Ariel Kalil

Ariel Kalil
University of Chicago | UC · Harris School of Public Policy Studies

About

137
Publications
35,656
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
5,914
Citations
Introduction

Publications

Publications (137)
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores whether and how parents’ attitudes toward the spanking of children have changed over the last 30 years, a period when parents’ use of corporal punishment declined precipitously in the U.S. We compare these trends across parents’ socioeconomic status (SES) and region of the country to identify whether shifts in attitudes toward t...
Article
This study investigates effects of welfare reform in the United States on the next generation. Most previous studies of effects of welfare reform on adolescents focused on high‐school dropout of girls or fertility; little is known about how welfare reform has affected other teenage behaviors or boys. We use a difference‐in‐difference‐in‐differences...
Article
Full-text available
Objective This article examines changes from 1986 to 2016 in the characteristics that parents in the United States most value in their children and differences in those values by parent income and education. Background As a result of interrelated labor market changes, income‐ and education‐based differences in parents' terminal values that have ch...
Article
We implemented a field experiment called Show Up to Grow Up designed to increase attendance and diminish chronic absences at subsidized preschool programs in Chicago. We sent personalized text messages to parents targeting malleable factors that potentially drive absences from preschool. Using administrative records from preschools, we find that th...
Article
Full-text available
This study tests an intervention that introduces a structured curriculum for five-year olds into the universal preschool context of Norway. We conduct a field experiment with 691 five-year-olds in 71 preschools and measure treatment impacts on children's development in mathematics, language and executive functioning. Compared to business as usual,...
Article
Although the consequences of teen births for both mothers and children have been studied for decades, few studies have taken a broader look at the potential payoffs—and drawbacks—of being born to older mothers. A broader examination is important given the growing gap in maternal ages at birth for children born to mothers with low and high socioecon...
Article
This article reviews how the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) has contributed to our understanding of the links between childhood economic conditions—in particular, the household incomes with very young children—and the economic attainment and health of those children when they reach adulthood. From its beginning, the PSID has provided data us...
Article
Children's exposure to book reading is thought to be an influential input into positive cognitive development. Yet there is little empirical research identifying whether it is reading time per se, or other factors associated with families who read, such as parental education or children's reading skill, that improves children's achievement. Using d...
Article
This study exploits differences in the implementation of welfare reform in the United States across states and over time to identify causal effects of maternal work incentives, and by inference employment, on youth arrests between 1988 and 2005, the period of time during which welfare reform unfolded. We consider both serious and minor crimes as cl...
Article
Income inequality and the achievement test score gap between high- and low-income children increased dramatically in the United States beginning in the 1970s. This article investigates the demographic (family income, mother’s education, family size, two-parent family structure, and age of mother at birth) underpinnings of the growing income-based g...
Article
Purpose: This study exploits differences in the implementation of welfare reform across states and over time in the United States in the attempt to identify causal effects of welfare reform on youth arrests for drug-related crimes between 1990 and 2005, the period during which welfare reform unfolded. Methodology: Using monthly arrest data from...
Article
Full-text available
Background and objectives: The prevalence of corporal punishment is high in the United States despite a 1998 American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement urging against its use. The current study tests whether the socioeconomic difference in its use by parents has changed over the past quarter century. It goes on to test whether socioeconomic d...
Article
We measure the impact of universal prekindergarten for four-year-olds by exploiting a natural experiment in which the Australian state of Queensland eliminated its public prekindergarten program in 2007. Using a difference-in-differences strategy, we find that five months of access to universal prekindergarten leads to an increase of 0.23 standard...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous studies show large differences between economically advantaged and disadvantaged parents in the quality and quantity of their engagement in young children’s development. This “parenting gap” may account for a substantial portion of the gap in children’s early cognitive skills. However, researchers know little about whether the socioeconomi...
Chapter
Children face very different chances of getting ahead in life depending on the circumstances of their birth. Parenting and its role in the diverging destinies of rich and poor children are discussed in this chapter. Inequality begins at home. It develops from the myriad differences in the ways advantaged and disadvantaged parents interact with thei...
Article
Resident fathers have increased the time they spend in active childrearing in recent decades. This paper examines how fathers' time in childrearing is associated with relationship dissolution. We use longitudinal survey and time-diary data on young children from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC; n = 5,604). We investigate mothers...
