Arne Nygaard

Arne Nygaard
Kristiania University College · Department of Marketing, Economics and Innovation

Dr.Oecon

About

105
Publications
48,266
Reads
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1,644
Citations
Introduction
Arne Nygaard is a professor at Kristiania University College. Professor Nygaard has published articles in journals like Journal of Marketing, Journal of Marketing Research, Journal of Business Venturing, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Journal of Retailing and many more. He is also the author of six books and, comments and articles on a wide range of economic and business-related topics in the international and Norwegian press. His primary research interests are social networks, industrial organization, economic contracts and incentives, sustainability and green marketing and entrepreneurship and research strategy.
Additional affiliations
August 2021 - present
UiT The Arctic University of Norway
Position
  • Professor
January 2020 - July 2021
Florida Atlantic University
Position
  • Visiting Scholar
January 2016 - June 2018
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Position
  • Professor
Education
May 1988 - November 1992
NHH Norwegian School of Economics
Field of study
  • Strategy
August 1987 - May 1988
University of Pennsylvania
Field of study
  • Ph.D. Courses; Inter-organizational Relations. Strategic Management. Ph.D. Proposal.
August 1986 - May 1988
NHH Norwegian School of Economics
Field of study
  • Administration and Strategy

Publications

Publications (105)
Article
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Most people feel a strong responsibility to reduce the spread of infection. This has given authorities legitimacy to introduce strict measures, such as harsh restrictions and punitive penalties aimed at companies, organizations, and individuals. But California Gov. Gavin Newsom and House Speaker Nancy Pelosi do not follow their own rules.
Article
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This paper discusses how problems of eco-opportunism in metals markets escalate due to market failures because of increasing scarcity of precious metals. Establishing the right sourcing strategy for recycled material therefore is crucial for supply chains. We analyse the transaction costs in three strategic models of sourcing from "make" inside the...
Article
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Ownership and control have been the strategic focus of organizational analyses to achieve performance. The emergence of sustainable strategies has, however, confronted conventional organizational theory because performance has become a complex concept containing both social elements and environmental dimensions together with conventional economic a...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that costs reduction is no longer a complete indication of performance and should not be attained at the expense of the firm’s sustainable social responsibility and environmental aspects. The question of whether outsourcing is a “blessing” or a “lesson” remains unresolved in the minds of practitio...
Article
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Exploring the Pursuit of Sustainability in Reverse Supply Chains for Electronics Abstract: This study examines reverse supply chains in the electronics industry. The analysis characterizes the flow of resources among firms in a reverse supply chain in the Norwegian electronics industry. The study subsequently examines influences of governance mech...
Article
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Following the invasion of Ukraine, there is a call to replace Russian gas and oil with green electric energy. A prime sector subject to electrification is the transportation sector. Consequently , access to the critical minerals for electrification has become an important strategic issue in the electric vehicle industry. Our analysis indicates that...
Article
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Smarte kontrakter i kombinasjon med blokkjedeteknologi kan hjelpe forbrukere til å ta informerte og bærekraftige valg. Det vil kunne forhindre grønnvasking.
Article
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Naturbasert reiseliv, Hvalsafari | Mulighetenes region for opplevelsesturisme, men for hvem? https://www.nordnorskdebatt.no/mulighetenes-region-for-opplevelsesturisme-men-for-hvem/o/5-124-164165
Article
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Kronikk i Nationen: Dyrevelferd er en viktig verdi for helse - og bærekrafts-segmentet i markedet. De ønsker produktinformasjon fra "farm-to-fork" gjennom hele forsyningskjeden. Det er derfor viktig at markedskommunikasjonen reflekterer dette. Walmart kan nå identifisere produsenten av et produkt av dårlig kvalitet på 2.2 sekunder gjennom bruk av b...
