Ariel D Chipman

Ariel D Chipman
Hebrew University of Jerusalem | HUJI · Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior

Ph.D.

About

117
Publications
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Publications

Publications (117)
Article
Full-text available
The anterior-most unit of the crown-group arthropod body plan includes three segments, the pre-gnathal segments, that contain three neuromeres that together comprise the brain. Recent work on the development of this anterior region has shown that its three units exhibit many developmental differences to the more posterior segments, to the extent th...
Article
Full-text available
The three anterior-most segments in arthropods contain the ganglia that make up the arthropod brain. These segments, the pre-gnathal segments (PGS), are known to exhibit many developmental differences to other segments, believed to reflect their divergent morphology. We have analyzed the expression and function of the genes involved in the conserve...
Chapter
Segmentation is both a morphological phenomenon and a developmental process occurring in bilaterally symmetrical animals. A segmented body plan is one in which repeated body units are arranged along the anterior–posterior axis, each unit containing elements from a number of organ systems. Segmentation is found in three phyla: the arthropods, anneli...
Article
Full-text available
Evippinae (Araneae, Lycosidae) is a subfamily of old-world lycosids, comprising six genera and 67 species, most of them typically found in xeric habitats. Although Israel is located between the two distribution-centers of the subfamily, Africa and central Asia, only two species of the genus Evippa Simon, 1882, namely E. arenaria (Audouin, 1826) and...
Preprint
Full-text available
The three anterior-most segments in arthropods contain the ganglia that make up the arthropod brain. These segments, the pre-gnathal segments, are known to exhibit many developmental differences to other segments, believed to reflect their divergent morphology. We have analyzed the expression and function of the genes involved in the segment-polari...
Article
The homeobox transcription factor Caudal has conserved roles in all Bilateria in defining the posterior pole and in controlling posterior elongation. These roles are seemingly similar and are difficult to disentangle. We have carried out a detailed analysis of the expression, function and interactions of the caudal ortholog of the milkweed bug, Onc...
Chapter
The Drosophila blastoderm gene regulatory network is one of the best studied networks in biology. It is composed of a series of tiered sub-networks that act sequentially to generate a primary segmental pattern. Many of these sub-networks have been studied in other arthropods, allowing us to reconstruct how each of them evolved over the transition f...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Arthropods comprise the largest and most diverse phylum on Earth and play vital roles in nearly every ecosystem. Their diversity stems in part from variations on a conserved body plan, resulting from and recorded in adaptive changes in the genome. Dissection of the genomic record of sequence change enables broad questions regarding gen...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Segmentation in arthropods typically occurs by sequential addition of segments from a posterior growth zone. However, the amount of tissue required for growth and the cell behaviors producing posterior elongation are sparsely documented. Results: Using precisely staged larvae of the crustacean, Thamnocephalus platyurus, we systematic...
Article
Segmentation is fundamental to the arthropod body plan. Understanding the evolutionary steps by which arthropods became segmented is being transformed by the integration of data from evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), Cambrian fossils that allow the stepwise acquisition of segmental characters to be traced in the arthropod stem-group, a...
Article
Full-text available
Background The Hemiptera (aphids, cicadas, and true bugs) are a key insect order, with high diversity for feeding ecology and excellent experimental tractability for molecular genetics. Building upon recent sequencing of hemipteran pests such as phloem-feeding aphids and blood-feeding bed bugs, we present the genome sequence and comparative analyse...
Chapter
Full-text available
Fully segmented body plans are found in three phyla. These phyla are among the most successful on earth. The segmented body plan is not a single character, but a complex phenomenon, which evolved through a series of evolutionary steps. I suggest a hypothetical reconstruction of the steps involved in the appearance of segmented body plans, starting...
Article
Full-text available
Background: One of the best studied developmental processes is the Drosophila segmentation cascade. However, this cascade is generally considered to be highly derived and unusual, with segments being patterned simultaneously, rather than the ancestral sequential segmentation mode. We present a detailed analysis of the segmentation cascade of the mi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Arthropods comprise the largest and most diverse phylum on Earth and play vital roles in nearly every ecosystem. Their diversity stems in part from variations on a conserved body plan, resulting from and recorded in adaptive changes in the genome. Dissection of the genomic record of sequence change enables broad questions regarding genom...
