Arnaud D'Argembeau

Arnaud D'Argembeau
University of Liège | ulg · Department of Psychology - Psychology and Neuroscience of Cognition Research Unit

39.67
 · 
PhD

About

131
Publications
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Publications

Publications (131)
Preprint
Full-text available
It has been frequently described that older adults subjectively report the vividness of their memories as being as high, or even higher, than young adults, despite poorer objective memory performance and/or lower activity in the associated brain regions. Here, we review studies that examined age-related changes in the cognitive and neural basis of...
Article
While the cognitive and neural mechanisms that underlie episodic future thinking are increasingly well understood, little is known about how the temporal unfolding of events is represented in future simulations. In this study, we leveraged wearable camera technology to examine whether real-world events are structured and compressed in the same way...
Article
Two independent lines of evidence suggest that drowsiness and mind-wandering share common neurocognitive processes indexed by ocular parameters (e.g., eyeblink frequency and pupil dynamics). Mind-wandering and drowsiness frequently co-occur, however, such that it remains unclear whether observed oculometric variations are related to mind-wandering,...
Preprint
Rates of subjective recollection can change with expectations during a memory task. In the current study, we examined whether young and older adults adjust their subjective vividness criterion according to their expectations in different memorability contexts. Young and older adults performed a memory task in which they memorized pictures varying i...
Article
Full-text available
While age differences in episodic memory are well documented, the impact of age on the structure of memories for real-world events has not been investigated in detail. Recent research has shown that the continuous flow of information that constitutes daily life events is compressed in episodic memory, such that the time needed to mentally replay an...
Article
The ability to decouple from the present environment and explore other times is a central feature of the human mind. Research in cognitive psychology and neuroscience has shown that the personal past and future is represented at multiple timescales and levels of resolution, from broad lifetime periods that span years to short-time slices of experie...
Article
Full-text available
Although healthy aging has been related to a decline in recollection as indexed by objective measures, the subjective experience of recollection sometimes remains stable. To date, however, these age-related differences have only been examined using aggregated data across trials. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between subject...
Article
A gist retrieval-orientation decreases one's ability to remember objective details from past experiences. Here, we examined whether a gist retrieval-orientation manipulation can impact both the objective and subjective aspects of remembering. Young participants took part in two cued-recollection tasks in which they studied pictures associated with...
Article
Full-text available
When recollecting events, older adults typically report similar memory vividness levels as young adults, while they actually retrieve fewer episodic details. This suggests that young and older adults use episodic details differently to calibrate their vividness judgements. Capitalizing on the idea that remembering reactivates brain regions that ini...
Conference Paper
Gist retrieval-orientation manipulations can experimentally decrease one’s ability to recollect objective details of past experience (Rudoy, Weintraub, & Paller, 2009). Recent evidence further suggest that the quantity of recollected details strongly predicts the associated subjective memory experience (i.e., vividness) (Folville, D’Argembeau, & Ba...
Article
Full-text available
People with schizophrenia experience difficulties in remembering their past and envisioning their future. However, while alterations of event representation are well documented, little is known about how personal events are located and ordered in time. Using a think-aloud procedure, we investigated which strategies are used to determine the times o...
Article
Full-text available
Daily life situations often require people to remember internal mentation, such as their future plans or interpretations of events. Little is known, however, about the principles that govern memory for thoughts experienced during real-world events. In particular, it remains unknown whether factors that structure the retrieval of external stimuli al...
Preprint
Although healthy aging has been related to a decline in recollection as indexed by objective measures, the subjective experience of recollection seems to remain stable. To date, however, these age-related differences have only been examined using aggregated data across trials. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between subjectiv...
Article
Recent studies suggest that different forms of episodic simulation—mental representations of past, future, or atemporal events—recruit many of the same underlying cognitive and neural processes. This leads to the question whether there are distinctive hallmark characteristics of episodic future thinking: the subjective sense that imagined events be...
