Arne Biastoch

Arne Biastoch
GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel · Division of Theory and Modelling

Professor

About

187
Publications
38,459
Reads
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9,573
Citations
Citations since 2016
74 Research Items
5896 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,000
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,000

Publications

Publications (187)
Article
Full-text available
Observations of the eastern subpolar North Atlantic in the 2010s show exceptional freshening and cooling of the upper ocean, peaking in 2016 with the lowest salinities recorded for 120 years. Published theories for the mechanisms driving the freshening include: reduced transport of saltier, warmer surface waters northwards from the subtropics assoc...
Article
Full-text available
The North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) is a crucial component of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and is therefore an important factor of the climate system. In order to estimate the mean relative contributions, sources, and pathways of the NADW at the southern exit of the Labrador Sea, a Lagrangian particle experiment is performed. Th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Increasing Greenland Ice Sheet–melting is anticipated to impact watermass transformation in the subpolar North Atlantic and ultimately the meridional overturning circulation. Complex ocean and climate models are widely applied to predict magnitude and timing of related impacts under projected future climate. We discuss the role of the ocean mean st...
Article
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A central promise of cross-domain fusion (CDF) is the provision of a “bigger picture” that integrates different disciplines and may span very different levels of detail. We present a number of settings that call for this bigger picture, with a particular focus on how information from several domains can be made easily accessible and visualizable fo...
Article
Full-text available
Landscape maps based on multivariate cluster analyses provide an objective and comprehensive view on the (marine) environment. They can hence support decision making regarding sustainable ocean resource handling and protection schemes. Across a large number of scales, input parameters and classification methods, numerous studies categorize the ocea...
Article
Full-text available
With the increase in computational power, ocean models with kilometer-scale resolution have emerged over the last decade. These models have been used for quantifying the energetic exchanges between spatial scales, informing the design of eddy parametrizations, and preparing observing networks. The increase in resolution, however, has drastically in...
Article
Full-text available
The Agulhas Current (AC) off the southern tip of Africa is one of the strongest western boundary currents and a crucial choke point of inter-ocean heat and salt exchange between the Indian Ocean and the southern Atlantic Ocean. However, large uncertainties remain concerning the sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity (SSS) variability in the AC...
Article
Full-text available
Marine Heatwaves (MHWs) are ocean extreme events, characterized by anomalously high temperatures, which can have significant ecological impacts. The Northeast U.S. continental shelf is of great economical importance as it is home to a highly productive ecosystem. Local warming rates exceed the global average and the region experienced multiple MHWs...
Preprint
Full-text available
This is a preprint (before peer review) of our paper "Major sources of North Atlantic Deep Water in the subpolar North Atlantic from Lagrangian analyses in a high–resolution ocean model". In this work we use Lagrangian analysis to find the sources of NADW within the subpolar Gyre in the ocean model VIKING20X-JRA- OMIP. In this study we show the m...
Preprint
Observations of the eastern subpolar North Atlantic in the 2010s show exceptional freshening and cooling of the upper ocean, peaking in 2016 with the lowest salinities recorded for 120 years. Published theories for the mechanisms driving the freshening include: reduced transport of saltier, warmer surface waters northwards from the subtropics assoc...
Article
Full-text available
Warming of the North Atlantic region in climate history often was associated with massive melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet. To identify the meltwater's impacts and isolate these from internal variability and other global warming factors, we run single‐forcing simulations including small ensembles using three complex climate models differing only...
Article
Full-text available
The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is a key component of the climate through its transport of heat in the North Atlantic Ocean. Decadal changes in the AMOC, whether through internal variability or anthropogenically forced weakening, therefore have wide-ranging impacts. In this Review, we synthesize the understanding of contempor...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in stratospheric ozone concentrations and increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) alter the temperature structure of the atmosphere and drive changes in the atmospheric and oceanic circulation. We systematically investigate the impacts of ozone recovery and increasing GHGs on the atmospheric and oceanic circulation in the South...
Preprint
Full-text available
With the increase in computational power, ocean models with kilometer-scale resolution have emerged over the last decade. These models have been used for quantifying the energetic exchanges between spatial scales, informing the design of eddy parametrizations and preparing observing networks. The increase in resolution, however, has drastically inc...
Article
Full-text available
Earth System Sciences have been generating increasingly larger amounts of heterogeneous data in recent years. We identify the need to combine Earth System Sciences with Data Sciences, and give our perspective on how this could be accomplished within the sub-field of Marine Sciences. Marine data hold abundant information and insights that Data Scien...
Article