Article
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Produktinformasjon har vært mulig å spore gjennom ulike teknologier i årtier. Bidraget i denne artikkelen er å utvikle forståelsen av hvordan smarte kontrakter gjennom blokkjedeteknologien kan være en informasjonsgarantist i markeder preget av informasjonsasymmetri. Informasjon om bærekraft er et eksempel på et problem knyttet til informasjonsasymm...
Article
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Smarte kontrakter vil revitalisere alle aktørers evne til å ta gode beslutninger i en komplisertverden med globale og digitale markeder. Slik kan de bidra til at vi forbrukere kan ta reelle bærekraftige valg, og at bærekraftige produkter vinner over grønnvaskede produkter
Article
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Influence, persuasion, and communication are complicated matters that politicians must navigate to limit the spread of COVID-19. Most people feel a strong responsibility to reduce the spread of infection.This has given authorities legitimacy to introduce strict measures, such as harsh restrictions and punitive penalties aimed at companies, organiza...
Article
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A few years ago, we published research articles in the highly regarded Journal of Business Ethics in which we presented a finding that may be disturbing in the present situation: Use of coercion, threats, punishment and restrictions as an influence strategy may have the opposite effect of what is intended. Our studies suggest that the use of "coerc...
Article
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De fleste av oss føler på et sterkt kollektivt ansvar for å redusere smittenivået. Dette gir myndighetene legitimitet til å innføre strenge restriksjoner. At de kan gjøre det, betyr imidlertid ikke at de bør gjøre det. Positive rollemodeller og ekspertkunnskap er mest effektive i å endre folks holdninger og atferd. Det viser vi i to publiserte fors...
Article
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The Counterfeit Industry There is a “Perfect Storm” between two global destructive forces right now – the counterfeit industry and the Covid-19 pandemic. Both are highly undetectable, the fake products hidden in the grey and black markets, and the invisible virus. Amid the Covid-19 pandemic, the Chinese companies sold thousands of fake testing kits...
Article
Korona-profitørene De samme kriminelle aktørene som produserer falske luksusvarer omstilte seg raskt til Covid-19 produksjon.
Article
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Mens falsknerne tidligere kopierte Ralph Lauren og Gucci, kopierer de nå falske masker med 3M og CE-merker. For dem er korona bare en ny forretningsmulighet, skriver kronikkforfatterne.
Article
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Produksjon av falske produkter fantes i stor skala før korona-pandemien brøt ut. Det er de samme kriminelle aktørene som produserer falske luksusprodukter som nå omstiller seg til Covid-19 produksjon. Produsentene markedsfører sine varer gjennom globale nettplattformer og forsyningskjeder.
Article
This paper discusses how problems of eco-opportunism in metals markets escalate due to market failures because of the increasing scarcity of precious metals. Establishing the right sourcing strategy for recycled material, therefore, is crucial for supply chains and for managing corporate sustainability tensions. We analyse the transaction costs in...
Presentation
Full-text available
Jeg tror alle ser alvoret i den situasjonen vi er i, men det hjelper ikke å skape større dystopier. Vi må se muligheter og stimulere unge mennesker til å skape en god framtid for alle, sier professor Arne Nygaard i dagens podcast: https://kunnskap.kristiania.no/2019/11/13/arne-nygaard-om-gronn-markedsforingsledelse/?fbclid=IwAR0OMRDjJHTNBYNV9DhSTot...
Article
Arne Nygaard om grønn marke dsføringsledelse FacebookTweetLinkedInEmail-Jeg tror alle ser alvoret i den situasjonen vi er i, men det hjelper ikke å skape større dystopier. Vi må se muligheter og stimulere unge mennesker til å skape en god framtid for alle, sier professor Arne Nygaard i dagens podcast. Arne Nygaard er professor ved Institutt for mar...
Data
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Bu-gl7v-P8
Chapter
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Ownership and control have been the strategic focus of organizational analyses aimed at achieving performance. Yet, the emergence of sustainability has challenged conventional organizational theory. Sustainability as a performance concept has become a complex idea containing both social elements and environmental dimensions, together with the tradi...
