Ariel Rokem

Ariel Rokem
Stanford University | SU · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

121
Publications
23,188
Reads
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3,735
Citations
Citations since 2016
79 Research Items
3039 Citations
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (121)
Article
Full-text available
Note: Authorship as part of the Fibr Community Science Consortium. We created a set of resources to enable research based on openly-available diffusion MRI (dMRI) data from the Healthy Brain Network (HBN) study. First, we curated the HBN dMRI data (N = 2747) into the Brain Imaging Data Structure and preprocessed it according to best-practices, inc...
Article
We created a set of resources to enable research based on openly-available diffusion MRI (dMRI) data from the Healthy Brain Network (HBN) study. First, we curated the HBN dMRI data (N = 2747) into the Brain Imaging Data Structure and preprocessed it according to best-practices, including denoising and correcting for motion effects, susceptibility-r...
Preprint
Full-text available
The white matter pathways that carry information from the foveal, macular, and peripheral visual fields have distinct biological properties. The optic radiations (OR) carry foveal and peripheral information from the thalamus to the primary visual cortex (V1) through adjacent but separate pathways in the white matter. Here, we perform white matter t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Alpha is the strongest electrophysiological rhythm in awake humans at rest. Despite its predominance in the EEG signal, strong variations can be observed in alpha properties during development, with an increase of alpha frequency over childhood and adulthood. Here we tested the hypothesis that these changes of alpha rhythm are related to the matura...
Article
Full-text available
Two of the main obstacles to the development of epiretinal prosthesis technology are electrodes that require current amplitudes above safety limits to reliably elicit percepts, and a failure to consistently elicit pattern vision. Here, we explored the causes of high current amplitude thresholds and poor spatial resolution within the Argus II epiret...
Preprint
Correcting head motion artifacts in diffusion-weighted MRI (dMRI) scans is particularly challenging due to the dramatic changes in image contrast at different gradient strengths and directions. Head motion correction is typically performed using a Gaussian Process model implemented in FSL’s Eddy. Recently, the 3dSHORE-based SHORELine method was int...
Preprint
Past studies have linked differences in white matter tissue properties to reading skills. However, these studies have reported a range of, sometimes conflicting, results. Some studies suggest that white matter properties act as individual-level traits predictive of reading skill, whereas others suggest that reading skill and white matter develop as...
Preprint
Full-text available
We created resources to facilitate research on the role of human brain microstructure in the development of mental health disorders, based on openly-available diffusion MRI (dMRI) data from the Healthy Brain Network (HBN) study. First, we curated the HBN dMRI data (N=2747) into the Brain Imaging Data Structure and preprocessed it according to best-...
Article
Introduction: Retinal implants provide artificial vision to blind individuals through electrically stimulating remaining non-photoreceptor retinal cells. For epiretinal implants, placed over the ganglion cell layer, individual electrodes produce elongated 'streaks' due to the unselective stimulation of underlying ganglion axons (Beyeler, 2019). He...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, we shed light on the issue of estimating Intravoxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM) for diffusion and perfusion estimation by characterizing the objective function using simplicial homology tools. We provide a robust solution via topological optimization of this model so that the estimates are more reliable and accurate. Estimating the tissu...
Article
Full-text available
The validity of research results depends on the reliability of analysis methods. In recent years, there have been concerns about the validity of research that uses diffusion-weighted MRI (dMRI) to understand human brain white matter connections in vivo , in part based on the reliability of analysis methods used in this field. We defined and assesse...
Article
Full-text available
The analysis of brain-imaging data requires complex processing pipelines to support findings on brain function or pathologies. Recent work has shown that variability in analytical decisions, small amounts of noise, or computational environments can lead to substantial differences in the results, endangering the trust in conclusions. We explored the...
Article
Full-text available
The latency of neural responses in the visual cortex changes systematically across the lifespan. Here, we test the hypothesis that development of visual white matter pathways mediates maturational changes in the latency of visual signals. Thirty-eight children participated in a cross-sectional study including diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (M...
Article
A framework called Detect is proposed to detect subtle effects of brain disorders, making it possible to delineate anomalous brain connections within specific individuals.
Preprint
Full-text available
To support the growing demands of neuroscience applications, researchers are transitioning to cloud computing for its scalable, robust and elastic infrastructure. Nevertheless, large datasets residing in object stores may result in significant data transfer overheads during workflow execution. Prefetching, a method to mitigate the cost of reading i...
Article
Full-text available
As the global health crisis unfolded, many academic conferences moved online in 2020. This move has been hailed as a positive step towards inclusivity in its attenuation of economic, physical, and legal barriers and effectively enabled many individuals from groups that have traditionally been underrepresented to join and participate. A number of st...
Article
Full-text available
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) measurements and models provide information about brain connectivity and are sensitive to the physical properties of tissue microstructure. Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) quantifies the degree of non-Gaussian diffusion in biological tissue from dMRI. These estimates are of interest because th...