Article
Full-text available
Belief in occurrence is theorized to play a central role in remembering autobiographical events. Ernst and D'Argembeau (2017) proposed that belief in occurrence also plays a key role in determining the "realness" of future events, or the subjective sense that imagined future events will genuinely occur. They reported data indicating that belief in...
Article
Full-text available
Some people report memories of near-death experiences (NDEs) after facing situations of impending death and these memories appear to have significant consequences on their lives (here referred to as “real NDE experiencers”; real NDErs). We assessed to what extent NDE memories are considered self-defining: memories that help people to define clearly...
Article
While it is established that goal processing is a central component of episodic future thinking, how personal goals shape future event representations is not fully understood. Here, we explored the influence of the source of motivation underlying goal pursuit. Personal goals differ in their degree of self-concordance, which depends on the primary m...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies suggest that episodic memory represents the continuous flow of information that constitutes daily life events in a temporally compressed form, but the nature and determinants of this compression mechanism remain unclear. In the present study, we used wearable camera technology to investigate whether the temporal compression of experi...
Article
Full-text available
Remembering an event typically takes less time than experiencing it, suggesting that episodic memory represents past experience in a temporally compressed way. Little is known, however, about how the continuous flow of real-life events is summarised in memory. Here we investigated the nature and determinants of temporal compression by directly comp...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies suggest that the continuous flow of information that constitutes daily life events is temporally compressed in episodic memory, yet the characteristics and determinants of this compression mechanism remain unclear. This study examined this question using an experimental paradigm incorporating wearable camera technology. Participants...
Chapter
When one's mind wanders, one frequently experiences thoughts, images, and feelings about oneself and one's life. These self- referential thoughts involve diverse contents and take various forms, but most often focus on specific future events that are closely related to one's personal goals and concerns. Neuroimaging studies show that such spontaneo...
Article
Full-text available
Episodic memories are typically composed of perceptual information derived from the external environment and representations of internal states (e.g., one's thoughts during prior episodes). To date, however, research has mostly focused on the remembrance of external stimuli, such that little is known about how internal mentation is represented with...
Article
While the cognitive and neural bases of episodic future thinking are well documented, questions remain as to what gives the sense that an imagined event belongs to one’s personal future. Capitalizing on previous research on metacognitive appraisals in autobiographical remembering, we propose that episodic future thinking involves, in varying degree...
Article
Humans have the remarkable ability to mentally travel through past and future times. However, while memory for the times of past events has been much investigated, little is known about how imagined future events are temporally located. Using a think-aloud protocol, we found that the temporal location of past and future events is rarely directly ac...
Article
This study investigated the ability of individuals with disordered gambling to imagine future events. Problem gamblers (n=35) and control participants (n=35) were asked to imagine positive and negative future events for three temporal distances (one week, one year, 5-10 years). Then, a variety of phenomenological aspects of their future thoughts (e...
Article
Full-text available
A frequent and equal tendency to think positively about one’s past and future has been conceptualised as a balanced time perspective (TP). Such a dispositional temporal orientation has been associated with higher life satisfaction and happiness. The aim of the present study was to develop and to validate a French version of the Balanced Time Perspe...
Article
Full-text available
La Perspective Temporelle Equilibrée fait référence à une disposition individuelle caractérisée par le fait de se projeter mentalement dans le futur et dans le passé de manière positive et fréquente. Nous avons développé la version française d’une échelle initialement conçue en anglais, évaluant cette orientation temporelle : la “Balanced Time Pers...
Article
Full-text available
Neuroimaging studies have revealed the recruitment of a range of neural networks during the resting state, which might reflect a variety of cognitive experiences and processes occurring in an individual's mind. In this study, we focused on the default mode network (DMN) and attentional networks and investigated their association with distinct menta...
Article
Recent research suggests that some imagined future events are encoded in memory, leading to the formation of "memories of the future". However, questions remain regarding the exact components of future event simulations that are encoded and the factors that determine their accessibility. To address these questions, the present study investigated me...
