# Arnaud CoatanhayENSTA Bretagne · Lab-STICC

Arnaud Coatanhay

Associate Professor

## About

78

Publications

6,854

Reads

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328

Citations

Citations since 2016

Introduction

Additional affiliations

June 2001 - present

## Publications

Publications (78)

A quantum illumination radar uses quantum entanglement to enhance photodetection sensitivity. The entanglement is quickly destroyed by the decoherence in an environment, although the sensitivity enhancement could survive thanks to quantum correlations beyond the entanglement. These quantum correlations are quantified by the quantum discord. Here, w...

In this paper, we consider problem of estimating diffraction attenuation from approximation of a terrain using multiple bridged knife-edge model. This model can be considered as a generalization of well-known multiple knife-edge one where spaces between knife-edge are bridged by reflecting surfaces. A series based-standard solution is presented in...

We consider the problem of multiple knife-edge diffraction estimation which is a fundamental task in many wireless communication applications. So far, one of the most accurate methods for this problem is the Vogler one whose recursive implementation is efficient to reduce the high computational complexity of the direct one. However, in the original...

We address the question of estimating coherent scattering (weak scattering or coherent scatterer) by a time-evolving random medium. We consider two models of coherent scattering: homodyned K (HK) and generalized K (GK), and in both cases we derive stochastic differential equations for the scattered field. Approximate transition probabilities are co...

When the sea surface is illuminated by a radar sufficiently far away and in the absence of a coherent target, the scattered electromagnetic signal, called ‘sea clutter’ is unpredictable and can be represented by a stochastic process. A model based on stochastic differential equations and consistent with previous statistical models (K distribution)...

The fast dynamics of the sea surface result in highly volatile time series of the sea clutter. Measures made by a moving sensor which observes the sea from diﬀerent points of view cannot be compared directly if the clutter has signiﬁcantly evolved during the sampling interval. The issue of transporting measures to a common time reference is address...

The adaptive multiscale moment method (AMMM) was originally developed to solve Fredholm equation. More recently, this method has demonstrated to be effective for scattering problems. In this article, we show that AMMM is a relevant approach to model and to analyze the electromagnetic scattering by coastal breaking sea waves. The shape of breaking w...

Passive remote sensing techniques have become more and more popular for
detection and characterization purposes. The advantage of using the Global
Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are the well known signals emitted and the
availability in most areas on Earth. In the present paper, L-Band signals
(including GNSS signals) are considered for oceano...

The observation of the ocean surface using electromagnetic sources of opportunity (GPS signals for instance) has been research topic for several years. Due to technological progress in space studies, we have seen an increase of deployment of GPS in several oceanographic applications such as remote sensing, kinematic measurements, ocean surface moni...

The aim of this work is to model the interaction of L-band
electromagnetic waves with coastal breaking sea waves. The breaking sea
waves' profiles are generated using the desingularized technique and the
electromagnetic waves scattering is computed using the high-order method
of moments (HO-MoM) combined with non uniform rational basis spline
(NURB...

The study proposed in this paper deals with the analysis, in the time-frequency domain, of a L-band signal reflected by an time-evolving sea surface. The final goal of this project is to evaluate the technical potential of passive GNSS based systems to estimate oceanographic parameters. With this purpose in mind, this paper presents the experimenta...

Résumé L'objectif de ce travail est d'étudier l'interaction des ondes électromagnétiques en bande L avec les vagues côtières déferlantes (selon différents types, glissant, plongeant et gonflant) et cela pour un observateur situé à proximité de la surface. Le travail s'attache à réaliser une modélisation électromagnétique permettant de calculer le c...

This paper deals with the High-Order Method of Moments
(HO-MoM) combined with Non-Uniform Rational Basis
Splines (NURBS) segments to evaluate the scattering by a
2D cylinder. The authors mainly focus upon the influence
of the different parameters (polynomial basis, order, mesh
length, curvature, polarization,...) and try to determine if a
optimal c...

Radar Cross Section (RCS) from sea surface carries rich informations about sea states. Many works have been developed to compute RCS from this surface. The Classical Moment Method became an effective tool since it works for a very large class of surface shapes and scattering mecha-nisms. However, it requires a small mesh step (λ/10) which produces...

This paper addresses the use of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) as a remote sensing tool for oceanographic applications. In this paper we use the Global Positioning System (GPS) signals reflected off the sea surface along with a coastal receiver to perform detection and tracking of a near sea surface mobile target. Because these signals...

