Arne Astrup

Arne Astrup
University of Copenhagen

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1,011
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Publications

Publications (1,011)
Article
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A low-calorie diet (LCD) is an effective strategy to lose weight and improve cardiometabolic risk factors, however, sexual dimorphism may be present. This study aims to investigate sexual dimorphism in cardiometabolic risk factors following weight loss and after weight maintenance. 782 overweight/obese participants (65% women) of the DiOGenes trial...
Article
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Dietary fibers can affect appetite and gut metabolism, but the effect of the novel potato fibers FiberBind and rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) is unknown. We, therefore, aimed to investigate the effect of daily intake of FiberBind and RG-I on appetite sensations and fecal fat excretion. In a single-blinded, randomized, three-way crossover trial, wheat...
Article
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Macronutrient intake, the proportion of calories consumed from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, is an important risk factor for metabolic diseases with significant familial aggregation. Previous studies have identified two genetic loci for macronutrient intake, but incomplete coverage of genetic variation and modest sample sizes have hindered the di...
Article
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Precision medicine is changing the way people are diagnosed and treated into a more personalized approach. Using a novel statistical approach, we demonstrate how two diets cause differential weight loss depending on pre-treatment fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) levels. One hundred and eighty-one overweight people with increase...
Article
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Background/objectives: The interaction between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) concentrations and diets with different carbohydrate content were studied as prognostic markers of weight loss as recent studies up to 6 months of duration have suggested the importance of these biomarkers. Subjects/methods: This was a retrospect...
Article
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Background: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FADS1/FADS2 genes are associated with changes in serum and tissue polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content. PUFA regulate inflammatory signaling pathways in adipose tissue; however, the effect of SNPs in FADS1/FADS2 on adipose tissue inflammation is equivocal. The present study examined if SNP...
Article
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While dietary factors are important modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D), the causal role of carbohydrate quality in nutrition remains controversial. Dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) have been examined in relation to the risk of T2D in multiple prospective cohort studies. Previous meta-analyses indicate significant re...
Conference Paper
Background Weight loss is recommended as treatment of concomitant knee osteoarthritis (OA) and overweight. The GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide has been shown effective in maintaining or even further reducing weight loss, but the compound has not been tested in a population of patients with overweight and knee OA. Objectives The objective of thi...
Article
Objectives: Salivary α- amylase (AMY1) is responsible for the breakdown of starch into oligosaccharides, tri and di-saccharides giving a start to the starch digestion in the oral cavity on food consumption. Several studies recently reported contradicting results regarding the link between AMY1 copy numbers (CNs) and obesity and type 2 diabetes.Obj...
Article
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Long-term consumption of dietary fiber is generally considered beneficial for weight management and metabolic health, but the results of interventions vary greatly depending on the type of dietary fibers involved. This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of a specific dietary fiber consisting of a wheat-bran extract enriched in...
Article
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Background/objectives: Obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR) may develop in multiple organs, representing different aetiologies towards cardiometabolic diseases. This study aimed to identify distinct plasma lipid profiles in overweight/obese individuals who show muscle-IR and/or liver-IR. Subjects/methods: Baseline data of the European mult...
Article
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Introduction With an increasing prevalence of citizens of older age and with overweight, the health issues related to knee osteoarthritis (OA) will intensify. Weight loss is considered a primary management strategy in patients with concomitant overweight and knee OA. However, there are no widely available and feasible methods to sustain weight loss...
Article
Background: In a previous pilot weight-loss study, an association was observed between baseline fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels and the effectiveness of the Gelesis100 treatment. The aim of this subanalysis of the Gelesis Loss Of Weight (GLOW; NCT02307279) study is to further assess the association between FPG and body weight (BW) responders in...
Article
Background: Overweight and obesity are predisposing conditions for the development of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance caused by excess adiposity is a key factor in this process. Methods: The effect of Gelesis100, a novel hydrogel, was assessed in patients who were overweight or had obesity, without antidiabetic medications, and...
