBM-SPSS (IBM-SPSS XXIV) durchgeführt und stützten sich auf die sogenannte...
Article
Full-text available
Ranking of academic institutions and of publications is on everyone's lips these days. The English-language Wikipedia article on "Ranking of Academic Publishers" was accessed no less than 66046 times last year. All too many academics and science policy-makers around the world are still unaware of the market distortions that are unleashed on the wo...
Chapter
Full-text available
What is my message to the future generation of global political scientists? This Chapter presents a global market perspective on the enormous inequality of the global access to products of “political science” in the global libraries for social science (here: political science) products published in hitherto existing communication channels. We prese...
Data
This study was financed by the Austrian "Dokumentationsstelle Politischer Islam" and attempts an analysis of what can be said about the phenomenon of "political Islam" in the Arab world and what can be said about religiously motivated political extremism (hereafter abbreviated RMPE) in an international comparison from the perspective of internation...
Preprint
Full-text available
Аннотация 1) История вопроса: В данной работе рассматривается вопрос о возвращении религиозного антисемитизма с помощью многомерного анализа данных глобального общественного мнения из 28 стран. 2) Методы: За неимением какой-либо доступной альтернативы мы использовали пункт исследования антисемитизма World Values Survey (WVS): неприятие еврейских...
Article
Full-text available
Our article has attempted to show, using advanced bibliometric and scientometric data for a proven sample of 104 Austrian political scientists and 51 transnational publishing companies, the close statistical relationships between indicators of the presence of scientists and transnational publishing companies in the world's academic courses (Classro...
Article
Full-text available
Der Beitrag soll zeigen, welche fortgeschrittenen bibliometrischen und szientometrischen Daten für ein bewährtes Sample von 104 österreichischen Politikwissenschaftler*innen und 51 transnationalen Verlagsunternehmen enge statistische Beziehungen zwischen Indikatoren der Präsenz von Wissenschaftler*innen und transnationalen Verlagsunternehmen in den...
Data
Bibliography of works writen and the quotations received over 5 decades of political science research in the fields of 1 Development theory 2 Public Opinion Surveys, World Values Survey, Arab Barometer Studies, Mass Communication Research 3 European Union - social policy, EU-Enlargement, EU external relations 4 Globalization and world system stud...
Article
Full-text available
This article documents the enormous concentration of the global access to products of “political science”, published in hitherto existing communication channels. We show with the data of the OCLC Worldcat for example that the American Political Science Review, which is the official scientific journal of the world’s leading scholarly association in...
Chapter
Our essay, based on Arab Barometer data, shows that Islamist radicalism among potential migrants from the Arab world to the West is smaller than among the total population. Given the fact that this radicalism is still big enough to represent a serious security problem is another story. According to our data analysis, based on Science Po, 755 person...
Chapter
Our article contributes to the evolving international debate about global Islamist terrorism. According to our data, in the last four decades between 1979 and 2019 more than 160.000 people lost their lives in acts of Islamist terrorism across the globe. Islamist terrorism reached its peak in 2016, and in the period between 1979 and 2019, there were...
Chapter
The Anti-Defamation League (nADL) in its recent update of its empirical research on global Antisemitism estimated that today more than 1 billion people on earth harbor antisemitic attitudes (https://global100.adl.org/map). This chapter takes a new look at the ADL (ADL—Anti-Defamation League, 2014) data on global Antisemitism in 101 countries and th...
Chapter
The Abraham Accords between the Gulf states of Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates and the State of Israel are a role model for the peaceful coexistence and cooperation between Israel and its Arab neighbors and for the entire Middle East. The present book analyzes the main factors which will affect the trajectory of the Gulf countries in the futur...
Chapter
In this chapter, we debate the data sources of our analysis and the statistical methods used. We mention the methodologies and data in the order of their occurrence in the present book. Our used data sources are the best available opinion surveys on the Arab countries in the world today, i.e., the Arab Opinion Index of the Arab Center for Research...
Chapter
This chapter analyzes the current vacuum in global leadership with global opinion survey data from the latest freely available PEW Global Survey, 2018 and World Values Survey, 2017–2020 data files, using multivariate factor analysis of the opinions of the global citizenry. On a population-weighted basis, the Chinese leadership model is accepted by...
