Arne Ohlsson

Arne Ohlsson
Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto · Department of Paediatrics

MD, MSc, FRCPC, FAAP

About

498
Publications
61,080
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
29,318
Citations
Introduction
Arne Ohlsson currently works at the Department of Paediatrics, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto. Their current project is 'I retired since 2008, but I am working on a number of updates of Cochrane reviews for Cochrane Neonatal'.
Additional affiliations
January 2011 - present
January 2006 - present
January 2006 - present

Publications

Publications (498)
Article
Background: Indomethacin is used as standard therapy to close a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) but is associated with reduced blood flow to several organs. Ibuprofen, another cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, may be as effective as indomethacin with fewer adverse effects. Objectives: To determine the effectiveness and safety of ibuprofen compared with...
Article
Background: Low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO) in preterm infants provide a rationale for the use of EPO to prevent or treat anaemia. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness and safety of early versus late initiation of EPO in reducing red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in preterm and/or low birth weight (LBW) infants. Search methods: Th...
Article
Background: Preterm infants have low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO), providing a rationale for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) to prevent or treat anaemia and to provide neuro protection and protection against necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). Darbepoetin (Darbe) and EPO are currently available ESAs. Objectives: To asse...
Article
Background: In the 1960s and 1970s, pulmonary haemorrhage (PH) occurred mainly in full-term infants with pre-existing illness with an incidence of 1.3 per 1000 live births. Risk factors for PH included severity of illness, intrauterine growth restriction, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), coagulopathy and the need for assisted ventilation. Presently...
Article
Background: Nosocomial infections continue to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among preterm and/or low birth weight (LBW) infants. Preterm infants are deficient in immunoglobulin G (IgG); therefore, administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may have the potential of preventing or altering the course of nosocomial infect...
Article
Background: Neonates are at higher risk of infection due to immuno-incompetence. Maternal transport of immunoglobulins to the fetus mainly occurs after 32 weeks' gestation, and endogenous synthesis begins several months after birth. Administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) provides immunoglobulin G (IgG) that can bind to cell surface re...
Article
Background: Preterm infants have low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO), providing a rationale for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) to prevent or treat anaemia. Darbepoetin (Darbe) and EPO are currently available ESAs. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness and safety of late initiation of ESAs, between eight and 28 days a...
Article
Background: Infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are subjected to stress, including sound of high intensity. The sound environment in the NICU is louder than most home or office environments and contains disturbing noises of short duration and at irregular intervals. There are competing auditory signals that frequently challenge pret...
Article
Background: Newborn infants have the ability to experience pain. Hospitalised infants are exposed to numerous painful procedures. Healthy newborns are exposed to pain if the birth process consists of assisted vaginal birth by vacuum extraction or by forceps and during blood sampling for newborn screening tests. Objectives: To determine the effic...
Article
Background: Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) complicates the clinical course of preterm infants and increases the risk of adverse outcomes. Indomethacin has been the standard treatment to close a PDA but is associated with renal, gastrointestinal, and cerebral side effects. Ibuprofen has less effect on blood flow velocity to important organs. Objec...
Article
Background: In preterm newborns, the ductus arteriosus frequently fails to close and the infants require medical or surgical closure of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). A PDA can be treated surgically; or medically with one of two prostaglandin inhibitors, indomethacin or ibuprofen. Case reports suggest that paracetamol may be an alternative fo...
Article
Background: Inositol is an essential nutrient required by human cells in culture for growth and survival. Inositol promotes maturation of several components of surfactant and may play a critical role in fetal and early neonatal life. A drop in inositol levels in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) can be a sign that their illness will...
Article
Background: Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) complicates the clinical course of preterm infants and increases the risk of adverse outcomes. Indomethacin has been the standard treatment to close a PDA but is associated with renal, gastrointestinal, and cerebral side effects. Ibuprofen has less effect on blood flow velocity to important organs. Objec...
Article
Background: Preterm infants have low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO), providing a rationale for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) to prevent or treat anaemia. Darbepoetin (Darbe) and EPO are currently available ESAs. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness and safety of late initiation of ESAs, between eight and 28 days a...