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Agulhas leakage, the warm and salty inflow of Indian Ocean water into the Atlantic Ocean, is of importance for the climate-relevant Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. South of Africa, the eastward turning Agulhas Current sheds Agulhas rings, cyclones and filaments of order 100 km that carry the Indian Ocean water into the Cape Basin and f...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Agulhas Current (AC) off the southern tip of Africa is one of the strongest western boundary currents and a crucial chokepoint of inter-ocean heat and salt exchange between the Indian and the South Atlantic Ocean. However, large uncertainties remain concerning the sea surface temperature and salinity variability in the AC region and their drivi...
Article
Full-text available
The inflow of relatively warm and salty water from the Indian Ocean into the South Atlantic via Agulhas leakage is important for the global overturning circulation and the global climate. In this study, we analyse the robustness of Agulhas leakage estimates as well as the thermohaline property modifications of Agulhas leakage south of Africa. Lagra...
Preprint
Full-text available
Changes in stratospheric ozone concentrations and increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) alter the temperature structure of the atmosphere and drive changes in the atmospheric and oceanic circulation. We systematically investigate the impacts of ozone recovery and increasing GHGs on the atmospheric and oceanic circulation in the South...
Article
Full-text available
Deep convection and associated deep water formation are key processes for climate variability, since they impact the oceanic uptake of heat and trace gases and alter the structure and strength of the global overturning circulation. For long, deep convection in the subpolar North Atlantic was thought to be confined to the central Labrador Sea in the...
Article
Full-text available
The southward flow of North Atlantic Deep Water makes up the major component of the deepwater limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). In the subtropical North Atlantic, it's flow is concentrated along the continental slope, forming a coherent Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC). Both, observations and models show a high var...
Article
How far do marine larvae disperse in the ocean? Decades of population genetic studies have revealed generally low levels of genetic structure at large spatial scales (hundreds of kilometres). Yet this result, typically based on discrete sampling designs, does not necessarily imply extensive dispersal. Here, we adopt a continuous sampling strategy a...
Preprint
Full-text available
A hierarchy of global 1/4° (ORCA025) and Atlantic Ocean 1/20° nested (VIKING20X) ocean/sea-ice models is described. It is shown that the eddy-rich configurations performed in hindcasts of the past 50–60 years under CORE and JRA55-do atmospheric forcings realistically simulate the large-scale horizontal circulation, the distribution of the mesoscale...
Article
Full-text available
The Antarctic ozone hole has led to substantial changes in the Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation, such as the strengthening and poleward shift of the midlatitude westerly jet. Ozone recovery during the twenty-first century is expected to continue to affect the jet's strength and position, leading to changes in the opposite direction compa...
Preprint
Full-text available
The inflow of relatively warm and salty water from the Indian Ocean into the South Atlantic via Agulhas leakage is important for the global overturning circulation and the global climate. In this study, we analyse the robustness of Agulhas leakage estimates as well as the thermohaline property modifications of Agulhas leakage south of Africa. Lagra...
Article
Full-text available
Bromoform is the major by-product from chlorination of cooling water in coastal power plants. The number of power plants in East and Southeast Asian economies has increased rapidly, exceeding mean global growth. Bottom-up estimates of bromoform emissions based on few measurements appear to under-represent the industrial sources of bromoform from Ea...
Article
Full-text available
Connectivity is a fundamental process driving the persistence of marine populations and their adaptation potential in response to environmental change. In this study, we analysed the population genetics of two morphologically highly similar deep-sea sponge clades (Phakellia hirondellei and the ‘Topsentia-and-Petromica’ clade, (hereafter referred to...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review. Assessment of the impact of ocean resolution in Earth System models on the mean state, variability, and future projections and discussion of prospects for improved parameterisations to represent the ocean mesoscale. Recent Findings. The majority of centres participating in CMIP6 employ ocean components with resolutions of about...
Article
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The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in the Acknowledgements section.
Article
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Plain Language Summary Indian Ocean surface waters have warmed more than the tropical Atlantic or Pacific over the last 60 years. In contrast, the amount of heat stored in the upper 700 m of the Indian Ocean did not exhibit strong increases between 1960 and 2000, which is counter to temperature trends in other ocean regions across the globe. Only s...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Antarctic ozone hole has led to substantial changes in the Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation, such as the strengthening and poleward shift of the mid-latitude westerly jet. Ozone recovery during the twenty-first century is expected to continue to affect the jet's strength and position, leading to changes in the opposite direction comp...
Article
Full-text available
Marine heatwaves along the coast ofWestern Australia, referred to as Ningaloo Niño, have had dramatic impacts on the ecosystem in the recent decade. A number of local and remote forcing mechanisms have been put forward, however little is known about the depth structure of such temperature extremes. Utilizing an eddy-active global Ocean General Circ...
Article
Full-text available
Ecosystem connectivity is an essential consideration for marine spatial planning of competing interests in the deep sea. Immobile, adult communities are connected through freely floating larvae, depending on new recruits for their health and to adapt to external pressures. We hypothesize that the vertical swimming ability of deep-sea larvae, before...
Article
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Mesoscale eddies can be strengthened by the absorption of submesoscale eddies resulting from mixed-layer baroclinic instabilities. This is shown for mesoscale eddies in the Agulhas Current system by investigating the kinetic energy cascade with a spectral and a coarse-graining approach in two model simulations of the Agulhas region. One simulation...