Chapter
In Chap. 3, we already analyzed the “Thucydides Trap” of dominant world powers, rising global challengers, and the tendencies for global warfare. In view of rising global tensions in the wake of the COVID-19 depression, this chapter revisits the dire predictions about the future of the international system, which were hotly debated by world systems...
Chapter
How will global economic and political cycles and inequality, still existing restrictive gender norms (UNDP, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Human Development Report. Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York (2019). Available at http://www.hdr.undp.org/), and value change affect the future of the region, which had combined proven...
Chapter
This chapter attempts to analyze the current COVID-19 pandemic from a historic-comparative and cross-national analytical perspective. Considering the gravest political, social, economic, and public health consequences of the present crisis, we must assume that the West, for all practical purposes, could be relegated from the landscape of the twenty...
Chapter
The social scientific analysis of Saudi Arabia is at a certain crossroad. The UNDP’s Human Development Report, (2019) already put its emphasis on inequality and still existing restrictive gender norms as the most decisive issues of global development in the twenty-first century. The official Saudi government plan “Saudi Arabia 2030” focused equally...
Article
Dieser Artikel präsentiert eine wichtige dritte Säule des bibliometrischen Leistungsvergleichs von wissenschaftlichem Output und Verlagsunternehmen – das Open Syllabus -Projekt. Seine Daten sind für die künftige analytische Bibliotheksarbeit unverzichtbar, wenn heute auch die Vereinigten Staaten, das Vereinigte Königreich, Kanada, Australien, Japan...
Article
Dieser Artikel betrachtet mit ausgewählten Indikatoren der Katalogentwicklung die Bedeutung und Leistungsfähigkeit kirchlicher Bibliotheken im deutschen Sprachraum und der Bibliotheken des Vatikans. Der Artikel dokumentiert zunächst die elektronischen Zugangsmöglichkeiten zu diesen Bibliotheken und listet dann die Zahlen der Bestände mit Titelwörte...
Chapter
With the Covid-19 pandemic sweeping across the MENA region, how are the region’s governments responding to the threat posed. Some like the UAE have been ahead of the curve taking a slew of pre-emptive measures to minimize infections. Others, like Iran and Turkey, inadequate, delayed and fragmented responses have resulted in their becoming epicentre...
Chapter
The politics of identity is a source of major conflicts across the MENA region. Rejecting essentialist notions of identity, this chapter argues that sectarianism only becomes an issue when it is instrumentalized by political entrepreneurs. It examines how sectarianism has played out in Syria and Libya as well as the quest for an independent Kurdist...
Chapter
The triple challenge of climate change, increasing populations and rapid urbanization is creating unique challenges to MENA countries. Whilst coastal cities like Alexandria risk falling into the sea due to rising sea levels, the Dead Sea is drying up and Jeddah experiences annual floods. The challenges are made worse by government mismanagement thr...
Chapter
Patriarchy has its origins in the Middle East. This legacy is still apparent in the Middle East where gender discriminatory legislation and attitudes remain the norm. What are the reasons for such misogynistic practices? For some scholars, the Islamic faith and related cultural practices lay at the heart of the problem. Others place their emphasis...
Chapter
The MENA region is characterized by numerous crises. These range from the Covid-19 pandemic sweeping through the region to religious fundamentalism, violent sectarianism, vast economic discrepancies, pressing environmental challenges, the intrusions of external actors in the region, and a debilitating authoritarian culture. All of these variables a...
Chapter
Political Islam has been a major force across the MENA for much of the twentieth century. Reaching the zenith of their political ascendancy in the immediately aftermath of the 2011 Arab Uprisings, it is clear that Islamism is on the wane across the region. Opinion polls demonstrated that the Arab street, in particular the youth, are becoming more s...
Chapter
Our exercise of standard development accounting attempts to arrive at a synthesis of the performance of Arab countries as they approach the abyss of the impending global economic recession and health crisis, connected with the Corona (Covid-19) pandemic. The choice of our indicators was guided by world system (Frank, ReOrient: Global economy in the...
Chapter
This chapter attempts to close a gap in the recent literature on Arab MENA countries economic development: how globalization affected human values in this part of the world.