Data
Appendix S1. 2 year follow‐up questionnaire.
Article
This is a well‐designed and executed long‐term follow‐up study of early use of paracetamol versus placebo on closure of the patent ductus arterioles (PDA) in very preterm infants, born at 23⁵ to 31⁶ post menstrual age (1). The original randomized controlled study (RCT) enrolled 48 infants within 24 hours of birth (2). The study showed that prophyla...
Article
Background: Indomethacin is used as standard therapy to close a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) but is associated with reduced blood flow to several organs. Ibuprofen, another cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, may be as effective as indomethacin with fewer adverse effects. Objectives: To determine the effectiveness and safety of ibuprofen compared with...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Does planned caesarean compared with planned vaginal birth lower the risk of problematic urinary stress, fecal or flatal incontinence?. Design: Women between 32 0/7 and 38 6/7 weeks gestation with twin pregnancy were randomised to planned caesarean or planned vaginal birth. Setting: 106 centers in 25 countries. Population: 2305 /2...
Article
Background and objectives: Caffeine is effective in the treatment of apnea of prematurity. Although caffeine therapy has a benefit on gross motor skills in school-aged children, effects on neurobehavioral outcomes are not fully understood. We aimed to investigate effects of neonatal caffeine therapy in very low birth weight (500-1250 g) infants on...
Article
Background: In preterm newborns, the ductus arteriosus frequently fails to close and the infants require medical or surgical closure of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). A PDA can be treated surgically; or medically with one of two prostaglandin inhibitors, indomethacin or ibuprofen. Case reports suggest that paracetamol may be an alternative fo...
Article
Background: Preterm infants have low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO), providing a rationale for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) to prevent or treat anaemia and to provide neuro protection and protection against necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). Darbepoetin (Darbe) and EPO are currently available ESAs. Objectives: To asse...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains an important cause of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants and inflammation plays a significant role in its pathogenesis. The use of inhaled corticosteroids may modulate the inflammatory process without concomitant high systemic steroid concentrations and less risk of adverse effects. This...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This is an update of a review published in 2012. A related review "Inhaled versus systemic corticosteroids for preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia in ventilated very low birth weight preterm neonates" has been updated as well. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a serious and common problem among very low birth weight infants, despit...
Article
Background: Persistent pulmonary hypertension in the neonate (PPHN) is associated with high mortality. Currently, the therapeutic mainstay for PPHN consists of assisted ventilation and administration of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). However, nitric oxide is costly, and its use may not be appropriate in resource-poor settings. Approximately 30% of pa...
Article
Importance Caffeine citrate therapy for apnea of prematurity reduces the rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, severe retinopathy, and neurodevelopmental disability at 18 months and may improve motor function at 5 years. Objective To evaluate whether neonatal caffeine therapy is associated with improved functional outcomes 11 years later. Design,...
Chapter
Background: Proper sedation for neonates undergoing uncomfortable procedures may reduce stress and avoid complications. Midazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine that is used increasingly in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). However, its effectiveness as a sedative in neonates has not been systematically evaluated. Objectives: Primary obje...
Chapter
Background: This is an update of a review last published by Cochrane in June 2012 entitled "Cromolyn sodium for the prevention of chronic lung disease in preterm infants", which included two studies. This 2016 update identified no further studies.Chronic lung disease (CLD) frequently occurs in preterm infants and has a multifactorial aetiology inc...
Chapter
Background: Chronic lung disease (CLD) remains a common complication among preterm infants. There is increasing evidence that inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of CLD. Due to their strong anti-inflammatory properties, corticosteroids are an attractive intervention strategy. However, there are growing concerns regarding short...
Chapter
Background: Chronic lung disease (CLD) occurs frequently in preterm infants. Bronchodilators have the potential effect of dilating small airways with muscle hypertrophy. Increased compliance and tidal volume and decreased pulmonary resistance have been documented with the use of bronchodilators in infants with CLD. Therefore, bronchodilators might...
Article
Objective To estimate the association of a maternal factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation with SGA and preterm birth. Data sources We performed a search of PubMed, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from inception to April 2016 for cohort and case-control studies of women with FVL mutation and associated outcomes of SGA and preterm birth th...