Article
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ER DET blitt slik at man er mer opptatt av korrekte holdninger og symboler for å redde klima og baerekraft enn faktisk å gjøre noe med det? Mange er kanskje lei av å lytte til at klima er mer et spørsmål om moral og symboler enn en aktiv handling? I en forskningsar-tikkel fant vi nemlig at den symbolske og nedlatende pekefingermoralismen kan få mot...
Book
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Grønn markedsføringsledelse er den første norske læreboka som handler om bærekraftig entreprenørskap, strategi og markedsføring. Vi håper den skal bidra til å endre praksis i næringsliv og i organisasjoner. De viktigste endringsaktørene i norsk økonomi er bedriftene, og det er derfor viktig at kunnskapen om strategier, metoder og instrumenter som k...
Article
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There has been an exponential growth of new electronic products in the global consumer market. New electronic consumer products generate a growing need for new methods, processes and entrepreneurship in recycling. In this study, we examine how entrepreneurs involved in the recycling of electronic products innovate to create a more sustainable circu...
Article
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Corporate Green Innovation in Sustainable Reversed Logistics in Norway. Abstract There has been an exponential growth in innovation and the introduction of new electronic products in the global consumer market. New electronic consumer products generate a growing need for new methods, processes and entrepreneurship in recycling. In this study, we ex...
Book
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7II2E5-accfbd! Det er tette bånd mellom fagene logistikk og markedsføring, og denne boka viser hvordan disse fagområdene henger sammen og utfyller hverandre. Enkelt sagt forklarer logistikksiden den fysiske fl yten av varene og hvordan varestrømmene foregår, mens markedsføringsdelen viser hvordan kjedene er bygget opp. Ledelse av forsyningskjeder g...
Article
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There has been an exponential growth of new electronic products in the global consumer market. New electronic consumer products generate a growing need for new methods, processes and entrepreneurship in recycling. In this study, we examine how entrepreneurs involved in the recycling of electronic products innovate to create a more sustainable circu...
Poster
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A firm’s strategy can have a negative or positive implication on the environment. A mindfully or mindlessly crafted and implemented strategy would respectively produce a positive or negative environmental impact. Thus, the quality of the environment and the relationship between business and the environment can benefit by the integration of the mind...
Research
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Introduction to the Thematic Symposia Internet addiction disorder (IAD) and problematic computer use cause social and psychological problems among others. These compulsions are “repetitive and seemingly purposeful behaviours that are performed according to certain rules or in a stereotyped fashion” (American Psychiatric Association, 1985:234, (O’Gu...
Article
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Management literature suggests that outsourcing is an effective device to create incentive collusion, which reduces opportunism, externalizes monitoring costs and facilitates the competitive organization of supply chains. However, we argue that the eagerness to outsource operations may cause an avoidable problem, and that ethical behaviour may be r...
Article
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Abstract Using evidence from paired franchisor-franchisee dyads, this study identifies how plural formed ownership mechanisms curb the risk of shirking and free riding in franchise systems. These risks have damaging effects on the invested capital of franchisee entrepreneurs. Although shirking and free riding produce a major source of uncertainty f...
Article
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The study investigates the performance effects of postalliance role stress among retail managers. Co-branded alliances produce dynamic and complex role structures subject to psychological conflict and ambiguity. These co-branded outlets enable firms to enter markets efficiently, lower relative operating costs, and raise performance. Despite the see...
Article
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ABSTRACT We investigate the performance effects of post-alliance role stress among retail managers. Co-branded alliances produce dynamic and complex role structures subject to psychological conflict and ambiguity. These co-branded outlets enable firms to enter markets efficiently, lower relative operating costs, and raise performance. Despite the...
Article
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Abstract Years of research clearly shows that relying on traditional organizational power bases is not effective when companies want to promote business ethics and performance. It is not only that the use of legitimate power to establish ethics codes and coercive power to punish employees who do not comply does not work; this study - based on a mul...