Chapter
The MENA region is engulfed in crisis. This predicament emanates from domestic factors like the artificial nature of the state and rentier economies to external actors supporting regimes against their citizens. As a result of this, several states are failing and are losing their sovereignty in the process. States, however, have been complicit in th...
Book
This book offers readers critical insights into a region in crisis and explores different facets of the crisis from governance to gender to the politics of identity, the challenge of the environment and the enduring impact of demographic variables and technological change. Whilst exploring the nature of the crises, the book also explores how policy...
Book
This book studies values and attitudes in the Gulf region. In light of global power shifts, the threatening collapse of internal security in the West, and uncertainty about the current leadership vacuum in world society, this book explores a future leading role of the Gulf countries in such institutions as the G-20 and the OECD. Based on rigorous a...
Article
Die in diesem Beitrag behandelten Themen sind für die europäischen Bibliotheken, die immer stärker in das System der globalisierten internationalen Wissenschaft eingebunden sind, von großer Bedeutung. Fragen, die verstärkt von der Wissenschaftscommunity, aber in Zeiten der Krise und knapper finanzieller Mittel auch von der Politik an die Bibliothek...
Article
Unser Aufsatz hat zahlreiche Kriterien entwickelt, mit denen die Bibliometrie und Szientometrie des auf akademische Bücher spezialisierten Verlagswesens betrieben werden kann. Wir testen den Einfluss von Messgrößen, wie sie auf Grund von Altmetrics, Entlehnungsstatistiken, Libcitation nach OCLC Worldcat und anderen Unionskatalogen in Industrie- und...
Data
Forthcoming article in Jewish Political Studies Review, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, Jerusalem, Israel The geo-strategic consequences of what the medical profession nowadays calls “a pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin” are nearly beyond our imaginations. In this article we show that the world faces...
Article
Unser Aufsatz hat zahlreiche Kriterien entwickelt, mit denen die Bibliometrie und Szientometrie des auf akademische Bücher spezialisierten Verlagswesens betrieben werden kann. Wir testen den Einfluss von Messgrößen, wie sie auf Grund von Altmetrics, Entlehnungsstatistiken, Libcitation nach OCLC Worldcat und anderen Unionskatalogen in Industrie- und...
Article
Zusammenfassung In diesem Artikel werden zwei in Europa praktisch vollständig unbekannte Bibliothekskatalogsysteme, die Algeriens und Tunesiens, vorgestellt, die wichtige Aufschlüsse über die Wissenschaftssituation dieser beiden Staaten mit ihrer so hohen geostrategischen Bedeutung erlauben. Es schließen sich Bemerkungen über die Katalogentwicklung...
Chapter
The poor performance of Islamists once in power together with the failed Arab Spring protests has resulted in some scholars positing the Islamic exceptionalism thesis. According to this, Muslim societies are unique in their inherent rejection of modernity, democracy and secularism. Flowing from the Islamic exceptionalism thesis is the argument that...
Chapter
How do Islamists govern when capturing political power? Do their Islamist nirvana meet the basic needs of their citizens? Is the cause of political freedom advanced with the assumption of the reins of political power by the Islamists? In each case the answer is decidedly negative. Examining three country case studies—Egypt, Sudan and Turkey—the cha...
Chapter
Having explored the concept of an Islamic democracy at a theoretical level, this chapter examines the underlying theological justification for it as well as how it might be practically manifested in specific Muslim-majority countries. Utilizing insights of ijtihad, the chapter notes that shari’a is far more nuanced than Islamists would have us beli...
Chapter
The Muslim world is currently undergoing a political, social and economic crisis. This is a truism which is acknowledged by Muslim scholars and policy-makers. Islamists, those seeking to capture political power to legislate the perfect Muslim, believe that this Muslim decline can only be reversed by creating a polity which resembles that of the fir...
Chapter
This chapter analyses available global opinion data from the World Values Survey (WVS) project in 72 countries of the world, representing some 4/5 of the global population in the context of debates about Islamism. We turn in this chapter to the roots of the Islamist ideology, which so forcefully expanded in the second half of the twentieth century...
Chapter
Background: This paper addresses the return of religious Anti-Semitism by a multivariate analysis of global opinion data from 28 countries.