The aim of this work is to quantify the observability of marine weather conditions using the bistatic Normalized Radar Cross Section (NRCS) from the sea surface. The mathematical model of the sea surface profiles is obtained from the Elfouhaily's spectrum and the NRCS are calculated using the Method of Moments (MoM). All of NRCS are recorded in som...

The main purpose of this paper is to compare the numerical simulation of the electromagnetic scattering by a sea surface using a MoM approach and Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin Methods (NDGM).

An improved two scale model (TSM) for the depolarization of electromagnetic waves from bare soil surfaces is investigated. The classical TSM produces depolarized results due to the tilt of the reflecting plane. To include the contribution of actual phenomena, we add second-order scattering effects at small scale and develop an improved TSM. The per...

The observation of the ocean surface using electromagnetic sources of opportunity (GNSS signals for instance) has been a green research topic for several years. The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) presents a powerful and useful technology for remote sensing, ocean surface monitoring and oceanography. Many experiments have been conducted t...

Remote sensing applications require developing accurate models to predict radar backscattering from rough surfaces. An improved two-scale model to calculate the electromagnetic backscattering coefficients from sea and bare soil surface is investigated. The sea surface calculations are made by assuming the surface height spectrum of Elfouhaily et al...

Bragg scattering is widely recognized as the dominant mechanism at moderate incident angles, by which the ocean surface backscatters microwave radiation. In this paper we have shown that the validity domain of the Bragg/composite surface theory can be extended to low grazing angles by taking into account the contribution of second order scattering...

Today, one of the methods in monitoring oceans is the use of radar systems or more generally the use of electromagnetic diffusion. Thanks to the deployment of satellite navigation systems (GNSS), such as GPS, GNSS signals are being used more and more as an opportunity source for this kind of observation. This paper assesses the measurement of ocean...

Neural network is a nonparametric method to represent the relationship between radar measurements and rainfall rate. The performance of neural network based rainfall estimation is subject to many factors such as the representativeness and sufficiency of the training dataset, the generalization capability of the network to new data, seasonal changes...

The main purpose of this paper is to present a new project of research called MOPS dedicated to the use of the GNSS signals for the oceanography and the sea surface monitoring.

In this paper, we present a simulation of the radar cross section (backscattering configuration) for different wind speed conditions. More precisely, we highlight the fact that the numerical estimation using a Monte Carlo and a Method of Moment can provide more statistical information than asymptotic approaches. And we show that a statistical contr...

Remote sensing applications require developing accurate models to predict radar bistatic scattering from rough surfaces. In this context, an improved two-scale model (TSM) is proposed for electromagnetic bistatic scattering from sea surface. The simplest TSM combines the first order small perturbation method (SPM1) with Kirchhoff Approximation. We...

In this paper, we study and analyze the correlation between the NRCS and the wind speed over the sea surface in both monostatic and bistatic configurations. In our investigation we paid special attention to particular behavior in this correlation. The NRCS numerical calculations were made by using the first order of the Small Slope Approximation (S...

This study evaluate the influence of a polluted sea surface upon the electromagnetic scattering. More precisely, we compare this influence with the electromagnetic field scattered by a non-polluted sea surface in the same weather conditions. Using a Monte-Carlo approach and a method of moment adapted to dielectric rough surfaces (a Forward-Backward...

In maritime environments, the GNSS systems are well known to be increasingly important for military and commercial ship positioning. Due to its valuable performances, GALILEO has to become an incontrovertible positioning system for the maritime applications. Indeed, the main challenge consists in providing a precise, accurate and reliable positioni...

In marine environments, the GNSS systems (GPS, GALILEO,...) are well known to be increasingly important for military and commercial ship positioning. Yet, positioning is not the only application field for GNSS signals. For several years, the GNSS signals have been used for remote sensing application in ocean observations. The GNSS signal scattered...

In this paper we study the frequency impact on the normalized bistatic cross section (NBCS) of the sea surface. Numerical simulations are presented and analyzed in the frequency range from 1 to 14 GHz (L- to K<sub>u</sub>-band). We treat this problem with the unifying scattering model denoted small slope approximation (SSA). The computations were m...

This paper deals with the simulations of scattering by the sea surface using Two-Scale Model (TSM) and the realistic unified sea spectrum in various bistatic configurations. After a brief theoretical presentation, our numerical results (scattering matrix coefficients) are compared with measured data, with a semi-empirical model (CMOD5) and with oth...