Article
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Abstract Using evidence from paired franchisor-franchisee dyads, this study identifies how plural formed ownership mechanisms curb the risk of shirking and free riding in franchise systems. These risks have damaging effects on the invested capital of franchisee entrepreneurs. Although shirking and free riding produce a major source of uncertainty f...
Article
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Interview in Dagens Næringsliv
Presentation
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Maktstrukturen i dagligvaremarkedet er for konsentrert sier Professor Arne Nygaard ved Markedshøyskolen. Han mener tre matkjeder er for lite.
Article
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This study examines how organizational form (corporate or franchised store) and local market characteristics (competition, size and risk of sanctions) influence retail stores' likelihood of selling alcohol to minors. Drawing on agency theory, we hypothesize that franchised stores are more likely than corporate stores to sell alcohol to minors. We a...
Article
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Radio interview about monopoly power, economies of scale, counteracting power, prices, entrepreneurship and quality.
Data
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Oliver Williamson, Professor at Berkeley and the Winner of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Economics. Special Issue of Journal of Retailing was dedicated to his work.
Data
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Dannelsen av det Norske Statsoljeselskapet STATOIL skapte store og viktige dilemmaer for politikerne og for Norge. Historisk sett har det vist seg komplisert å styre selskaper som både er statsselskaper og oljeselskaper. Denne rapporten belyser den situasjonen og de utfordringene man sto overfor i valget av organiseringen av norsk oljeforvaltning p...
Article
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Purpose – Trust is a crucial element of a viable banking industry. In the corporate market though, the characteristics of the relationships between each corporate customer and the bank is a double-sided problem. Both parties might trust the other or choose to behave opportunistically. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/appr...
Conference Paper
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Abstract Our research shows that iron fist does not work when companies want to promote business ethics and performance. It is not that such coercive power does not work, - we found based on a multimethod research approach in the retail industry that it actually lead to increased unethical business values and leak of service performance. But there...
Article
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2/2013 s. (39-46) Fagfellevurdert Skriv ut figur figur figur Ledelse, lønnsomhet og etikk gjennom eksemplets makt Sammendrag Bedriftseiere forventer at bedriftsledere leverer en solid bunnlinje og god avkastning. I tillegg forventer interessentgrupper utenfor virksomhetene at resultatene fremkommer på en etisk forsvarlig måte. Ledere har ulike virk...
Article
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Abstract Using evidence from paired franchisor-franchisee dyads, this study identifies how plural formed ownership mechanisms curb the risk of shirking and free riding in franchise systems. These risks have damaging effects on the invested capital of franchisee entrepreneurs. Although shirking and free riding produce a major source of uncertainty f...
Article
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Franchised business networks consist of corporately management and independently owned channel outlets. This analysis employs transaction cost economics and agency theory to explain net ownership shifts between franchisors and franchisees. Hypotheses are developed and a preliminary test is made using secondary data. The results indicate that net co...
Article
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Drawing on various theoretical perspectives, we propose that franchisors cannot assess and control opportunism absent comparative information provided by owning and operating some of their outlets and by franchising others. Moving beyond dyadic perspectives, we propose that the concept of strategic deviance suggests why franchisors accept deviant b...
Chapter
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Despite a marked increase in the implementation of efforts to raise environmental performance, few marketing research studies have investigated the efficacy of these activities. This study provides an initial examination of governance structures as determinants of environmental effectiveness and other facets of organizational performance. We incorp...
Article
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La crisis de mantequilla se extiende. Primera fue Suecia y ahora es Noruega la que no sabe a quien 'untar' para conseguir esta preciado oro graso. Es una crisis de la leche, es decir, las vacas noruegas no han dado tanta leche este año como se esperaba lo que ha provocado que las reservas de mantequilla se hayan 'fundido' más pronto de lo esperado.