Article
Full-text available
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is the primary method for noninvasively studying the organization of white matter in the human brain. Here we introduce QSIPrep, an integrative software platform for the processing of diffusion images that is compatible with nearly all dMRI sampling schemes. Drawing on a diverse set of software s...
Article
Full-text available
Diffusion MRI (dMRI) has become an invaluable tool to assess the microstructural organization of brain tissue. Depending on the specific acquisition settings, the dMRI signal encodes specific properties of the underlying diffusion process. In the last two decades, several signal representations have been proposed to fit the dMRI signal and decode s...
Article
Full-text available
The white matter contains long-range connections between different brain regions and the organization of these connections holds important implications for brain function in health and disease. Tractometry uses diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) to quantify tissue properties along the trajectories of these connections. Statistical...
Preprint
Full-text available
The latency of neural responses in the visual cortex changes systematically across the lifespan. Here we test the hypothesis that development of visual white matter pathways mediates maturational changes in conduction velocities of visual signals. Thirty-eight children participated in a cross-sectional study including diffusion MRI and MEG sessions...
Article
Purpose: To develop a multi-modal model to automate glaucoma detection. Design: Development of a machine-learning glaucoma detection model. Methods: We selected a study cohort from the UK Biobank dataset with 1193 eyes of 863 healthy subjects and 1283 eyes of 771 subjects with glaucoma. We trained a multi-modal model that combines multiple dee...
Article
Brainhack is an innovative meeting format that promotes scientific collaboration and education in an open, inclusive environment. This NeuroView describes the myriad benefits for participants and the research community and how Brainhacks complement conventional formats to augment scientific progress.
Preprint
Full-text available
The move from in-person to online scientific conferences due to the global health crisis has been hailed as a positive step towards inclusivity in its attenuation of economic, physical and legal barriers. Yet pre-existing and new challenges to truly inclusive conference experiences remain unaddressed. While acknowledging the benefits of an online s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) measurements and models provide information about brain connectivity and are sensitive to the physical properties of tissue microstructure. Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) quantifies the degree of non-Gaussian diffusion in biological tissue from dMRI. These estimates are of interest because th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Diffusion MRI (dMRI) has become an invaluable tool to assess the microstructural organization of brain tissue. Depending on the specific acquisition settings, the dMRI signal encodes specific properties of the underlying diffusion process. In the last two decades, several signal representations have been proposed to fit the dMRI signal and decode s...
Article
Full-text available
For high-dimensional supervised learning, it is often beneficial to use domain-specific knowledge to improve the performance of statistical learning models. When the problem contains covariates which form groups, researchers can include this grouping information to find parsimonious representations of the relationship between covariates and targets...
Preprint
Full-text available
The validity of research results depends on the reliability of analysis methods. In recent years, there have been concerns about the validity of research that uses diffusion-weighted MRI (dMRI) to understand human brain white matter connections in vivo, in part based on reliability of the analysis methods used in this field. We defined and assessed...
Preprint
Full-text available
Brainhack is an innovative meeting format that promotes scientific collaboration and education in an open and inclusive environment. Departing from the formats of typical scientific workshops, these events are based on grassroots projects and training, and foster open and reproducible scientific practices. We describe here the multifaceted, lasting...
Article
Full-text available
Background Ridge regression is a regularization technique that penalizes the L2-norm of the coefficients in linear regression. One of the challenges of using ridge regression is the need to set a hyperparameter (α) that controls the amount of regularization. Cross-validation is typically used to select the best α from a set of candidates. However,...
Article
Full-text available
Tractography has created new horizons for researchers to study brain connectivity in vivo. However, tractography is an advanced and challenging method that has not been used so far for medical data analysis at a large scale in comparison to other traditional brain imaging methods. This work allows tractography to be used for large scale and high‑qu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) has become the primary method for non-invasively studying the organization of white matter in the human brain. While many dMRI acquisition sequences have been developed, they all sample q-space in order to characterize water diffusion. Numerous software platforms have been developed for processin...
Preprint
Ridge regression (RR) is a regularization technique that penalizes the L2-norm of the coefficients in linear regression. One of the challenges of using RR is the need to set a hyperparameter ($\alpha$) that controls the amount of regularization. Cross-validation is typically used to select the best $\alpha$ from a set of candidates. However, effici...
Preprint
Full-text available
Glaucoma, the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, is a disease that damages the optic nerve. Current machine learning (ML) approaches for glaucoma detection rely on features such as retinal thickness maps; however, the high rate of segmentation errors when creating these maps increase the likelihood of faulty diagnoses. This paper pr...
Preprint
Full-text available
The white matter contains long-range connections between different brain regions and the organization of these connections holds important implications for brain function in health and disease. Tractometry uses diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data to quantify tissue properties (e.g. fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity...