Article
Full-text available
Personal identity is nourished by memories of significant past experiences and by the imagination of meaningful events that one anticipates to happen in the future. The organisation of such self-defining memories and prospective thoughts in the cognitive system has received little empirical attention, however. In the present study, our aims were to...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research suggests that sleepiness and mind-wandering—the experience of thoughts that are both stimulus-independent and task-unrelated—frequently co-occur and are both associated with poorer cognitive functioning. Whether these two phenomena have distinguishable effects on task performance remains unknown, however. To investigate this questio...
Article
Background: Disorders of the self, such as a reduced sense of personal continuity in time, are a core symptom of schizophrenia, but one that is still poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated two complementary aspects of self-continuity, namely phenomenological and narrative continuity, in 27 patients with schizophrenia, and compare...
Article
Although autonoetic experience-a sense of mental time travel-has been considered as the hallmark of episodic future thinking, what determines this subjective feeling is not yet fully understood. Here, we investigated the role of autobiographical knowledge by manipulating the relevance of imagined events for personal goals. Participants were asked t...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the intrinsic temporal nature of procrastination, little research has examined the link between this form of self-regulatory failure and the consideration of future consequences, and no study has addressed the link between procrastination and episodic future thinking. The aim of the present study was to explore these relationships. Particip...
Article
Disorders of the self, such as the "loss of continuity" of the self in time, are a core symptom of schizophrenia, but one, which is still poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated two complementary aspects of self-continuity, namely phenomenological and narrative continuity, in 27 patients with schizophrenia, and compared them with 2...
Article
Full-text available
While many thoughts and mental images that people form about their personal future refer to emotionally significant events, there is still little empirical data on the frequency and nature of emotional future-oriented thoughts (EmoFTs) that occur in natural settings. In the present study, participants recorded EmoFTs occurring in daily life and rat...
Article
Functional neuroimaging has provided a new means for exploring the brain regions that allow humans to mentally represent and reflect on their personal characteristics and experiences. This article provides an overview of the neural basis of two fundamental types of self-representation – semantic and episodic self-knowledge – and discusses the possi...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to project oneself into the future contributes to development and maintenance of a coherent sense of identity. If recent research has revealed that schizophrenia is associated with difficulties envisioning the future, little is known about patients’ future self-representations. In this study, 27 participants with schizophrenia and 26 he...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to imagine the future is a complex mental faculty that depends on an ensemble of cognitive processes supported by an extended set of brain regions. Our aim here was to shed light on one key component of future thinking-personal goal processing-and to determine its neural correlates during both directed and spontaneous forms of thoughts....
Article
Full-text available
Recent research has shown that many prospective thoughts are organised in networks of related events, but the relational dimensions that contribute to the formation of such networks are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the organisational role of emotion by using cues of different valence for eliciting event networks. We found that manipu...
Article
Abstract Recent research suggests that episodic future thoughts can be formed through the same dual mechanisms, direct and generative, as autobiographical memories. However, the prevalence and determinants of the direct production of future event representations remain unclear. Here, we addressed this issue by collecting self-reports of production...
Article
Although growing evidence has shown that remembering the past and imagining the future recruit a common core network of frontal-parietal-temporal regions, the extent to which these regions contribute to the temporal dimension of autobiographical thought remains unclear. In this fMRI study, we focused on the event-sequencing aspect of time and exami...
Article
Full-text available
Anosognosia is a complex symptom corresponding to a lack of awareness of one's current clinical status. Anosognosia for cognitive deficits has frequently been described in Alzheimer's disease (AD), while unawareness of current characteristics of personality traits has rarely been considered. We used a well-established questionnaire-based method in...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research suggests that prospective and non-prospective forms of mind-wandering possess distinct properties, yet little is known about what exactly differentiates between future-oriented and non-future-oriented mind-wandering episodes. In the present study, we used multilevel exploratory factor analyses (MEFA) to examine the factorial structu...
Article
Full-text available
With the development of functional neuroimaging, important progress has been made in identifying the brain regions involved in self-related processing. One of the most consistent findings has been that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) is activated when people contemplate various aspects of themselves and their life, such their traits, exp...