Preprint
Full-text available
One of the best studied developmental processes is the Drosophila segmentation cascade. However, this cascade is generally considered to be highly derived and unusual. We present a detailed analysis of the sequential segmentation cascade of the milkweed bug Oncopletus fasciatus, as a comparison to Drosophila, with the aim of reconstructing the evol...
Chapter
Segmentation is both a morphological phenomenon and a developmental process occurring in bilaterally symmetrical animals. A segmented body plan is one in which repeated body units are arranged along the anterior–posterior axis, each unit containing elements from a number of organ systems. Segmentation is found in three phyla: the arthropods, anneli...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The Hemiptera (aphids, cicadas, and true bugs) are a key insect order, with high diversity for feeding ecology and excellent experimental tractability for molecular genetics. Building upon recent sequencing of hemipteran pests such as phloem-feeding aphids and blood-feeding bed bugs, we present the genome sequence and comparative analyse...
Article
The last few years have seen a significant increase in the amount of data we have about the evolution of the arthropod body plan. This has come mainly from three separate sources: a new consensus and improved resolution of arthropod phylogeny, based largely on new phylogenomic analyses; a wealth of new early arthropod fossils from a number of Cambr...
Article
Our understanding of the genetics of arthropod body plan development originally stems from work on Drosophila melanogaster from the late 1970s and onward. In Drosophila, there is a relatively detailed model for the network of gene interactions that proceeds in a sequential–hierarchical fashion to define the main features of the body plan. Over the...
Article
Full-text available
We describe the dynamic process of abdominal segment generation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus We present detailed morphological measurements of the growing germband throughout segmentation. Our data are complemented by cell division profiles and expression patterns of key genes, including invected and even-skipped as markers for differen...
Article
The axes of insect embryos are defined early in the blastoderm stage. Genes involved in this polarization are well known in Drosophila, but less so in other insects, such as the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. Using quantitative PCR, we looked at differential expression of several candidate genes for early anterior-posterior patterning and found...
Article
The large milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus was one of the main study insects for a range of biological questions throughout much of the 20(th) century. Its importance waned with the introduction of Drosophila melanogaster as a genetic model organism. The evo-devo revolution of the turn of the century re-introduced Oncopeltus into the scientific co...
Article
Full-text available
Segments are formed simultaneously in the blastoderm of the fly Drosophila melanogaster through a hierarchical cascade of interacting transcription factors. Conversely, in many insects and in all non-insect arthropods most segments are formed sequentially from the posterior. We have looked at segmentation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. P...
Article
Embryos knocked down for Dl through maternal RNAi, fixed 36-38 hours after egg laying and stained for the expression of eve, inv and wg. In all three cases expression is similar to wildtype.
Article
A germband stage embryo knocked down for Dl through maternal RNAi, fixed 40 hours after egg laying and stained for the expression of wg. The embryo is shown dissected but unmounted. Expression in anterior segments (those formed in the blastoderm) is normal, but the growth zone is misshapen and shows no expression of wg.
Article
Embryos knocked down for Dl through maternal RNAi, fixed 36-38 hours after egg laying and stained for the expression of eve, inv and wg. In all three cases expression is similar to wildtype.
Article
A germband stage embryo knocked down for Dl through maternal RNAi, fixed 40 hours after egg laying and stained for the expression of wg. The embryo is shown dissected but unmounted. Expression in anterior segments (those formed in the blastoderm) is normal, but the growth zone is misshapen and shows no expression of wg.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Our understanding of the early evolution of the arthropod body plan has recently improved significantly through advances in phylogeny and developmental biology and through new interpretations of the fossil record. However, there has been limited effort to synthesize data from these different sources. Bringing an embryological perspectiv...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population...