Chapter
Full-text available
Using a poverty line of about $23,000 for a family of four, the Census Bureau counted more than 16 million US children living in poor families in 2011. Poor children begin school well behind their more affluent age mates and, if anything, lose ground during the school years. On average, poor US kindergarten children have lower levels of reading and...
Article
Studies have linked parents' employment, work hours, and work schedules to their own sleep quality and quantity, but it is unclear whether these associations extend to children. The authors used data from the 5-year in-home survey of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,818) to examine the associations between maternal work hours a...
Article
Families across the income spectrum experienced subjective feelings of economic strain during the Great Recession. Existing evidence suggests that much of that economic strain did not arise from individual-specific economic shocks, such as unemployment or income loss, as much as it did from worry and uncertainty about the future. The authors tested...
Article
This article compares time invested in children across family structures as a means to understand differences in children's development. Using data from the 1997 Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement, we measure time investments from multiple caregivers and distinguish time children spend with a caregiver alone versus shared...
Article
The Great Recession and its reverberations resulted in levels of economic distress unprecedented since the 1930s. Economic downturns, including the Great Recession, are known to affect adult employment and income, housing, family composition, and financial strain. Many of these family characteristics affect child and adolescent development in the s...
Chapter
This chapter examines whether lasting reductions in earnings and wealth due to job loss have consequences on well-being beyond financial concerns. In particular, the analysis uses data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to examine the impact of job loss on two different measures of self-reported psychological well-being, one meant to captur...
Article
Surveys differ in the measurement of nonstandard work, such that some surveys require respondents to indicate whether they work either a standard or a nonstandard schedule, whereas others allow respondents to indicate that they work both types of schedules. We test whether these measurement decisions influence the estimated prevalence of maternal n...
Article
Many mothers work in jobs with nonstandard schedules (i.e., schedules that involve work outside of the traditional 9-5, Monday through Friday schedule); this is particularly true for economically disadvantaged mothers. In the present article, we used longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey (n = 2,367 mothers of childr...
Article
Full-text available
This study seeks to understand whether poverty very early in life is associated with early-onset adult conditions related to immune-mediated chronic diseases. It also tests the role that these immune-mediated chronic diseases may play in accounting for the associations between early poverty and adult productivity. Data (n = 1,070) come from the US...
Article
A robust body of literature spanning several countries indicates a positive association between maternal employment and child body mass index (BMI). Fewer studies have examined the role of paternal employment. More importantly, little empirical work examines the mechanisms that might explain the relationships between parental employment and childre...
Article
Using data spanning 1996-2009 from multiple panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, this study investigates children's (average age 8.5 years) physical health, dental visits, and doctor contact among low-income children (n = 46,148) in immigrant versus native households. Immigrant households are further distinguished by household...
Article
Using data from the 2003-2007 American Time Use Surveys (ATUS), we compare mothers' (N = 6,640) time spent in four parenting activities across maternal education and child age subgroups. We test the hypothesis that highly educated mothers not only spend more time in active child care than less-educated mothers but also alter the composition of that...
Article
Full-text available
Most poor children achieve less, exhibit more problem behaviors and are less healthy than children reared in more affluent families. We look beyond correlations such as these to a recent set of studies that attempt to assess the causal impact of childhood poverty on adult well-being. We pay particular attention to the potentially harmful effects of...
Article
Using data from five waves of the Women's Employment Survey (WES; 1997-2003), we examine the links between low-income mothers' employment patterns and the emotional behavior and academic progress of their children. We find robust and substantively important linkages between several different dimensions of mothers' employment experiences and child o...
Article
This chapter examines the state of the literature, and provides new evidence, on the association between maternal nonstandard work and child well-being. At a time in which the vast majority of mothers are employed, understanding the ways in which aspects of their employment are associated with family functioning and the well-being of their children...
Article
Abstract— There were roughly 4 million children of undocumented parents in the United States in 2008. This article describes the effects that parental undocumented status can have on developmental contexts experienced in early childhood, before formal school entry. It focuses on early childhood as a crucial but still overlooked period for the study...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the link between divorced nonresident fathers' proximity and children's long-run outcomes, using high-quality data from Norwegian population registers. We follow (from birth to young adulthood) each of 15,992 children born into married households in Norway in the years 1975-1979 whose parents divorced during his or her childhood...