In this paper, we present GPS and MEMS positioning techniques and limitations. We suggest an original approach for high positioning integrity combining GPS and MEMS. This work has been made in the LoCoSS project context [1], which focuses on the localisation improvement of firemen.

This paper deals with the simulations of scattering by the sea surface using Two-Scale Model (TSM) and the realistic unified sea spectrum in various bistatic configurations. After a brief theoretical presentation, our numerical results (scattering matrix coefficients) are compared with measured data, with a semi-empirical model (CMOD5) and with oth...

An original method is presented for calculating the scattered acoustic field due to a plane wave incident upon an infinitely long elastic cylinder embedded in a sedimentary medium. The sedimentary medium is an half space domain bounded by a fluid. The cylinder is parallel to the plane interface between the sedimentary and fluid media. First, in ord...

This paper presents a curvilinear coordinate approach devoted to the estimation of the electric field scattered by a moving perfectly conducting interface.

The first-order small-slope approximation (SSA-1) model is used for numerical predictions of the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of an anisotropic ocean surface in bistatic configurations for the K u -band radar frequency. The calculations were made by assuming the Elfouhaily et al. surface-height spectrum for fully developed seas. In the for...

In this paper, we apply a modification to the directional part of the sea surface height spectrum of Elfouhaily model. More particularly, we substitute the Elfouhaily direc- tional function f(K, ψ) by that suggested by McDaniel. With this modified spectrum, we study the anisotropic sea surface scattering problem by using the first order of the Smal...

This paper presents a numerical analysis for bistatic scattering from the sea surface at L-band. The unifying scattering model small slope approximation (SSA) of the first order is applied to calculate normalized bistatic cross section (NBCS) of the ocean surface. The calculations were made by assuming the surface-height spectrum of Elfouhaily et a...

This paper introduces a new carrier frequency recovery approach. It can be applied before modulation classification and/or demodulation of the M-ary PSK signals. It relies on the entropy of the instantaneous phase probability density function, and uses the fact that it reaches minimum when the receiver is fine-tuned to the unknown carrier frequency...

The Small Slope Approximation (SSA) and Two Scale Model (TSM) are applied to the prediction of microwave sea scattering in bistatic configuration. The calculations were made by assuming the surface-height spectrum of Elfouhaily et al for fully developed seas. Both the co- and cross-polarization cross section are calculated in several bistatic confi...

Organic films and oil slicks modify the sea surface physics (permittivity, spectrum and slope distribution) depending on their viscosity, their bulk concentration and their diffusion coefficient. In this paper, special focus is given to the influence o f a pollutant upon the electromagnetic scattering by the sea surface. Our study is based on the s...

This paper deals with a simulation of GALILEO signals that takes into account the electromagnetic scattering by the sea surface. This scattering by the sea, considered as a rough surface, is estimated with a Two Scale Model (TSM) approximation. More, the geometric description of the sea surface is given by a realistic spectrum (Elfouhaily spectrum)...

Electromagnetic scattering by sea surface is estimated using most common approaches for scattering by rough surfaces, and different sea wave models are compared. After a brief presentation of these models and approaches, this study points out the Elfouhaily surface model. Finally, both monostatic and bistatic configurations are treated using-two sc...

A new method for predicting the scattered acoustic field due to a plane wave incident upon an infinitely long cylinder lying near an penetrable plane interface is presented. The method general-izes the method of images which is restricted to rigid and soft plane interfaces. Validity domains, physical interpretations, simulations and numerical resul...

This paper presents an electromagnetic model for the GPS signal propagation in forest environment. This model is based on a fractal description of tree structure seen as a cluster of scatterers composed by cylinders (trunk and branches). The model of the scattering by these finite length cylinders is based on the infinite cylinder approximation. Mo...

This paper deals with the regularization problem raised by the inversion of GPR radargram. The determination of subsurface conductivity and permittivity profiles leads to Laplace transform inversions for real data. A very recent method to solve this severely ill-posed problem is presented and evaluated using a standard 2D FDTD numerical GPR model f...

This paper deals with the electromagnetic characterisation of the tropospheric medium (refractive index) above the sea surface. Assuming the emitted signal and the far field are known parameters, our purpose is the determination of the refractive index map.
Our methods consist in least square approaches deduced from different optimization algorithm...

This article deals with a new approach in sleep characterization that combines EEG source localisation methods with standard frequency analysis of multielectrode EEGs. First, we describe the theoretical methodology and the benefits that we get from a three-dimensional image (LORETA) of the cerebral activity related to a frequency band. Then, this n...