Chapter
Growing international sociological evidence based on rigorous analysis of World Values Survey data seems to suggest that more and more Roman Catholic faithful do not follow anymore the condemnation of the homosexual act as a “deadly sin,” voiced by the official, current Catechism of the Roman Catholic Church. In simple terms, the question in our ch...
Chapter
This chapter summarizes the main empirical findings of this study. It presents the results of our Nostra Aetate Index in a condensed fashion and discusses key findings from other chapters. It debates the firm sociological conclusion that on the Catholic side, the zenith of goodwill and understanding toward Judaism, reached during the pontificates o...
Chapter
While the study of global Antisemitism received important new and global empirical insights from the ADL (Anti-Defamation League) 100 study (ADL, ADL 100 Index, 2014) covering more than 100 countries, comparative studies on Antisemitism among practicing global Roman Catholics are rather lacking. But Antisemitism is around in the world again, and it...
Chapter
At the end of the fifties of the twentieth century, the Catholic Church entered into a new epoch of its history, thanks to the charismatic Pope John XXIII. Particularly two documents, accepted by the participants of the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965), Nostra Aetate (Our Age) and Dignitatis humanae (On Human Dignity), were decisive in this proce...
Chapter
Our data are from two sets of reliable and regularly repeated global opinion surveys: the World Values Survey (WVS) and the European Social Survey (ESS). Our statistical calculations were performed by the routine and standard IBM-SPSS statistical program (IBM-SPSS XXIV) and relied on the so-called oblique rotation of the factors, underlying the cor...
Chapter
Summarizing our results and putting them into perspective with new and especially designed statistical analyses developed for the aims of this chapter, we first of all emphasize that differences between cultures are far less decisive than differences between countries in determining value development. There is a breathtaking variety of active Catho...
Chapter
This chapter develops a new indicator of global religious tolerance, and it analyzes the performance of the practicing Roman Catholics in comparison with the overall respective national performances.
Chapter
While there is a growing research literature on contemporary right-wing Antisemitism, Muslim Antisemitism, and left-wing Antisemitism, Goldhagen (A moral reckoning: The role of the catholic church in the holocaust and its unfulfilled duty of repair. Vintage Books, 2003) was right in emphasizing that with 450 Antisemitic statements in the 4 Christia...
Book
This book systematically assesses the value systems of active Muslims around the globe. Based on a multivariate analysis of recent World Values Survey data, it sheds new light on Muslim opinions and values in countries such as Indonesia, Iran, Tunisia, Egypt and Turkey. Due to a lack of democratic traditions, sluggish economic growth, escalating re...
Book
This book systematically assesses the political and social values of the more than 1.3 billion Catholics around the globe, by far the largest denomination of Western Christianity. Based on an extensive analysis of data from the World Values Survey and other global opinion surveys, the book sheds new light on the value systems and opinions of Roman...
Article
Full-text available
This bibliometric analysis of the global presence of Austrian political science (104 senior political scientists) is based on Scopus and OCLC Worldcat. Our global market presence indicators are: • The number of articles indexed in Scopus • The total number of quotations documented in Scopus • The H-Index according to Scopus • OCLC Worldcat: book w...
Article
In den internationalen Bibliothekswissenschaften und den internationalen Sozialwissenschaften gibt es letztens eine verstärkte Aufmerksamkeit für die Bestände in den arabischen Bibliotheken. Der neue Arab Union Catalogue ARUC bietet teils bestürzende Einblicke in die Verteilung der arabischen Bibliotheksbestände des „tiefen Arabiens“. Es gibt zwar...
Article
Full-text available
Open access article, full text available from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/hpm.2781 Major international organizations like UN Women and the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that nowadays, more than one‐third of all women in the world suffer male intimate partner violence (IPV) at some point in their lives and that elimi...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the concept of Din-wa-dawla (unity of state and religion) and Anti-Semitism and analyses important earlier empirical studies on the subject. We highlight the erroneous judgements of past US administrations about ties to the Muslim Brotherhood highlighted in President Obama’s Presidential Study Directive 11 (PSD-11) in 2010....
Chapter
In this chapter, we attempt to answer with the help of our data the question which political and social segments of the Arab population were especially active in the Arab Spring demonstrations. Also, we underline the still existing weakness of Arab Civil Society (overwhelming support for democracy but weak support for the structures of democracy)....