Article
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Noruega es uno de los países más ricos del mundo y más prósperos. Sin embargo está teniendo un problema que más bien parece del tercer mundo: se están quedando sin mantequilla. ¿El problema? Una mezcla de Navidad, Naturaleza y proteccionismo, de la que se pueden extraer lecciones económicas.
Article
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Scandinavia's butter crisis is spreading. First Sweden ran into supply problems, in part blamed on a television chef urging everyone to use butter. Now Norwegians are facing a similar squeeze
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Economía DESTACAMOS Finlandia congela los salarios para adelantar a Alemania en competitividad y crecer con más fuerza EN ECODIARIO.ES   Una juez ordena el embargo de 9,32 millones de euros a Raúl, ex delantero del Real ENLACES RELACIONADOS Noruega se queda sin mantequilla: los problemas del proteccionismo  Contrabando y precios desorbitados par...
Article
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Recent cases in retailing reflect that ethics have a major impact on brands and performance, in turn, demonstrating that brand owners, employees, and consumers focus on ethical values. In this study, we analyze how various sources of social power affect corporate ethical values, retailer’s commitment to the retail organization, and ultimately sales...
Article
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The 2009 Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel Prize to Oliver Williamson was not a surprise to scholars in business research. Transaction cost economics (TCE) has been among the most important streams of empirical investigation in business research during the last four decades. TCE has formed, developed and changed...
Article
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This article provides an introduction to the Journal of Retailing Special Issue dedicated to Oliver Williamson and transaction cost economics. The paper briefly outlines transaction cost economics contributions to marketing and related social sciences.
Cover Page
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Special Issue of Journal of Retailing in Honor of The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2009 to Oliver E. Williamson
Presentation
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Williamson etablerte ny forståelse av hvordan markeder og bedrifter fungerer.-Viktigere jo mer komplisert samfunnet blir, mener BI-professor. (intervju)
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This study investigates alternative governance forms in the hotel industry. Agency theory maintains that the need for control over service quality, financial risk, and the market environment affect the choice of governance form. Prior agency research emphasizes alternative governance structures that principals employ, given local market conditions,...
Book
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Previous empirical research has supported the predictions derived from transaction cost economics that asset specificity, uncertainty, frequency and complexity entail vertical integration (David and Han 2004). The underlying assumption is that integration creates the most efficient organizational formation. Given this assumption from transaction co...
Article
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Diversity among procedures employed to examine marketing activity enhances the likelihood that research contributes to theory and practice. This study provides a conceptual framework of diversity among strategies, measures, and methods employed in marketing research. The framework serves as the basis of a review of 844 studies published in 1986-90...
Article
The relationship between market orientation and performance is a cornerstone in the market orientation literature. However, few empirical studies applying objective performance measures raise concerns about whether or not the most market-oriented firms are the best performers. This article reports a study testing the market orientation model using...
Article
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether factors that promote trust influence channel selection decisions. We develop a theoretical model implicating alternative factors that promote trust as antecedent to the choice between new and traditional channels. The model augments prior research investigating relational trust with discussion of...
Article
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This field study investigated contextual antecedents of free riding by franchisees on franchisor brand reputation and effects of free riding on performance in a multinational corporation's franchising network. Structural elements (increased formalization, decentralized decision-making), interactions between franchisor representatives and franchisee...
Book
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Denne boken forsøker å gi en bred introduksjon til fagområdet markedsføringskanaler. Økt konkurranse, globalisering, Internett, kompleksitet og større endringstakt i næringslivet har ført til at behovet for mer kunnskap omkring bedriftenes tilpasning til markedene har blitt viktigere.
Chapter
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FALSIFICATION CRITERIA APPLIED TO TRANSACTION COST ECONOMICS Transaction cost economics (TCE) has had an important position in empirical research within strategy (David and Han, 2004), marketing (Rindfleisch and Heide, 1997), industrial organization (Holmstrom and Tirole, 1989), institutional evolution (Wallis and North, 1986), financial economics...