Article
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A new Earth system model, the Flexible Ocean and Climate Infrastructure (FOCI), is introduced. A first version of FOCI consists of a global high-top atmosphere (European Centre Hamburg general circulation model; ECHAM6.3) and an ocean model (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean v3.6; NEMO3.6) as well as sea-ice (Louvain-la-Neuve sea Ice Mode...
Article
Full-text available
The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) represents the zonally integrated stream function of meridional volume transport in the Atlantic Basin. The AMOC plays an important role in transporting heat meridionally in the climate system. Observations suggest a heat transport by the AMOC of 1.3 PW at 26°N ‐ a latitude which is close to wh...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. Bromoform is the major by-product from chlorination of cooling water in coastal power plants. Power plants in East and Southeast Asian economies have increased rapidly exceeding global growth. Bottom-up estimates of bromoform emissions based on few measurements appear to under-represent the industrial sources of bromoform from East Asia....
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. A new Earth system model, the Flexible Ocean and Climate Infrastructure (FOCI), is introduced. A first version of FOCI consists of a global high-top atmosphere (ECHAM6.3) and an ocean model (NEMO3.6) as well as sea ice (LIM2) and land surface model components (JSBACH), which are coupled through the OASIS3-MCT software package. FOCI includ...
Article
Full-text available
The westerlies and trade winds over the South Atlantic and Indian Ocean are important drivers of the regional oceanography around southern Africa, including features such as the Agulhas Current, the Agulhas leakage, and the Benguela upwelling. Agulhas leakage constitutes a fraction of warm and saline water transport from the Indian Ocean into the S...
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary Measuring ocean currents by following their paths—rather than by observing them at a fixed location—is the oldest method for exploring ocean currents. For centuries, mariners used compilations of ship drift data to map out the location and intensity of surface currents along major shipping routes of the global ocean. In the m...
Article
Full-text available
The Agulhas Current, the western boundary current of the South Indian Ocean, has been shown to play an important role in the connectivity between the Indian and Atlantic oceans. The greater Agulhas Current system is highly dominated by mesoscale dynamics. To investigate their influence on the regional and global circulations, a family of high-resol...
Article
Full-text available
Ballast water treatment is required for vessels to prevent the introduction of potentially invasive neobiota. Some treatment methods use chemical disinfectants which produce a variety of halogenated compounds as disinfection by-products (DBPs). One of the most abundant DBPs from oxidative ballast water treatment is bromoform (CHBr3), for which we f...
Article
Satellite observations and output from a high resolution ocean model are used to investigate how the Loop Current in the Gulf of Mexico affects the Gulf Stream transport through Florida Straits. We find that the expansion (contraction) of the Loop Current leads to lower (higher) transports through the Straits of Florida. The associated surface velo...
Article
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The northward flow of the upper limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is fed by waters entering the South Atlantic from the Indian Ocean mainly via the Agulhas Current (AC) system and by waters entering from the Pacific through Drake Passage (DP), commonly referred to as the “warm” and “cold” water routes, respectively. How...
Article
Full-text available
The Agulhas Bank is an important area for the spawning of small pelagic fish and other species. Here, within a NEMO ocean model, we investigate changes in temperature over the Bank on multidecadal time scales. In agreement with previous observational studies, a shift to colder temperatures is found in 1997. The model also simulates an earlier shift...
Article
Full-text available
The westerlies and trade winds over the South Atlantic and Indian Ocean are important drivers of the regional oceanography around Southern Africa, including features such as the Agulhas current, the Agulhas leakage and the Benguela upwelling. The Agulhas leakage is the transport of warm and saline water from the Indian Ocean into the South Atlantic...
Article
Full-text available
Modelling the drift of marine debris in quasi-real time can be of societal relevance. One pertinent example is Malaysia Airlines flight MH370. The aircraft is assumed to have crashed in the Indian Ocean, leaving floating wreckage to drift on the surface. Some of these items were recovered around the western Indian Ocean. We use ocean currents simul...
Article
Full-text available
To model tracer spreading in the ocean, Lagrangian simulations in an offline framework are a practical and efficient alternative to solving the advective–diffusive tracer equations online. Differences in both approaches raise the question of whether both methods are comparable. Lagrangian simulations usually use model output averaged in time, and t...
Article
Full-text available
The Agulhas Current, the western boundary current of the South Indian Ocean, has been shown to play an important role in the connectivity between the Indian and Atlantic oceans. The greater Agulhas Current system is highly dominated by mesoscale dynamics. To investigate their influence onto the regional and global circulations, a family of high-res...
Article
Full-text available
Ballast water treatment is required for vessels to prevent the introduction of potentially invasive neobiota. Some treatment methods use chemical disinfectants which produce a variety of halogenated compounds as disinfection by-products (DBPs). One of the most abundant DBP from oxidative ballast water treatment is bromoform (CHBr3) where we find an...
Article
Full-text available
We analyze the contribution of the Agulhas Current on the central water masses of the Benguela upwelling system (BUS) over the last decades in a high-resolution ocean simulation driven by atmospheric reanalysis. The BUS is an Eastern Boundary Upwelling System where upwelling of cold nutrient-rich water favors biomass growth. The two distinct subreg...