Chapter
Full-text available
The events of the Arab Spring can be analyzed in two dimensions: first, with respect to internal and global causes and second, in terms of their influence on the future scenarios of the World System development. Such a view we use in this concluding chapter. We explain the amazing synchronization of social upheavals in a dozen of Arab countries bas...
Chapter
In this chapter we consider new aspects of the above discussed issues on the basis of various databases. We highlight the strategic conclusions to be drawn from our analysis. In the first section we debate the urgent needs of Arab societies for reform. We also attempt so far to provide a differentiated picture of terror support rates among populati...
Chapter
In this chapter, we debate the sources of our analysis and the statistical methods used. We also amply discuss the methodological literature on these subjects. Our data sources are the Arab Opinion Index of the Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies in Doha, Qatar; the Arab Barometer, Wave III; the Pew Spring 2015 Survey; the BBC Global Scan;...
Chapter
In this chapter, we present in a compact and summarizing form some of our most recent research results on the strength or weakness of global Muslim rejection or support for Islamism and terror in the region, presented in scholarly journals. We ask ourselves the question: how broad is the spectrum of Arab and also global Muslim society, which could...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter provides a preliminary analysis and explanations for the topics and problems that are explored in the book. In particular, the complexities and contradictions in the use of the concepts of Islamism, radical Islamism, and moderate Islamism are shown. One of the ideas that we argue is that, under certain conditions (in particular, a stro...
Chapter
In this chapter, we discuss the following questions: Do global populations and the populations of Western countries in particular stand behind the international consensus to fight Islamist terrorism? Seventy countries of the world are now members of the “Global Coalition against Daesh”; but how many global citizens really are behind it? And do they...
Data
The file contains an UNDP-type of Index of the "Welcome Culture", based on World Values Survey country data on opinions about immigration.
Article
1) Background: This paper addresses the return of religious Antisemitism by a multivariate analysis of global opinion data from 28 countries. 2) Methods: For the lack of any available alternative we used the World Values Survey (WVS) Antisemitism study item: rejection of Jewish neighbors. It is closely correlated with the recent ADL-100 Index of An...
Article
Full-text available
This paper attempts to close a gap in the recent literature on African economic development: the place of Africa on the maps of global economic, political and social values. We develop new comparable indices of global value development from the latest set of World Values Survey data and determine Africa’s place on a new factor analytical index of G...
Article
Full-text available
In multiple standard OLS regression models, we test the effects of 26 standard predictor variables, including the ‘four freedoms’ of goods, capital, labour and services, on the following indicators of sustainable development: avoiding net trade of ecological footprint gha per person, Carbon emissions per million US dollars GDP, CO2 per capita, Envi...
Article
Full-text available
This article evaluates tendencies and trends of the global academic publishing industry, vital for any reasonable long-term publication strategy planning in research. Such analyses are made possible today by the OCLC Worldcat. Our multivariate attempt, combining Worldcat global library circulation figures of publisher companies with results from ea...
Article
Full-text available
Following the attempt by Alesina and Guiliano (2013) to measure global culture and to project these measurements onto real choropleth geographical world maps, we utilize the data from the World Values Survey (WVS) to arrive at robust measurement scales of global economic, political and social values and to assess Turkey’s place within them. Our stu...
Article
Based on the latest survey wave of the World Values Survey (2015) we first show how much religious tolerance or intolerance shapes public opinion in the individual countries of the world. We then ask ourselves whether or not active, practicing Roman Catholics, who attend Church Services each Sunday (in Catholic jargon the Dominicantes) are more or...
Article
Full-text available
In 1937, the Japanese economist Kaname Akamatsu discovered specific links between the rise and decline of the global peripheries. Akamatsu’s theory of development describes certain mechanisms whose working results in the narrowing of the gap between the level of development of the economy of developing and developed countries, and, thus, in the re-...
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Rezente Beiträge in der wachsenden Disziplin der Szientometrie und Bibliometrie haben begonnen, nicht nur den „Impact“ der Veröffentlichungen in Fachzeitschriften, sondern auch von Büchern zu studieren. Diese Methode kann auf einzelne Autoren oder sogar auf den „Impact“ eines gesamten Verlags-Unternehmens angewendet werden. In unser...