Article
Full-text available
The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population declines in some spe...
Article
Full-text available
The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population declines in some spe...
Chapter
Hexapoda not only constitutes the largest taxon in the biological world; its representatives are also the best-studied invertebrates. This chapter will give an overview of general principles of hexapod development, mostly in reference to the detailed description of Drosophila melanogaster (see Chap. 1). The description will be divided along key dev...
Chapter
By any criterion, Insecta (as a subtaxon of Hexapoda) is the most successful taxon on the planet (see Chaps. 2 and 3 for the inclusion of the various subtaxa in Hexapoda versus Insecta). The number of described insect species nears one million, and they are found in almost every ecosystem, forming the major component of animal biomass in most. With...
Article
Full-text available
Author Summary Arthropods are the most abundant animals on earth. Among them, insects clearly dominate on land, whereas crustaceans hold the title for the most diverse invertebrates in the oceans. Much is known about the biology of these groups, not least because of genomic studies of the fruit fly Drosophila , the water flea Daphnia , and other s...
Article
Full-text available
Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present an analysis of the genome of the centipede Striga...
Article
The fauna of Chilopoda Geophilomorpha of Israel has been analyzed after examining 128 new specimens from 35 localities, reinterpreting all published data including 103 records, and relating occurrence of species with major climatic parameters. A key to identification has been compiled. A total of 17 species are distinguished, of which three are rep...
Article
The anterior and posterior ends of the insect embryo are patterned through the terminal patterning system, which is best known from the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. In Drosophila, the RTK receptor Torso, and its presumed co-activator Torso-like, initiate a signaling cascade, which activates two terminal gap genes, tailless and huckebein. These...
Article
Full-text available
The orphan nuclear receptor gene knirps and its relatives encode a small family of highly conserved proteins. We take advantage of the conservation of the family, using the recent prevalence of genomic data, to reconstruct its evolutionary history, identifying duplication events and tracing the intron-exon structure of the genes over evolution. Man...
Article
The process of head development in insects utilizes a set of widely conserved genes, but this process and its evolution are not well understood. Recent data from Tribolium castaneum have provided a baseline for an understanding of insect head development. However, work on a wider range of insect species, including members of the hemimetabolous orde...
Article
The early embryo of the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, appears as a single cell layer - the embryonic blastoderm - covering the entire egg. It is at this blastoderm stage that morphological domains are first determined, long before the appearance of overt segmentation. Central to the process of patterning the blastoderm into distinct domains a...
Article
Different sources of data on the evolution of segmentation lead to very different conclusions. Molecular similarities in the developmental pathways generating a segmented body plan tend to suggest a segmented common ancestor for all bilaterally symmetrical animals. Data from paleontology and comparative morphology suggest that this is unlikely. A p...
Article
The centipede Strigamia maritima forms all of its segments during embryogenesis. Trunk segments form sequentially from an apparently undifferentiated disk of cells at the posterior of the germ band. We have previously described periodic patterns of gene expression in this posterior disc that precede overt differentiation of segments, and suggested...
Article
The evolution of arthropod segment number provides us with a paradox, because, whereas there is more than 20-fold variation in this character overall, most classes and orders of arthropods are composed of species that lack any variation in the number of segments. So, what is the origin of the higher-level variation? The centipede order Geophilomorp...
Article
In the past decade or so, there has been a significant increase in the available data on the developmental mechanisms underlying the process of segmentation in a wide range of arthropod taxa. This large body of data makes it possible to attempt, albeit cautiously, a comparative analysis of the various aspects of the segmentation process, and to try...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate and efficient identification to the species level of early larval stages has long been a problematic step in the study of marine invertebrates, due to the extremely small size of the larvae and their lack of diagnostic morphological characters. It is nonetheless, a prerequisite for any ecological study. As a consequence, a number of molecu...