Article
Background: Newborn infants have the ability to experience pain. Hospitalised infants are exposed to numerous painful procedures. Healthy newborns are exposed to pain if the birth process consists of assisted vaginal birth by vacuum extraction or by forceps and during blood sampling for newborn screening tests. Objectives: To determine the effic...
Chapter
Background: Potential benefits and harms of different lighting in neonatal units have not been quantified. Objectives: • To determine effectiveness and safety of cycled light (CL) (approximately 12 hours of light on and 12 hours of light off) for growth in preterm infants at three and six months' corrected age (CA).• In separate analyses, to com...
Article
Full-text available
Background The incidence of type 2 diabetes in pregnancy is rising and rates of serious adverse maternal and fetal outcomes remain high. Metformin is a biguanide that is used as first-line treatment for non-pregnant patients with type 2 diabetes. We hypothesize that metformin use in pregnancy, as an adjunct to insulin, will decrease adverse outcome...
Article
Background: Administration of oral sucrose with and without non-nutritive sucking is the most frequently studied non-pharmacological intervention for procedural pain relief in neonates. Objectives: To determine the efficacy, effect of dose, method of administration and safety of sucrose for relieving procedural pain in neonates as assessed by va...
Article
Background: The Twin Birth Study randomized women with uncomplicated pregnancies, between 32(0/7)-38(6/7) weeks' gestation where the first twin was in cephalic presentation, to a policy of either a planned cesarean or planned vaginal delivery. The primary analysis showed that planned cesarean delivery did not increase or decrease the risk of fetal...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To compare outcomes at 3 months post partum for women randomised to give birth by planned caesarean section (CS) or by planned vaginal birth (VB) in the Twin Birth Study (TBS). Design: We invited women in the TBS to complete a 3-month follow-up questionnaire. Setting: Two thousand and eight hundred and four women from 25 countries....
Article
Background: Newborn infants have the ability to experience pain. Newborns treated in neonatal intensive care units are exposed to numerous painful procedures. Healthy newborns are exposed to pain if the birth process consists of assisted vaginal birth by vacuum extraction or by forceps and during blood sampling for newborn screening tests. Object...
Article
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: The overall objective was to assess the effectiveness and safety of premedications in reducing stress/pain in neonates undergoing endotracheal intubation. In separate comparisons we assessed the effectiveness and potential harmful effects of premedications in...
Article
Background: In preterm newborns, the ductus arteriosus frequently fails to close and the infants require medical or surgical closure of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). A PDA can be treated surgically or medically with one of two prostaglandin inhibitors, indomethacin or ibuprofen. Case reports suggest that paracetamol may be an alternative for...
Article
Inositol is an essential nutrient required by human cells in culture for growth and survival. Inositol promotes maturation of several components of surfactant and may play a critical role in fetal and early neonatal life. To assess the effectiveness and safety of supplementary inositol in preterm infants with or without respiratory distress syndrom...
Article
Infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are subjected to stress, including sound of high intensity. The sound environment in the NICU is louder than most home or office environments and contains disturbing noises of short duration and at irregular intervals. There are competing auditory signals that frequently challenge preterm infants,...
Article
Surfactant replacement therapy has been proven beneficial in the prevention and treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). The deficiency of surfactant or surfactant dysfunction may contribute to respiratory failure in a broader group of disorders, including meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). To evaluate the effect of surfactant ad...
Article
Full-text available
The Multiple Courses of Antenatal Corticosteroids for Preterm Birth Study (MACS) showed no benefit in the reduction of major neonatal mortality/morbidity or neurodevelopment at 2 and 5 years of age. Using the data from the randomized controlled trial and its follow-up, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between gestational ages a...
Chapter
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: Primary objective To determine the efficacy and safety of paracetamol for the prevention or treatment of procedural/postoperative pain or pain associated with clinical conditions in neonates. Secondary objective To review the effect of the various doses and...
