Arno Hazekamp

Arno Hazekamp
Hazekamp Herbal Consulting

PhD

About

61
Publications
230,312
Reads
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2,723
Citations
Additional affiliations
February 2010 - present
Bedrocan BV
Position
  • Head of Research and Development
Description
  • www.bedrocan.nl
January 2003 - December 2010
Universiteit Leiden
September 2001 - September 2007
Leiden University
Position
  • PhD Student
Education
September 2001 - September 2007
Leiden University
Field of study
  • phytochemistry / pharmacognosy

Publications

Publications (61)
Chapter
Full-text available
Book chapter published in the famous Handbook of Cannabis (2016) by Roger Pertwee. This was chapter 18 and it focused on self-medication of patients with cannabis: their motivations, obstacles, preferences and what we can learn from that.
Article
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The plant genus Cannabis is a prolific producer of unique pharmaceutically relevant metabolites, commonly referred to as cannabinoids. Robust and standardised methods for the quantification of cannabinoids within botanical and drug forms is a critical step forward for an emerging Cannabis-based pharmaceutical industry, which is poised for rapid exp...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, the Cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) has been rediscovered as a source of new medicines around the world. Despite the fact that a number of registered medicines have been developed on the basis of purified cannabis components, there is a rapid increasing acceptance and use of cannabis in its herbal form. Licensed producers of hi...
Article
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In just a few years, cannabidiol (CBD) has become immensely popular around the world. After initially being discovered as an effective self-medication for Dravet syndrome in children, CBD is now sold and used to treat a wide range of medical conditions and lifestyle diseases. The cannabinoid CBD, a non-psychoactive isomer of the more infamous tetra...
Article
Full-text available
The history related to the use of medicinal Cannabis has been intimately intertwined with India since the beginnings of human civilization. Since its origin in the lower Himalayas, the diverse cultural, medical and religious uses of the Cannabis plant slowly disseminated around the world. After being outlawed as a narcotic drug in the 20th century,...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: There is a large disparity between the ''cultural'' language used by patients using cannabis for self-medication and the ''chemical'' language applied by scientists to get a deeper understanding of cannabis effects in laboratory and clinical studies. The distinction between Sativa and Indica types of cannabis, and the different biolog...
Article
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In several countries with a National medicinal cannabis program, pharmaceutical regulations specify that herbal cannabis products must adhere to strict safety standards regarding microbial contamination. Treatment by gamma irradiation currently seems the only method available to meet these requirements. We evaluated the effects of irradiation treat...
Article
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In 2010 a review by Hazekamp and Grotenhermen covered controlled clinical trials of the years 2006-2009 on cannabis-based medicines, which followed the example of the review by Ben Amar (2006). The current review reports on the more recent clinical data available from 2010-2014. A systematic search was performed in the scientific database of PubMed...
Article
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Cannabis has been suggested to impair the capacity to recognize discrepancies between expected and executed actions. However, there is a lack of conclusive evidence regarding the acute impact of cannabis on the neural correlates of error monitoring. In order to contribute to the available knowledge, we used a randomized, double-blind, between-group...
Article
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Significant interest has emerged in the therapeutic and interactive effects of different cannabinoids. Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to have anxiolytic and antipsychotic effects with high doses administered orally. We report a series of studies conducted to determine the vaporisation efficiency of high doses of CBD, alone and in combination with...
Article
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Rationale: Cannabis users often claim that cannabis has the potential to enhance their creativity. Research suggests that aspects of creative performance might be improved when intoxicated with cannabis; however, the evidence is not conclusive. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of cannabis on creativity. Meth...
Article
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An interesting feature of the worldwide subculture devoted to cannabis is the endless number of names given to its preparations (marijuana, pot, weed, kiff, bhang..). On top of that, there is a continuously growing list of names used to describe different varieties and strains of the cannabis plant. As a result of centuries of breeding and selectio...
Article
Full-text available
Cannabinoids, including tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, are the most important active constituents of the cannabis plant. Over recent years, cannabinoid-based medicines (CBMs) have become increasingly available to patients in many countries, both as pharmaceutical products and as herbal cannabis (marijuana). While there seems to be a demand f...
Article
Full-text available
In sum, existing research seems to undermine Schier's et al. (2012) suggestion regarding the lack of a relationship between CBD and cognition. Rather, it seems that both cognitive and affective consequences of CBD administration may be mediated by the ACC. However, the lack of clear-cut results renders the extent and nature of this modulation uncle...
Article
Full-text available