Article
Full-text available
Our paper assesses the consequences of childhood poverty between a child’s prenatal year and fifteenth birthday for a host of adult achievement outcomes, measured as late as age 37. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and Norwegian Registry we estimate the relationship between household economic conditions in early childhood, middle...
Article
Objectives. We aim to understand why blacks are significantly less likely than whites to perpetuate their middle-class status across generations. To do so, we focus on the potentially different associations between parental job loss and youth's educational attainment in black and white middle-class families. Methods. We use data from the Panel Stud...
Article
Children of immigrants are the fastest-growing segment of the child population. Although immigrants make up less than 13 percent of the total population, their children make up 22 percent of the total child population and 30 percent of the lowincome child population in the United States.1 Research indicating disparate access to resources and opport...
Article
Previous work has shown that mothers' employment is associated with increases in children's body mass index (BMI), a measure of weight for height. Nonstandard work (working evenings or nights, weekends, or an irregular shift) may also be associated with children's BMI. This article examines the association between maternal work and children's BMI a...
Article
This article replicated and extended Harriet Presser 's (2000) investigation of the linkages between nonstandard work and marital instability. We reexplored this question using data from a sample of 2,893 newlywed couples from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and using different analytic techniques. In contrast to Presser, we found...
Article
Full-text available
Rising rates of nonmarital childbirth in the United States have resulted in a new family type, the fragile family. Such families, which include cohabiting couples as well as single mothers, experience significantly higher rates of poverty and material hardship than their married counterparts. Ariel Kalil and Rebecca Ryan summarize the economic chal...
Article
This study examined the potential for educational investments in Mexican immigrant mothers to enhance their management of their children's pathways through the educational system in the United States, which often disadvantages them. We tested this hypothesis with data on 816 Mexican immigrant women and their children from the Early Childhood Longit...
Article
We examine the association between various components of consumption expenditure and happiness in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative sample of older Americans. We find that only one component of consumption is positively related to happiness—leisure consumption. In contrast, consumption of durables, charity, personal...
Article
Research examining the effects of welfare dynamics on children’s development has provided little information to date on the experiences of immigrant children. Using longitudinal data collected during the period of welfare reform (1995–1999; the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, PHDCN), this study investigates whether welfare le...
Book
Johnson, Kalil, and Dunifon focus on this tenuous work-family balance, or lack thereof, and its effects on children. What they discover is that work per se is not detrimental for single-mother families. In fact, it brings stability, routine, and a sense of pride to working women and their families. However, they also find that the nature of the wor...
Article
Full-text available
This article assesses the consequences of poverty between a child's prenatal year and 5th birthday for several adult achievement, health, and behavior outcomes, measured as late as age 37. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1,589) and controlling for economic conditions in middle childhood and adolescence, as well as demographic co...
Article
Full-text available
We estimated associations between job insecurity and change over time in the physical and psychological health of older adult men and women. We conducted secondary analyses of longitudinal data from men and women (N = 190) born between 1935 and 1952 in the Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study. We used multivariate regression techniques...
Article
This study examined the association between low-income mothers' perceived social support and the prevalence of their children's medically treated accidents and injuries. Data were drawn from the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (NEWWS), an experimental evaluation of 11 welfare-to-work programs in seven U.S. cities. In regression mo...
Article
Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N = 1,162) and the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (N = 1,308), we estimate associations between material and instrumental support available to low-income mothers and young children’s socioemotional well-being. In multivariate OLS models, we find mothers...
Article
Full-text available
We estimated associations between poverty in early, middle, and later childhood and adult body mass index to further elucidate the effects of socioeconomic status on health. We conducted secondary analyses of data from men and women (N = 885) born between 1968 and 1975 who were tracked between their prenatal and birth years and adulthood in the nat...
Article
Full-text available
Positive correlations between parents' and children's economic, social, and psychological well- being are well established. Four mechanisms might explain such correlations - genetic, parenting, SES and role modeling. These four mechanisms make varying predictions about which parental traits will be correlated with which child traits; whether the tr...
Article
Economic instability and job loss remain permanent features of the American and Australian economies. The effects of parental joblessness on the wellbeing of families and children have rarely been more relevant than in the current economic climate. Yet, the nature of children's experiences in families with jobless workers is not fully understood. T...