Preprint
Full-text available
The registration or alignment of diffusion weighted images (DWI) with other imaging modalities is a critical step in neuroimaging analysis. Within subject T1 to DWI coregistration is particularly instrumental. DWI derived scalar images are commonly used as intermediates for T1 to DWI coregistration, and the resulting registration transforms are app...
Chapter
A major limitation of current electronic retinal implants is that in addition to stimulating the intended retinal ganglion cells, they also stimulate passing axon fibers, producing perceptual ‘streaks’ that limit the quality of the generated visual experience. Recent evidence suggests a dependence between the shape of the elicited visual percept an...
Article
Full-text available
Spatial attention improves performance on visual tasks, increases neural responses to attended stimuli, and reduces correlated noise in visual cortical neurons. In addition to being visually responsive, many retinotopic visual cortical areas exhibit very slow (<0.1 Hz) endogenous fluctuations in functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. To tes...
Preprint
Full-text available
Fitting multi-exponential models to Diffusion MRI (dMRI) data has always been challenging due to various underlying complexities. In this work, we introduce a novel and robust fitting framework for the standard two-compartment IVIM microstructural model. This framework provides a significant improvement over the existing methods and helps estimate...
Preprint
Full-text available
A major limitation of current electronic retinal implants is that in addition to stimulating the intended retinal ganglion cells, they also stimulate passing axon fibers, producing perceptual 'streaks' that limit the quality of the generated visual experience. Recent evidence suggests a dependence between the shape of the elicited visual percept an...
Article
Full-text available
Degenerative retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and macular degeneration cause irreversible vision loss in more than 10 million people worldwide. Retinal prostheses, now implanted in over 250 patients worldwide, electrically stimulate surviving cells in order to evoke neuronal responses that are interpreted by the brain as visual percept...
Article
The arcuate fasciculi are white‐matter pathways that connect frontal and temporal lobes in each hemisphere. The arcuate plays a key role in the language network and is believed to be left‐lateralized, in line with left hemisphere dominance for language. Measuring the arcuate in vivo requires diffusion magnetic resonance imaging–based tractography,...
Article
Full-text available
Big Data promises to advance science through data-driven discovery. However, many standard lab protocols rely on manual examination, which is not feasible for large-scale datasets. Meanwhile, automated approaches lack the accuracy of expert examination. We propose to (1) start with expertly labeled data, (2) amplify labels through web applications...
Article
Full-text available
Diffusion MRI (dMRI) holds great promise for illuminating the biological changes that underpin cognitive development. The diffusion of water molecules probes the cellular structure of brain tissue, and biophysical modeling of the diffusion signal can be used to make inferences about specific tissue properties that vary over development or predict c...
Preprint
Full-text available
Retinal prostheses, now implanted in over 250 patients worldwide, electrically stimulate surviving cells in order to evoke neuronal responses that are interpreted by the brain as visual percepts (‘phosphenes’). However, instead of seeing focal spots of light, current implant users perceive highly distorted phosphenes that vary in shape both across...
Preprint
Full-text available
Research in many fields has become increasingly reliant on large and complex datasets. "Big Data" holds untold promise to rapidly advance science by tackling new questions that cannot be answered with smaller datasets. While powerful, research with Big Data poses unique challenges, as many standard lab protocols rely on experts examining each one o...
Preprint
Diffusion MRI (dMRI) holds great promise for illuminating the biological changes that underpin cognitive development. The diffusion of water molecules probes the cellular structure of brain tissue, and biophysical modeling of the diffusion signal can be used to make inferences about specific tissue properties that vary over development or predict c...
Article
Full-text available
White matter tissue properties are known to correlate with performance across domains ranging from reading to math, to executive function. Here, we use a longitudinal intervention design to examine experience-dependent growth in reading skills and white matter in grade school-aged, struggling readers. Diffusion MRI data were collected at regular in...
Preprint
Purpose To determine if deep learning networks could be trained to forecast a future 24-2 Humphrey Visual Field (HVF). Design Retrospective database study. Participants All patients who obtained a HVF 24-2 at the University of Washington. Methods All datapoints from consecutive 24-2 HVFs from 1998 to 2018 were extracted from a University of Wash...
Preprint
Full-text available
Different brain MRI contrasts represent different tissue properties and are sensitive to different artifacts. The relationship between different contrasts is therefore complex and nonlinear. We developed a deep convolutional network that learns the mapping between different MRI contrasts. Using a publicly available dataset, we demonstrate that this...
Article
Full-text available
Human neuroscience research faces several challenges with regards to reproducibility. While scientists are generally aware that data sharing is important, it is not always clear how to share data in a manner that allows other labs to understand and reproduce published findings. Here we report a new open source tool, AFQ-Browser, that builds an inte...