Background: A growing number of countries are providing pharmaceutical grade cannabis to chronically ill patients. However, little published data is known about the extent of medicinal cannabis use and the characteristics of patients using cannabis on doctor's prescription. This study describes a retrospective database study of The Netherlands. M...
Article
The medicinal use of Cannabis is increasing as countries worldwide are setting up official programs to provide patients with access to safe sources of medicinal-grade Cannabis. An important question that remains to be answered is which of the many varieties of Cannabis should be made available for medicinal use. Drug varieties of Cannabis are commo...
Article
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RING TEST: A standard procedure in the analytical testing industry for external quality-control assurance, in which identical samples are sent to a variety of testing facilities in order to compare results. Want to know the potency of your medicine? How much, if any CBD, does it contain? Has it been sprayed with dangerous pesticides? Is it infested...
Article
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Chapter
The Cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) has a long history as a recreational drug, but also as part of traditional medicine in many cultures. Based on the number of publications, it is one of the best-studied plants in the world. The relatively recent discovery of cannabinoid receptors and the human endocannabinoid system has opened up a new and ex...
Article
Full-text available
To date, a large number of controlled clinical trials have been done evaluating the therapeutic ap- plications of cannabis and cannabis-based preparations. In 2006, an excellent review was pub- lished, discussing the clinical trials performed in the period 1975 to June 2005 (Ben Amar 2006). The current review reports on the more recent clinical dat...
Article
Cannabis and cannabinoid based medicines are currently under serious investigation for legitimate development as medicinal agents, necessitating new low-cost, high-throughput analytical methods for quality control. The goal of this study was to develop and validate, according to ICH guidelines, a simple rapid HPTLC method for the quantification of...
Article
Full-text available
This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was designed to identify which pharmacodynamic parameters most accurately quantify the effects of delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the predominantly psychoactive component of cannabis. In addition, we investigated the acceptability and usefulness of a novel mode of intrapulmonar...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the widespread use of Cannabis as recreational drug or as medicine, little is known about its toxicity. The accumulation, metabolism and toxicity of THC were analyzed 10 days after a single treatment, and after repeated exposures during 10 days. Mixed-cell aggregate cultures of fetal rat telencephalon were used as in vitro model, as well as...
Article
Cannabis is one of the oldest known medicinal plants, and a large variety of biological activities have been described. The main constituents, the cannabinoids, are thought to be most important for these activities. Although smoking of cannabis is by far the most common way of consumption, a significant part of medicinal users consume it in the for...
Article
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Cannabinoids, the main constituents of the cannabis plant, are being increasingly studied for their medicinal properties. Cannabinolic acid (CBNA; 1) was synthesized from tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA; 2), a major constituent of the cannabis plant, by aromatization using selenium dioxide mixed with trimethylsilyl polyphosphate as catalyst in ch...
Article
Full-text available
Dirección del autor: Arno Hazekamp, ahazekamp@rocketmail.com En su reciente carta en CANNABINOIDS, Ethan Rus-so señala la necesidad de que el desarrollo de medica-mentos cannabinoides cumpla con el método científico, porque "los pacientes de todo el mundo buscan una mejoría sintomática de fármacos aprobados y que sus médicos les pueda recetar, con...
Article
Full-text available
The cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) has a long history as a recreational drug, but also as part of traditional medicine in many cultures. Nowadays, it is used by a large number of patients worldwide, to ameliorate the symptoms of diseases varying from cancer and AIDS to multiple sclerosis and migraine. The discovery of cannabinoid-receptors and...
Article
Full-text available
The low aqueous solubility of the bioactive cannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is a serious obstacle for the development of more efficient administration forms. In this study the aqueous solubility of THC was tested in the presence of alpha-, beta- and gamma-CD, and randomly methylated beta-CD (RAMEB). It was found that only RAMEB was able to i...
Article
Full-text available
Two retrospective epidemiologic studies have shown that cannabis is the main psychoactive substance detected in the blood of drivers suspected of driving under the influence of psychotropic drugs. An oral administration double-blind crossover study was carried out with eight healthy male subjects, aged 22 to 30 years, all occasional cannabis smoker...
Article
Full-text available
What is currently needed for optimal use of medicinal cannabinoids is a feasible, nonsmoked, rapid-onset delivery system. Cannabis "vaporization" is a technique aimed at suppressing irritating respiratory toxins by heating cannabis to a temperature where active cannabinoid vapors form, but below the point of combustion where smoke and associated to...
Article