Questions

Questions (2)
Question
ResearchGate Score
Year
RG Score
Heckman, James J.
2000
33,53
Hansen, Lars Peter
2013
27,89
Kahneman, Daniel
2002
26,76
Prescott, Edward C.
2004
19,33
Scholes, Myron S.
1997
18,41
Stiglitz, Joseph E.
2001
8,56
Question
Researchgate, RG-Scores, or a true Research Gate to Global Research? On the limits of the RG factor and some scientometric evidence on how the current RG score system discriminates against economic and social sciences and against the developing countries
Arno Tausch
Adjunct Professor of Political Science at Innsbruck University
Honorary Associate Professor of Economics, Corvinus University Budapest
Regular Lecturer, International Development, Vienna University
Lecturer of Sociology, Université Fribourg, Suisse
academic e-mail
Mobile tel: (++ 43 ) 664 16 15 250
e-Fax (++ 43 - 1) 71894 70 1350
While one might say that the ultimate purpose of science is to contribute to the well-being of humanity, and that under such a perspective the only permissible “ranking” of scientists should be an indicator, which tells us how many people now live happier and longer than without the scientist’s work, the lamentable fact is that there is now a real ranking-mania in almost any discipline nowadays. Researchgate, as a relatively new and growing network of scientists nowadays even tags discussion contributions by the size of the newly developed RG score and journal impact factors and what have you, as if the correct opinion of a person with an “RG score” of 10 counts less than the opinion of a RG superstar with an RG score of, say, 40 or more.
The mentioned RG Score, which really glares at you when you even log on to the Research Gate system, is an overall score of the ranking of scientists participating in the Research Gate system and is – upon closer inspection – seriously flawed and contradicts the established scientific ranking systems provided by other, much more respected sources. By wrongly labeling scientists in one category or the other with that RG blue arrow telling you that you are either at the top, at the miserable bottom or somewhere in the middle, it even could intervene in such processes as the negotiation of publishing contracts with publishers and potentially damages what the laws of many countries around the world nowadays with justification call “the credit worthiness” of a scientist.
I personally will not seek the advice of lawyers, but people could – and as I will show in this article, even contemporary Nobel laureates in economics could complain that their RG rank is ridiculously stated as below 10.0
The Researchgate ranking methodology also has a very serious double-fold additional disadvantage – it systematically discriminates against the developing countries or countries outside the Anglo-American language zone, as I will try to show briefly below, and it systematically discriminates in favor of science and against other disciplines, like the social sciences.
I will try to make my points using hard-core scientometric evidence from other sources to underline my arguments.
A growing percentage of the users of the enormously popular Academia.edu and Researchgate are from the developing countries and various other disciplines and not just “science” proper, while the logic at work in the RG Score still seems to be dictated by an implicit logic, where scientists, publishing outside the hard-core science journals, located in the US, are being discriminated against. How come that I can maintain such a strong argument?
And what is at stake is not just a trivial issue, and the responsibility, shouldered by the Researchgate strategists, towards their audiences in the developing countries and from other disciplines than hard-core science is indeed enormous. Alexa, the free Internet traffic monitoring available from http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/researchgate.net implies that only 18,1% of the visitors of the system are located in the US, while 38,40% of the Researchgate audiences are already located in the developing world (including South Africa and South Korea). It is above all to these growing scientific communities and audiences in countries like India; Iran; Indonesia; China; Malaysia; Mexico; Pakistan; Brazil; Nigeria; Russia; Colombia; and Turkey, to whom I direct the publication of my analysis here on the Researchgate network. And say with great emphasis: away with that flawed ranking system, and let us design a system which measures impact by audiences (downloads) weighted by the number of countries where these audiences are living.
The hard-core center of the RG Score, besides interactions, is the journal impact factor system, used in the RG Score and the overall ranking of journal publications. Upon closer inspection, it is evident that RG impact factors are based on the geographically and culturally very biased Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge (WoK) database, but that the RG team even commits errors and omissions in feeding the original WoK impact factor data into the RG system.
The Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge (WoK) database currently includes some 11.739 journals, and 36% of them are located in the United States of America. Although Thomson Reuters tried to extend the regional coverage of their system in recent years, the stark fact remains that the system is still heavily concentrated on western, industrial countries, and that the global map of included journals per country is full of complete, white and empty spaces of “unknown territories”.
Scopus, the fierce Thomson Reuters competitor, managed by Elsevier, offers a database, which is geographically much more diverse and already includes 18.854 journals, and only 30% of them are located in the United States of America. Scopus indeed is far better suited to serve as the basis of journal impact factor calculations than the Web of Knowledge data base, especially from the viewpoint of the rising scientific power of the BRIC countries, but also from the viewpoint of the growing knowledge power of other rapidly advancing developing countries, among them in the Muslim world. The website offering a free access to the SCOPUS journal ranking is http://www.scimagojr.com/journalrank.php; and nowadays, there is also a free access to the excellent SCIMAGI/SIR University and research institute ranking, based on a SCOPUS-based evaluation of the publications record. The link to this global University ranking is http://www.scimagoir.com/ .
As I observed recently in an article for an Austrian quality daily newspaper, Der Standard, [ http://derstandard.at/1345164772339/Viele-Wege-fuehren-zur-Bestenliste ] University ranking systems, which depend on the WoK for publications evaluation, like the famous Shanghai University ranking, severely underestimate the growing research power especially in the BRICS, while ranking systems, already based on SCOPUS, are far more geographically diverse and also reliable and reflect the true landscape of regionally shifting global intellectual power today.
Now what seems to happen is that while the RG impact factor data for most medical journals and science journals, checked by the present author, like the impact factor for the famous medical journals as the “The Lancet” (38.28) and “New England Journal of Medicine” seem to coincide with the current WoK figures, there are severe errors and omissions in other cases, even if we assume that the basis of the RG journal impact factor score is based on WoK. Since the present author happens to have written recently for the “rapid response” online section of the “British Medical Journal” (BMJ), I discovered by chance and with great dismay that the BMJ is listed none the less than 3 times with either different impact factors or ISSN numbers or both in the RG system, i.e.
• BMJ: British medical journal, ISSN: 0959-8146, Impact factor: 9.72
• BMJ British medical journal, ISSN: 1468-5833, Impact factor: 13.66
• BMJ: British medical journal, ISSN: 0959-8138, Impact factor: 13.66
The current RG impact factor system, as it is operated in the RG, also severely discriminates against the social sciences. This is my next and equally serious point of critique. Even the “American Political Science Review”, the journal of the most important political science association of the world, the American Political Science Association, published by Cambridge University Press, and according to the World catalogue of books (http://www.worldcat.org/advancedsearch) available at 1296 libraries around the world (print version alone), is not even awarded an impact factor in the RG system, while according to the WoK it enjoys a very respectable impact factor of 3.050, and according to the SCOPUS ranking it enjoys an H-factor of 79. The leading journal of the global economics profession, the sort of journal, where present and or future Nobel laureates of economics publish their essays, the “American Economic Review”, which was awarded an impact factor of 2.693 by the WoK, and a very high H-factor of 135 in Scopus, is equally badly treated in the Researchgate ranking system. Its impact factor is given as 2.69 (in tandem with the WoK impact factor).
The “American Sociological Review”, the third US social scientific flagship number 1 journal, which achieves an impact factor of 4.422 according to the WoK and an H-factor of 92 in Scopus, also is listed in RG with the WoK impact factor, i.e. 4.42. From the above, I imply that the RG impact factors are an imperfect and sometimes erroneous copy of WoK entries.
Table 1 now highlights the impact factors of leading medical and social science journals:
Table 1: impact factors of leading medical and social science journals in WoK and Scopus
WoK Impact Factor Scopus-H-Factor
New England Journal of Medicine 53,3 619,0
Lancet 38,3 453,0
British Medical Journal 13,7 262,0
American Sociological Review 4,4 92,0
American Political Science Review 3,1 79,0
American Economic Review 2,7 135,0
Table 2 now highlights the impact factors of leading medical and social science journals in comparison to the “American Economic Review”, whose results are expressed as the unit of comparison. In crude terms, Table 2 expresses the nth importance assigned to the journal for global science in comparison to the flagship of the world economic journals. Scopus is much more realistic in assigning a weight of somewhere near 5 at maximum to the leading medical journals, while the weighting in WoK is simply an expression of the fact that science unjustly dominates over the social sciences in that index system. Nobody can reasonably state that a medical journal is 19 times more important than an economics journal, but – dear colleagues – our Researchgate system does so!