Article
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The study focuses on the choice of alternative governance forms in the service industry. We analyses the choice between traditional independently owned and managed firms and vertical marketing systems like voluntary chains, franchising and vertically integrated chains. Based on agency theory and scale theory we argue that factors such as the need f...
Article
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Norsk hotellindustri står overfor en rekke utfordringer i tiden fremover. Globalisering av turistindustrien betyr at ekspansive utenlandske kjeder kan være mulige oppkjøpere av norske hoteller og inntrengere på det norske markedet. Større organisatoriske endringer gjennom oppkjøp eller sammenslåinger endrer konkurransesituasjonen i hele markedet....
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The Franchising Alternative
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Horizontal arrangements are increasingly deployed in organizational networks, yet research has rarely examined the effectiveness of these alliances. The coalition of disparate corporate cultures yields appreciable levels of role stress for people in boundary-spanning positions. Dedicated assets and communication modality are factors that influence...
Article
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Forfattere: Ingunn Myrtveit, Arne Nygaard Publisert: 3/2001 Skriv ut I ethvert norsk styrerom diskuterer man lederlønninger. Eierne, representert ved styret, ønsker å sikre langsiktig lønnsomhet. Men ledelsen har ofte mer private og kortsiktige interesser. Hvilke incentivordninger er mest effektive når det gjelder å skape sammenfallende interesser...
Article
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I ethvert norsk styrerom diskuterer man lederlønninger. Eierne, representert ved styret, ønsker å sikre langsiktig lønnsomhet. Men ledelsen har ofte mer private og kortsiktige interesser. Hvilke incentivordninger er mest effektive når det gjelder å skape sammenfallende interesser mellom eierne og ledelsen? Politikere og presse har kastet søkelyset...
Article
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I ethvert norsk styrerom diskuterer man lederlønninger. Eierne, representert ved styret, ønsker å sikre langsiktig lønnsomhet. Men ledelsen har ofte mer private og kortsiktige interesser. Hvilke incentivordninger er mest effektive når det gjelder å skape sammenfallende interesser mellom eierne og ledelsen? Politikere og presse har kastet søkelyset...
Article
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This study investigates antecedents to financial outcomes in franchised distribution channels. A model is developed which implicates authoritative and normative control as antecedents to franchise revenues. The model is tested with data from two hundred sixteen franchises in the Norwegian distribution system of a multinational oil refiner. The resu...
Article
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Agency theory emphasizes the role of ownership, control and incentives in encouraging managers to improve efficiency. Owners often tie managers to contracts that reduce conflict of interest between owners and managers. The differences between alternative business ownership structures have been investigated. According to theory, we expect managers w...
Article
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62 A. Nygaard, S. A. Haugland og A. I Rokkan BETA 2/2000 FORSKNINGSNOT AT: Strukturell utvikling i norsk hotell-virksomhet: en preliminaer empirisk analyse av agentkostnader og skalafortrinn ARNE NYGAARD, SVEN A. HAUGLAND OG AKSEL I. ROKKAN Innenfor hotellvirksomhet har vi de siste årene sett tendenser til reorganisering og satsing på kjede-drift,...
Article
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This study focuses on organizational efforts to constrain ex post trans­ action costs in interorganizational exchange. The theoretical model frames opportunism as a determinant of transaction costs and implicates cooperation and formalization as control structures that alleviate oppor­ tunism. The model also examines whether the proposed theoret...
Article
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This study focuses on organizational efforts to constrain ex post transaction costs in interorganizational exchange. The theoretical model frames opportunism as a determinant of transaction costs and implicates cooperation and formalization as control structures that alleviate opportunism. The model also examines whether the proposed theoretical re...
Article
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A substantial body of research employs agency theory and transaction costs analysis to explain ownership decisions in distribution channels. Agency theory identifies factors that prompt firms to favor behavior-based contracting over outcome-based agreements. Transaction cost economics is a complementary framework which maintains that the organizati...