Preprint
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Background Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are commonly used markers of cardiometabolic risk. However, sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) has been proposed to be a better marker of intra-abdominal obesity compared to WC and might better associate with metabolic disturbances in high-risk populations. The objective of this study was...
Article
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Comprehensive, high throughput analysis of the plasma proteome has the potential to enable holistic analysis of the health state of an individual. Based on our own experience and the evaluation of recent large-scale plasma mass spectrometry (MS) based proteomic studies, we identified two outstanding challenges: slow and delicate nano-flow liquid ch...
Article
Background: The adipose tissue (AT) is a secretory organ producing a wide variety of factors that participate in the genesis of metabolic disorders linked to excess fat mass. Weight loss improves obesity-related disorders. Objectives: Transcriptomic studies on human AT, and a combination of analyses of transcriptome and proteome profiling of con...
Article
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Efforts to identify a preferable diet for weight management based on macronutrient composition have largely failed, but recent evidence suggests that satiety effects of carbohydrates may depend on the individual’s insulin-mediated cellular glucose uptake. Therefore, using data from the POUNDS LOST trial, pre-treatment fasting plasma glucose (FPG),...
Article
Background/Aim: Body weight loss is essential to lower risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in overweight patients. Therefore, we examined the effectiveness of the Rééducation Nutritionnelle et Psycho-Comportementale (RNPC ® ) program, designed to improve metabolic parameters during weight loss, among different patient group...
Article
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Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent throughout the world and can adversely affect the nutritional status of individuals. Studies have shown that many people with obesity have inadequate intake of iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, folate and vitamins A and B12, likely as a result of poor diet quality. Nutritional inadequacies or defici...
Article
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Hundreds of genetic variants have been associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using observational cohorts. However, the genetic contribution to efficient weight loss in response to dietary intervention remains unknown. We perform a GWAS in two large low-caloric diet intervention cohorts of obese partici...
Article
Background & aims: Gut microbiota composition is linked to obesity and metabolic syndrome. The nutrients and doses required to modulate the gut microbiota towards beneficially influence components of the metabolic syndrome are unclear. This study aimed to investigate diet-induced effects on the gut microbiota and metabolic markers in overweight in...
Preprint
Molecular quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses are increasingly popular to explore the genetic architecture of complex traits, but existing studies do not leverage shared regulatory patterns and suffer from a large multiplicity burden, which hampers the detection of weak signals such as trans associations. Here, we present a fully multivariate p...
Article
Full-text available
Background/objectives: Individuals with high pre-treatment bacterial Prevotella-to-Bacteroides (P/B) ratio have been reported to lose more body weight on diets high in fiber than subjects with a low P/B ratio. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine potential differences in dietary weight loss responses between participants with low...
Article
Full-text available
Impaired adipose tissue insulin signalling is a critical feature of insulin resistance. Here we identify a pathway linking the lipolytic enzyme hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) to insulin action via the glucose-responsive transcription factor ChREBP and its target, the fatty acid elongase ELOVL6. Genetic inhibition of HSL in human adipocytes and mous...
Article
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Purpose Berries and mixed berry products exert acute effects on postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia, but very few berries have been studied, and primarily in normal weight subjects. Sea buckthorn and strawberry are compositionally widely different berries and may likely produce different responses. The effects of strawberry and sea buckthorn on...
Data
Appendix S1. Inclusion and exclusion criteria. Appendix S2. Standard Operating Procedure (SOP): Guidelines to dieticians/diet‐instructors for instructing participants on how to follow the Low‐Energy Diet (LED). Appendix S3. Body composition equipments. Appendix S4. Changes in anthropometry.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Holistic human proteome maps are expected to complement comprehensive profile assessment of health and disease phenotypes. However, methodologies to analyze proteomes in human tissue or body fluid samples at relevant scale and performance are still limited in clinical research. Their deployment and demonstration in large enough human popul...
Article
Full-text available
Objective This study aims to assess the efficacy and safety of Gelesis100, a novel, nonsystemic, superabsorbent hydrogel to treat overweight or obesity. Methods The Gelesis Loss Of Weight (GLOW) study was a 24‐week, multicenter, randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled study in patients with BMI ≥ 27 and ≤ 40 kg/m² and fasting plasma glucose ≥...