Article
In human cognition, self and memory processes strongly interact, as evidenced by the memory advantage for self-referential materials [Self-Reference Effect (SRE) and Self-Reference Recollection Effect (SRRE)]. The current study examined this interaction at the behavioural level and its neural correlates in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). He...
Article
Full-text available
Personal identity critically depends on the creation of stories about the self and one’s life. The present study investigates the neural substrates of autobiographical reasoning, a process central to the construction of such narratives. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, participants approached a set of personally significant me...
Article
Full-text available
Recent findings have shown that mind-wandering - the occurrence of stimulus-independent and task-unrelated thoughts - is associated with negative affect and lower psychological well-being. However, it remains unclear whether this relationship is due to the occurrence of mind-wandering per se or to the fact that people who mind wander more tend to b...
Article
The ability to think about the future-prospection-is central to many aspects of human cognition and behavior, from planning and decision making, to self-control and the construction of a sense of identity. Yet, the exact nature of the representational systems underlying prospection is not fully understood. Recent findings point to the critical role...
Article
Full-text available
Recent findings suggest that multiple event properties contribute to shape the phenomenology of episodic future thoughts, but the specific role of each property is not yet fully understood. This study shows that different phenomenological features are predicted by distinct event properties. The vividness of an episodic future thought largely depend...
Article
The investigation of self-reflective processing during adolescence is relevant, as this period is characterized by deep reorganization of the self-concept. It may be the case that an atypical development of brain regions underlying self-reflective processing increases the risk for psychological disorders and impaired social functioning. In this stu...
Article
Full-text available
The act of projecting oneself into meaningful future events may significantly contribute to a person's sense of self and identity. Yet if the role of memories, in particular self-defining memories (SDMs), in grounding the self is now well established, the identity function of anticipated future events has received comparatively little attention. Th...
Article
Throughout evolution, hominids have developed greater capacity to think about themselves in abstract and symbolic ways. This process has reached its apex in humans with the construction of a concept of self as a distinct entity with a personal history. This chapter provides a review of recent functional neuroimaging studies that have investigated t...
Chapter
Imagining Emotional Events in the Near and Distant Future Episodic Future Thinking and Personal Goals Seeing One's Personal Future Through Rose-Colored Glasses Feeling Connected to Future Selves and Decision Making Conclusion Acknowledgments References
Article
Full-text available
Interactions between the neural correlates of short-term memory (STM) and attention have been actively studied in the visual STM domain but much less in the verbal STM domain. Here we show that the same attention mechanisms that have been shown to shape the neural networks of visual STM also shape those of verbal STM. Based on previous research in...
Article
Full-text available
Recent neuroimaging research has revealed that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is consistently engaged when people form mental representations of themselves. However, the precise function of this region in self-representation is not yet fully understood. Here, we investigate whether the MPFC contributes to epistemic and emotive investments in s...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to mentally simulate possible futures (episodic future thinking) is of fundamental importance for various aspects of human cognition and behavior, but precisely how humans construct mental representations of future events is still essentially unknown. We suggest that episodic future thoughts consist of transitory patterns of activation...
Data
Brain regions (outside a priori areas of interest) associated with task-related interferences and mind-wandering compared to being fully focused on task. (DOC)
Data
Brain regions (outside a priori areas of interest) more active during task-related interferences compared to external distractions. (DOC)
Data
Brain regions (outside a priori areas of interest) associated with the main effects of task-relatedness and stimulus-dependency, as well as the cross-over interaction effect in the whole-brain ANOVA. (DOC)
Data
Brain regions (outside a priori areas of interest) more active during mind-wandering compared to both task-related interferences and external distractions (conjunction analysis). (DOC)
Article
Full-text available
The default mode network (DMN) is a set of brain regions that consistently shows higher activity at rest compared to tasks requiring sustained focused attention toward externally presented stimuli. The cognitive processes that the DMN possibly underlies remain a matter of debate. It has alternately been proposed that DMN activity reflects unfocused...
Article
Many studies suggest that long-term lexical–semantic knowledge is an important determinant of verbal short-term memory (STM) performance. This study explored the impact of emotional valence on word immediate serial recall as a further lexico-semantic long-term memory (LTM) effect on STM. This effect is particularly interesting for the study of STM–...