Article
Background: Twin birth is associated with a higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes than singleton birth. It is unclear whether planned cesarean section results in a lower risk of adverse outcomes than planned vaginal delivery in twin pregnancy. Methods: We randomly assigned women between 32 weeks 0 days and 38 weeks 6 days of gestation with t...
Article
Acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (AHRF) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in children. Positive pressure ventilation is currently the standard care, however, it does have complications. Continuous negative extrathoracic pressure (CNEP) ventilation or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) ventilation delivered via non-invasiv...
Article
Full-text available
Importance A single course of antenatal corticosteroid therapy is recommended for pregnant women at risk of preterm birth between 24 and 33 weeks’ gestational age. However, 50% of women remain pregnant 7 to 14 days later, leading to the question of whether additional courses should be given to women remaining at risk for preterm birth. The Multipl...
Article
Full-text available
Background Twin birth is associated with a higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes than singleton birth. It is unclear whether planned cesarean section results in a lower risk of adverse outcomes than planned vaginal delivery in twin pregnancy. Methods We randomly assigned women between 32 weeks 0 days and 38 weeks 6 days of gestation with twin p...
Article
Background: Nosocomial infections continue to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among preterm and/or low birth weight (LBW) infants. Preterm infants are deficient in immunoglobulin G (IgG); therefore, administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may have the potential of preventing or altering the course of nosocomial infect...
Article
<⁄span> Sucrose has been demonstrated to provide analgesia for minor painful procedures in infants. However, results of trials investigating other sweet solutions for neonatal pain relief have not yet been synthesized. <⁄span> To establish the efficacy of nonsucrose sweet-tasting solutions for pain relief during painful procedures in neonates. <⁄...
Article
Full-text available
The "synactive" theory of neurobehavioral development forms the basis of the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP). Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of NIDCAP in improving outcomes in preterm infants. Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsychInfo, The Cochrane Library, Pediatric Academic Societies' Abstracts an...
Article
Caffeine and other methylxanthines have been used to treat apnoea of prematurity for over 30 years. However, until recently, experimental evidence of the potential harm and lack of rigorous evaluation of this drug therapy in controlled clinical trials resulted in substantial uncertainty about the safety of the routine use of methylxanthines in pret...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background The Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group showed that the severity of ROP was a marker for functional disability at 5.5 years in infants ≤1250 g BW who were born in the late 1980s. Objective To determine whether severe ROP remains a strong predictor of visual and non-visual disabilities at age 5 years in infants ≤1...
Article
Background: In the 1960s and 1970s, pulmonary haemorrhage (PH) occurred mainly in full-term infants with pre-existing illness with an incidence of 1.3 per 1000 live births. Risk factors for PH included severity of illness, intrauterine growth restriction, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), coagulopathy and the need for assisted ventilation. Presently...
Article
Neonatal meningitis may be caused by bacteria, especially gram-negative bacteria, which are difficult to eradicate from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using safe doses of antibiotics. In theory, intraventricular administration of antibiotics would produce higher antibiotic concentrations in the CSF than intravenous administration alone, and eliminat...
Article
Chronic lung disease (CLD) frequently occurs in preterm infants and has a multifactorial aetiology including inflammation. Cromolyn sodium is a mast cell stabiliser that inhibits neutrophil activation and neutrophil chemotaxis and may, therefore, have a role in the prevention of CLD. To determine the effect of prophylactic administration of cromoly...
Article
To examine the association between treatment for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and neonatal outcomes in preterm infants, after adjustment for treatment selection bias. Secondary analyses were conducted using data collected by the Canadian Neonatal Network for neonates born at a gestational age ≤32 weeks and admitted to neonatal intensive care unit...
Article
Background: Proper sedation for neonates undergoing uncomfortable procedures may reduce stress and avoid complications. Midazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine that is increasingly used in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). However, its effectiveness as a sedative in neonates has not been systematically evaluated. Objectives: To determine...
Article
Background: Chronic lung disease (CLD) occurs frequently in preterm infants. Bronchodilators have the potential effect of dilating small airways with muscle hypertrophy. Increase in compliance and tidal volume and decrease in pulmonary resistance have been documented with use of bronchodilators in studies of pulmonary mechanics in infants with CLD...