Arlin James Benjamin Jr.

Arlin James Benjamin Jr.
University of Arkansas - Fort Smith | UAFS · Behavioral Sciences

PhD

About

23
Publications
105,853
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,557
Citations
Introduction
I am a social psychologist whose primary research interest is in the study of human aggression. My work concentrates on the presumed influence of short-term exposure to media violence and other aggression-related cues (e.g., weapon images) as well as individual differences on aggressive cognition, attitudes, and behavior. Currently, I am interested in better understanding what research on the weapons effect does and does not tell us, as well as examining the reliability and validity of common measures of aggressive cognition. Much of my research intersects with other disciplines such as Communication.
Additional affiliations
August 2010 - present
University of Arkansas - Fort Smith
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
August 2010 - present
University of Arkansas - Fort Smith
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
August 2000 - July 2010
Oklahoma Panhandle State University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Education
August 1995 - December 2000
University of Missouri
Field of study
  • Social Psychology
September 1993 - January 1996
California State University, Fullerton
Field of study
  • Experimental Psychology

Publications

Publications (23)
Article
Full-text available
The factor structure of the Velicer Attitudes Toward Violence Scale [VATVS; Velicer, Huckel and Hansen, 1989] was examined in three studies. Study 1 (n=460 undergraduates) found a poor fit for a hierarchical five-factor model earlier advanced by Velicer et al. [1989], but a good fit for an oblique four-factor model. In Study 2, this alternative mod...
Article
Full-text available
In this study the relationship is examined between attitudes toward violence and rightwing authoritarianism. One hundred and fifty participants completed the Attitudes Toward Violence Scale (ATVS; Anderson, Benjamin, Wood, & Bonacci, 2006) and the Right Wing Authoritarianism Scale (RWA; Attemeyer, 1996). Three of the ATVS subscales (war, penal code...
Article
Full-text available
More than 30 years ago, Berkowitz and LePage (1967) published the first study demonstrating that the mere presence of a weapon increases aggressive behavior. These results have been repli- cated in several contexts by several research teams. The standard explanation of this weapons effect on aggressive behavior involves priming; identification of a...
Article
Full-text available
Guns are associated with aggression. A landmark 1967 study showed that simply seeing a gun can increase aggression—called the “weapons effect.” This meta-analysis integrates the findings of weapons effect studies conducted from 1967 to 2017. It includes 162 effect-size estimates from 78 independent studies involving 7,668 participants. The theoreti...
Article
Full-text available
I examined the relationship between right-wing authoritarianism and attitudes toward torture. The results from 2 studies with U.S. students and citizens, respectively, demonstrated that not only was there a significant positive relationship between right-wing authoritarianism and their attitudes toward torture, but, more specifically, there was a s...
Chapter
Full-text available
This entry summarizes research on the weapons effect, in which short‐term exposure to weapons or weapon images instigates aggressive cognitive and behavioral responses. This is a phenomenon that has been studied and debated for several decades. In that time, questions about the replicability and ultimately the validity of the weapons effect have be...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Type A/B Personality construct has evolved considerably in terms of its definition and its importance since it was first introduced by cardiologists Friedman and Rosenman in 1959. This chapter is intended to provide an overview of how theorists and researchers have defined and measured the Type A/B construct. This chapter will briefly discuss t...
Chapter
Examining the assessment of implicit motives involves describing techniques used to assess implicit motives, their reliability, and their validity. The Picture‐Story‐Exercise (PSE) which has its origins in the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), and Implicit Attitudes Test (IAT), which is used to assess a variety of implicit motives, including racial...
Article
Full-text available
This review examines the current state of research on the weapons effect, a phenomenon in which the mere presence of weapons is presumed to cause people to behave more aggressively. The General Aggression Model (GAM) is often used to explain how and why the weapons effect occurs. Hence research on the extent to which weapons prime cognitive and app...
Article
Full-text available
In many societies, weapons are plentiful and highly visible. This review examines recent trends in research on the weapons priming effect, which is the finding that the mere presence of weapons can prime people to behave aggressively. The General Aggression Model provides a theoretical framework to explain why the weapons priming effect occurs. Thi...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present research is to focus on one facet of media portrayals of torture, namely how different approaches to framing the use of torture influences attitudes toward torture. Experiment 1 examined the influence of effectiveness framing on attitudes toward torture, and Experiment 2 examined framing in terms of in-group/out-group bia...
Chapter
The present chapter serves as a brief introduction to human aggression. Contemporary definitions of aggression are discussed, as well its measurement. Several current theories of aggression are highlighted. In addition, this chapter addresses various situational (e.g., provocation, media violence), environmental (e.g., heat, lead exposure), persona...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examines the relationship between right-wing authoritarianism and various facets of political ideology (economic issues, social issues, intolerance, and racial/ethnic resentment). Partial correlations revealed strong and significantly positive relationships between RWA and social conservatism, and intolerance, along with a weak bu...
Article
Full-text available
The present research attempts to replicate and extend Altemeyer’s (1996) research on left-wing authoritarianism. Two hundred and twenty participants completed the Right Wing Authoritarianism Scale (Altemeyer, 1996), Left Wing Authoritarianism Scale (Altemeyer, 1996) Attitudes Toward Violence Scale (ATVS; Anderson, Benjamin, Wood, & Bonacci, 2006),...
Article
Full-text available
The authors conducted a comprehensive review to understand the relation between personality and aggressive behavior, under provoking and nonprovoking conditions. The qualitative review revealed that some personality variables influenced aggressive behavior under both neutral and provocation conditions, whereas others influenced aggressive behavior...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research (Anderson, Benjamin, & Bartholow, 1998) indicates that the presence of guns increases the accessibility of aggressive thoughts via automatic priming. Our research examined whether this “weapons priming effect” differs depending on the structure of an individual's knowledge about guns, and if so, whether that difference results in co...
Article
Full-text available
Three experimental studies, one correlational study, and a meta-analysis tested key hypotheses concerning the short-term and long-term impact of exposure to violent video games. Experiment 1 found that violent video games in general increase the accessibility of aggressive thoughts. Experiments 2 and 3 found that playing violent video games increas...
Thesis
Typescript. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Missouri-Columbia, 2000. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 86-106).
Article
Full-text available
The present study reexamines the ANOVA results of a previous study (Wann & Wilson, 1996), and arrives at a different set of conclusions concerning the role of music video violence and locus of control on aggressiveness. Contrary to the previous report, there is evidence of a significant main effect of locus of control on aggressiveness. Although th...
Article
Full-text available
Budner's (1962) tolerance for ambiguity scale is a well-known and widely used measure of ambiguity tolerance. Its reliability and factor structure were examined in the present study. Four hundred thirty-six undergraduate stttdents completed Budner's scale as part of a student assessment center program. The results of two confirmatory factor analyse...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (2)
Project
The purpose of this project is to assess the reliability of outcome measures of aggressive cognition commonly used in psychological research, such as the word completion task. Assessment of the psychometric properties of these outcome measures is an area that has been largely neglected. My initial interest is in assessing the internal consistency of the Word Completion Task. My concern is that the available versions of the word completion task were not thoroughly examined for reliability (whether by internal consistency, test-retest reliability, or both) before being released for use by fellow researchers, and before becoming the basis of several published articles. Hence, we're left with a lingering question about measurement error when using these instruments, and questions about their validity as measures of accessibility of aggressive cognition.
Project
To examine the interaction of Type A Behavior Pattern (TABP) and Provocation on aggression, as well as to document potential publication bias and decline effects.