Article
Full-text available
Mind-wandering refers to the occurrence of thoughts whose content is both decoupled from stimuli present in the current environment and unrelated to the task being carried out at the moment of their occurrence. The core of this phenomenon is therefore stimulus-independent and task-unrelated thoughts (SITUTs). In the present study, we designed a nov...
Article
Full-text available
Research has shown that neutral faces are better recognized when they had been presented with happy rather than angry expressions at study, suggesting that emotional signals conveyed by facial expressions influenced the encoding of novel facial identities in memory. An alternative explanation, however, would be that the influence of facial expressi...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the growing interest in future-oriented cognition in various areas of psychology, there is still little empirical data regarding the occurrence and nature of future-oriented thoughts in daily life. In this study, participants recorded future-oriented thoughts occurring in natural settings and rated their characteristics and functions. The r...
Article
Recent studies have shown that both young and elderly subjects activate the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) when they make self-referential judgements. However, the VMPFC might interact with different brain regions during self-referencing in the two groups. In this study, based on data from Ruby et al. (2009), we have explored this issue usi...
Article
Recent research has revealed that schizophrenia patients are impaired in remembering the past and imagining the future. In this study, we examined patients' ability to engage in scene construction (i.e., the process of mentally generating and maintaining a complex and coherent scene), which is a key part of retrieving past experiences and episodic...
Article
Full-text available
This study sought to investigate the component processes underlying the ability to imagine future events, using an individual-differences approach. Participants completed several tasks assessing different aspects of future thinking (i.e., fluency, specificity, amount of episodic details, phenomenology) and were also assessed with tasks and question...
Article
Full-text available
Several individual differences affecting four dimensions of self-defining memories (SDMs)--structure, content, affect, and autobiographical reasoning (Blagov & Singer, 2004; McLean & Fournier, 2008; Singer & Salovey, 1993)--have been observed in young adults (principally in North America). In this study we aimed to investigate the relationships bet...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past few years, several questionnaires have been developed to measure mindfulness. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) was created to specifically capture attention and awareness in daily life (Brown & Ryan, 2003). In this article, we present a French adaptation of the MAAS. In the 1st study, we explored the psychometric propertie...
Article
The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is a sensitive test for the detection of decision-making impairments in several neurological and psychiatric populations. Very few studies have employed the IGT in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigations, in part, because the task is cognitively complex. Here we report a method for exploring brain ac...
Article
Full-text available
Although many neuroimaging studies have considered verbal and visual short-term memory (STM) as relying on neurally segregated short-term buffer systems, the present study explored the existence of shared neural correlates supporting verbal and visual STM. We hypothesized that networks involved in attentional and executive processes, as well as net...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined narrative identity in a group of 81 patients with schizophrenia and 50 healthy controls through the recall of self-defining memories. The results indicated that patients' narratives were less coherent and elaborate than those of controls. Schizophrenia patients were severely impaired in the ability to make connections with the s...
Article
Full-text available
Recent functional neuroimaging studies have shown that reflecting on representations of the present self versus temporally distant selves is associated with higher activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). In the current fMRI study, we investigated whether this effect of temporal perspective is symmetrical between the past and future. The ma...
Article
Episodic future thinking allows humans to mentally simulate virtually infinite future possibilities, yet this device is fundamentally goal-directed and should not be equated with fantasizing or wishful thinking. The purpose of this fMRI study was to investigate the neural basis of such goal-directed processing during future-event simulation. Partic...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research has revealed the existence of individual differences in how preexisting schemata (versus cues from the outside world) affect encoding processes, which can be reliably assessed with the internal and external encoding style questionnaire (ESQ) [Lewicki, P. Internal and External Encoding Style and Social Motivation. In: J. P. Forgas, K...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have shown that patients with schizophrenia are impaired in recalling specific events from their personal past. However, the relationship between autobiographical memory impairments and disturbance of the sense of identity in schizophrenia has not been investigated in detail. In this study the authors investigated schizophrenic pat...