Two retrospective epidemiologic studies have shown that cannabis is the main psychoactive substance detected in the blood of drivers suspected of driving under the influence of psychotropic drugs. An oral administration double-blind crossover study was carried out with eight healthy male subjects, aged 22 to 30 years, all occasional cannabis smoker...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen Desde 2003 los Países Bajos suministran cannabis medicinal mediante prescripción facultativa a través de las farmacias. Tanto el cultivo como el procesado y empaquetado del material vegetal se realiza según las técnicas estándares farmacéuticas y son supervisadas por la Oficina para el Cannabis Medicinal (Office of Medical Cannabis, OMC). L...
Article
Full-text available
Since 2003 medicinal grade cannabis is provided in the Netherlands on prescription through phar- macies. Growing, processing and packaging of the plant material are performed according to pharmaceutical standards and are supervised by the official Office of Medicinal Cannabis (OMC). The quality is guaranteed through regular testing by certified lab...
Article
Full-text available
Chromatographic and spectroscopic data was determined for 16 different major cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa plant material as well as 2 human metabolites of Δ‐tetrahydrocannabinol. Spectroscopic analysis included UV absorbance, infrared‐spectral analysis, (GC‐) mass spectrometry, and spectrophotometric analysis. Also, the fluorescent properties...
Article
Full-text available
This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was designed to identify which pharmacodynamic parameters most accurately quantify the effects of delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the predominantly psychoactive component of cannabis. In addition, we investigated the acceptability and usefulness of a novel mode of intrapulmonar...
Article
Full-text available
Since 2003 medicinal grade cannabis is provided in the Netherlands on prescription through pharmacies. Growing, processing and packaging of the plant material are performed according to pharmaceutical standards and are supervised by the official Office of Medicinal Cannabis (OMC). The quality is guaranteed through regular testing by certified labor...
Article
Full-text available
A simple method is presented for the preparative isolation of seven major cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa plant material. Separation was performed by centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC), a technique that permits large‐scale preparative isolations. Using only two different solvent systems, it was possible to obtain pure samples of the canna...
Article
Full-text available
The complete 1H- and 13C-NMR assignments of the major Cannabis constituents, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, delta8-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabigerol, cannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabidiolic acid, cannflavin A and cannflavin B have been determined on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra including 1H- and 13C-N...
Article
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The metabolomic analysis of 12 Cannabis sativa cultivars was carried out by 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis techniques. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the 1H NMR spectra showed a clear discrimination between those samples by principal component 1 (PC1) and principal component 3 (PC3) in cannabinoid fraction. The loading plot of...
Article
Full-text available
A (1)H-NMR method has been developed for the quantitative analysis of pure cannabinoids and for cannabinoids present in Cannabis sativa plant material without any chromatographic purification. The experiment was performed by the analysis of singlets in the range of delta 4.0-7.0 in the (1)H-NMR spectrum, in which distinguishable signals of each can...
Article
Full-text available
1H-NMR spectrometry was applied to the quantitative analysis of the bilobalide, ginkgolides A, B, and C in Ginkgo biloba leaves and six kinds of commercial Ginkgo products without any chromatographic purification. The experiment was performed by the analysis of each singlet H-12, which were well separated in the range of delta 6.0-7.0 in the (1)H-N...
Article
Full-text available
The ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum petasites was tested to evaluate the spasmolytic activity on isolated guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle. The crude extract (2.25-9.0 mg/ml) dose-dependently caused relaxation of tracheal smooth muscle which was contracted by exposure to histamine. A bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract was perform...
Article
Full-text available
Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC) was used in a general separation and dereplication procedure in search for new biologically active compounds from crude plant extracts. In this procedure, the alcoholic extract was prefractionated by CPC with the solvent system heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water 6:1:6:1 (v/v/v/v) followed by bioactivity...
Article
Full-text available
An HPLC with on-line coupled UV/MS-biochemical detection method for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors in natural sources has been developed. The potential of this method is shown by the isolation of a new AChE inhibitor from the alcoholic extract of Narcissus 'Sir Winston Churchill'. Combining a prefractionation technique using centrifugal par...
Article
Depuis 2003, du cannabis à usage thérapeutique est délivré sur ordonnance dans les pharmacies aux Pays-Bas. La culture, la transformation et le conditionnement de la matière végétale sont réal- isés selon les normes pharmaceutiques et sont supervisés par le Bureau du Cannabis Médical (OMC). La qualité est garantie par des tests réguliers effectués...
Article
Full-text available
In seinem jüngsten Brief in CANNABINOIDS weist Ethan Russo auf die Notwendigkeit hin, wissenschaft- liche Methoden bei der Entwicklung von Cannabinoid- Medikamenten zu verwenden, weil "Patienten weltweit nach einer Linderung ihrer Beschwerden durch ein zugelassenes Arzneimittel suchen, das ihre Ärzte ver- schreiben können, und bei dem sie darauf ve...

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