Article
Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we examined patterns of nonresident father involvement 1 and 3 years after a nonmarital birth (N = 893). Cluster analyses were used to determine patterns of involvement across different father behaviors. About half of fathers displayed low involvement when children were 1 and 3 years o...
Article
This paper analyzes in-depth interviews with 45 frontline welfare workers and clients in one county to explore the perceptions that develop at the front-lines of the welfare system and to consider how these perceptions may influence new welfare reform strategies. This exploratory study finds that welfare workers utilize three distinct typologies to...
Article
We use a lifecourse framework to examine how the "new risk economy" has left middle-age professionals, managers and executives more vulnerable to job loss and unemployment despite high levels of human capital. Using in-depth qualitative data from 77 recently-unemployed white-collar workers, we examine perceptions of macro-economic forces and their...
Article
Using data from the 1996 Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine 4476 school-age children in 2569 families with matched pairs of married fathers and mothers to study children’s academic progress as a function of fathers’ and mothers’ employment circumstances, with a particular focus on involuntary employment separations. We draw on w...
Article
Using data on approximately 2,000 low-income welfare recipients in a three-site random-assignment intervention conducted in the early 1990s (the NEWWS), we examine the role of cognitive and non-cognitive factors in moderating experimental impacts of an adult education training program for women who lacked a high school degree or GED at the time of...
Article
Recent data have shown that children of immigrant noncitizens experience more persistent and higher levels of food insecurity than the children of citizens following welfare reform. However, little is known about the range of factors that might explain different rates of food insecurity in the different populations. In this study, the authors used...
Article
Full-text available
Using data from five waves of the Women's Employment Survey (WES; 1997-2003), we examine the links between low-income mothers' employment experiences and the emotional well-being and academic progress of their children. We find robust linkages between several different dimensions of mothers' employment experiences and child outcomes. The pattern of...
Article
Two forces motivate this special section, "New Methods for New Questions in Developmental Psychology." First are recent developments in social science methodology and the increasing availability of those methods in common software packages. Second, at the same time psychologists' understanding of developmental phenomena has continued to grow. At th...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple methods are vital to understanding development as a dynamic, transactional process. This article focuses on the ways in which quantitative and qualitative methodologies can be combined to enrich developmental science and the study of human development, focusing on the practical questions of "when" and "how." Research situations that may be...
Article
Full-text available
Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,162) and the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (N = 1,308), we estimate associations between material and instrumental support available to unwed, low-income mothers and young children‘s socioemotional wellbeing. In multivariate OLS models, we find mo...
Article
This article uses longitudinal data from approximately 2,000 low-income families participating in the national evaluation of the Comprehensive Child Development Program to examine the associations between preschool children's living arrangements and their cognitive achievement and emotional adjustment. The analysis distinguishes families in which c...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates how perceptions of teacher support and achievement goal structures in the school environment correlate with school engagement, and whether depressive symptoms mediate or moderate this association, among 64 low-income teenage mothers. Controlling for prior grades, perceptions of teacher support correlate with higher levels of...
Article
This analysis summarizes trends in family economic well-being from five non-experimental, longitudinal welfare-to-work studies launched following the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA). The studies include a sizable group of parents and other caregivers who received TANF at the point of s...
Article
Using five waves of data from a study of former and current welfare recipients in Michigan, this study examines how the extent of work participation and welfare receipt over the period 1997–2003 is associated with child behavior. We use a fixed-effects regression design to control for all time-invariant characteristics of mothers and children. We f...
Article
Using data spanning a 10-year period (1994-2004) from multiple panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, this study investigates the health of low-income young children of immigrants versus natives over the period spanning welfare reform. Health is assessed with two indicators, including parent reports of children's physical health...
Article
Full-text available
and health economics. His work considers the role of poverty and inequality in affecting life chances. He has focused on such topics as low-wage labor markets, spatial mismatch, the socioeconomic determinants of health disparities over the life course, and the effects of growing up poor and poor infant health on childhood cognition, child health, e...
Article
Differences in food expenditures in married- and single-parent families are examined using the Consumer Expenditure Survey Diary Component (1990–2003). Single parents, compared to married parents, allocate a greater share of their food budget to alcohol and food purchased away from home; conversely, they spend a smaller share of their food budget o...