Table 2: impact factors of leading medical and social science journals in WoK and Scopus in comparison to the “American Economic Review”
Journal is x times more important for global science than the "American Economic Review" – figures according to WoK Journal is x times more important for global science than the "American Economic Review" – figures according to SCOPUS
New England Journal of Medicine 19,7 4,6
Lancet 14,2 3,4
British Medical Journal 5,1 1,9
American Sociological Review 1,6 0,7
American Political Science Review 1,1 0,6
American Economic Review 1,0 1,0
I kindly invite all participants of the Researchgate system to go through the list of Nobel laureates of economics (see below) to see my point and to check the entries of these Nobel laureates in Researchgate. Even the neoliberal giant Milton Friedman receives from the system the following comment: https://www.researchgate.net/researcher/1925529_Milton_Friedman/ i.e. his impact factor is said to be 0.
The Nobel laureates in economics are:
1. Alvin E. Roth, Lloyd S. Shapley
2. Thomas J. Sargent, Christopher A. Sims
3. Peter A. Diamond, Dale T. Mortensen, Christopher A. Pissarides
4. Elinor Ostrom, Oliver E. Williamson
5. Paul Krugman
6. Leonid Hurwicz, Eric S. Maskin, Roger B. Myerson
7. Edmund S. Phelps
8. Robert J. Aumann, Thomas C. Schelling
9. Finn E. Kydland, Edward C. Prescott
10. Robert F. Engle III, Clive W.J. Granger
11. Daniel Kahneman, Vernon L. Smith
12. George A. Akerlof, A. Michael Spence, Joseph E. Stiglitz
13. James J. Heckman, Daniel L. McFadden
14. Robert A. Mundell
15. Amartya Sen
16. Robert C. Merton, Myron S. Scholes
17. James A. Mirrlees, William Vickrey
18. Robert E. Lucas Jr.
19. John C. Harsanyi, John F. Nash Jr., Reinhard Selten
20. Robert W. Fogel, Douglass C. North
21. Gary S. Becker
22. Ronald H. Coase
23. Harry M. Markowitz, Merton H. Miller, William F. Sharpe
24. Trygve Haavelmo
25. Maurice Allais
26. Robert M. Solow
27. James M. Buchanan Jr.
28. Franco Modigliani
29. Richard Stone
30. Gerard Debreu
31. George J. Stigler
32. James Tobin
33. Lawrence R. Klein
34. Theodore W. Schultz, Sir Arthur Lewis
35. Herbert A. Simon
36. Bertil Ohlin, James E. Meade
37. Milton Friedman
38. Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich, Tjalling C. Koopmans
39. Gunnar Myrdal, Friedrich August von Hayek
40. Wassily Leontief
41. John R. Hicks, Kenneth J. Arrow
42. Simon Kuznets
43. Paul A. Samuelson
44. Ragnar Frisch, Jan Tinbergen
In Table 3 we now list the RG-scores and impact factors of the Nobel laureates in economics over the last years.
Table 3: RG scores and impact factors of Nobel laureates of economics according to Researchgate
Nobel Prize in economics RG-Score RG Impact Factor
Alvin E. Roth, Lloyd S. Shapley 2012 0/not even mentioned 0/not even mentioned
Thomas J. Sargent, Christopher A. Sims 2011 11,45/not even mentioned 11,55/not even mentioned
Peter A. Diamond, Dale T. Mortensen, Christopher A. Pissarides 2010 not even mentioned/not even mentioned/not even mentioned not even mentioned/0,92/0,92
Elinor Ostrom, Oliver E. Williamson 2009 not even mentioned/not even mentioned/ not even mentioned/not even mentioned/
Paul Krugman 2008 not even mentioned/ not even mentioned/
Ladies and gentlemen, the RG score system is deeply flawed. We simply suggest to the Researchgate decision makers to dump in into the dustbin of scientific errors and useless concepts, for good and forever.

Network

Cited By