Article
Background Body fat distribution is a marker of metabolic health independent of body size. Visceral fat accumulation has been suggested to result from a decreased expandability of the subcutaneous fat depots. Furthermore, the visceral fat may be easier to mobilize than the peripheral fat. We examined whether differences in abdominal obesity at base...
Article
Full-text available
Thyroid dysfunction is an important public health problem, which affects 10% of the general population and increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Many aspects of thyroid hormone regulation have only partly been elucidated, including its transport, metabolism, and genetic determinants. Here we report a large meta-analysis of g...
Article
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Background Regular-fat cheese does not seem to increase low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations compared to reduced-fat cheese. However, plasma LDL-C concentrations do not reflect levels and size of LDL particles, which might be a better predictor of cardiovascular risk. Methods The aim was to compare the effects of regular-fat...
Article
Human gut microbiota has been suggested to play an important role in nutrition and obesity. However, formulating meaningful and clinically relevant dietary advice based on knowledge about gut microbiota remains a key challenge. A number of recent studies have found evidence that stratification of individuals according to 2 microbial enterotypes (do...
Article
During the past several decades, numerous trials have compared various diets for the management of overweight and obesity, assuming that a single dietary strategy would be appropriate for all individuals. These studies have failed to provide strong evidence for the efficacy of any particular diet, and it is likely that different people will have di...
Article
Scope Self‐reported dietary intake does not represent an objective unbiased assessment. We investigate the effect of the New Nordic Diet (NND) versus Average Danish Diet (ADD) on plasma metabolic profiles to identify biomarkers of compliance and metabolic effects. Methods and results In a 26‐week controlled dietary intervention study, 146 subjects...
Article
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Aims: The PREVIEW lifestyle intervention study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01777893) is, to date, the largest, multinational study concerning prevention of type-2 diabetes. We hypothesized that the initial, fixed low-energy diet (LED) would induce different metabolic outcomes in men vs women. Materials and methods: All participants follow...
Article
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Background: Weight loss in obese individuals aims to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes by improving glycemic control. Yet, significant intersubject variability is observed and the outcomes remain poorly predictable. Objective: The aim of the study was to predict whether an individual will show improvements in insulin sensitivity above or below...
Poster
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Clinically relevant findings in proteomics rely on data from large cohorts of samples from individuals, since large inter individual differences exist substantially challenging biomarker discovery, validation and eventual clinical use. Using highly robust capillary flow chromatography and sensitive DIA, we demonstrate profiling of 1508 clinical pla...
Article
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Aim of Study: The use of weighed food diaries in nutritional studies provides a powerful method to quantify food and nutrient intakes. Yet, mapping these records onto food composition tables (FCTs) is a challenging, time-consuming and error-prone process. Experts make this effort manually and no automation has been previously proposed. Our study ai...
Article
Objective: Bodyweight loss is essential to lower risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in overweight patients. Therefore, we examined the effectiveness of the RNPC® program for short and long term bodyweight reduction. Methods: The RNPC® program is a novel weight loss and maintenance program achieving weight loss by an energy-...
Article
BACKGROUND Casein and whey proteins differ in amino acid composition and absorption rate; however the absorption rate of casein can be increased to mimic that of whey proteins by exogenous hydrolysis. In view of these compositional differences we studied the metabolic responses to intake of casein, hydrolyzed casein and whey proteins in overweight...
Article
Full-text available
Background Obesity is associated with vitamin insufficiency and low grade inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of weight loss on folate, retinol, vitamin B12, D and E status and the degree of inflammation. Methods Out of 110, 85 individuals (75% women) aged 39 ± 11 years with a mean ± SD BMI of 33 ± 4 kg/m², comple...
Article
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Background Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3), a liver-derived protein, plays an important role in the lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Using data available from the DiOGenes study, we assessed the link with clinical improvements (weight, plasma lipid, and insulin levels) and changes in liver markers, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotr...