Arianna Costantini

Arianna Costantini
Università degli Studi di Trento | UNITN · Department of Psychology and Cognitive Science

PhD

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46
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Introduction
I am interested in understanding what drives employees' proactive behaviors in the workplace and how positive work behaviors can be stimulated and sustained through psychology intervention.

Publications

Publications (46)
Article
Smartphones are essential tools for communications and information management in organizational settings. However, smartphone use is a risky behavior when used while driving to and from work. As work experiences have been found to influence risky commuting behaviors, we hypothesized that job crafting, i.e., a set of proactive work behaviors through...
Article
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Building on a self-enhancement perspective (Sedikides & Alicke, 2019), we connect job crafting and organizational socialization research and propose that, based on their core self-evaluations (CSEs), newcomers use job crafting to create a resource-rich and stimulating work environment and construct a sense of organizational insider status during so...
Article
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Given the growing number of remote and hybrid working arrangements, this research investigates the process and outcomes of proactivity during remote work. We approach proactivity during remote working as a resource-building process and integrate self-leadership and job crafting literature. We propose that employees' self-leadership allows them to r...
Article
Women who return to work after maternity leave go through a transitional phase in their life. This research aimed at gaining insight into the experiences of nurses who returned to work after prolonged maternity leave and the strategies to overcome them. To do so, this study adopted a qualitative design consisting of an interpretative description. T...
Article
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Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) is costly for organizations and their members. In this study, we adopted the theory of planned behavior and the effort-reward imbalance model to understand how behavioral intention relates to actual CWB, how such a relationship arises from personal beliefs and social norms, and whether perceptions of imbalance...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to empirically compare the degree to which two technological interventions, based on the computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) and the technology acceptance model (TAM), were associated with a different incidence of financial biases. Design/methodology/approach The study adopted a quasi-experimental research desi...
Chapter
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The spark that ignites passion, tenacity and perseverance is defined as Grit. It encourages individuals to achieve long-term professional goals, especially when they become challenging. Over time, workers develop the main coping ability for reacting quickly to challenging situations: Workplace Resilience is a learnable skill that helps individuals...
Article
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This article presents a combined motivational and volitional intervention based on the theory of planned behavior aimed at promoting expansion-oriented job crafting behaviors. Participants were employees working in different companies, assigned to either an intervention (n = 53) or a control group (n = 55). Results of a field study (including preme...
Article
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Psychological assessment refers to the process whereby different methods and techniques are used to test hypotheses about people and their psychological characteristics. Understanding employees' psychological makeup is key to allow effective human resource management, from hiring to retirement. However, the gap between scientific evidence and organ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Questo report sviluppa e approfondisce un argomento che fa parte del progetto “E-FraLit - Employability and Fragile Literacies” condotto dall’Università di Verona grazie al finanziamento della Fondazione Cariverona. Il progetto ha l’obiettivo di promuovere lo sviluppo di iniziative volte a migliorare l’occupabilità di persone con fragilità linguist...
Article
Full-text available
Dyslexic employees are likely to be more at risk of low levels of personal resources because of their cognitive makeup compared to their non-dyslexic counterparts. Low personal resources, in turn, may lead to low employability because of difficulties in positively facing transitions. This research aimed to systematically review evidence on interven...
Article
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Purpose This study aims to expand our knowledge on the processes through which work–family policies relate to work–family conflict as well as work–related attitudes among women in management positions returning to work after maternity leave. Design/methodology/approach A total of 238 women in management positions who recently have returned to work...
Article
Purpose This study aims to test the effectiveness of a training intervention based on the psychology of perception, delivered to young Italian workers and employees, with low education, hired with an apprenticeship contract and involved in a compulsory training course (duration 32 h; the training intervention reported in the paper covers the first...
Article
Full-text available
While to date job crafting has been conceptualised as consisting of behaviours aiming at seeking more resources, decreasing hindering demands, and seeking more challenges, recent research suggests that individuals may restore the fit between their demands and preferences also by optimising their demands. Accordingly, optimising demands has been int...
Article
When facing role transitions, individuals may proactively shape the new role to make it fit better with their personal characteristics. In this study, we proposed and examined individualized newcomers’ adjustment to a new work environment, i.e. job crafting, during socialization. We predicted that individual differences in terms of core self-evalua...
Chapter
Full-text available
Rapid changes in the work environment require employees to proactivity shape their job characteristics to sustain motivation, energy, and performance. Traditionally, job redesign was mainly a top-down process, where the management of an organisation was in charge of defining the most appropriate job description of a mansion. Today, such an approach...
Conference Paper
Purpose. In two studies we investigated (1) the role of study crafting behaviors in building resources and challenges at the origin of study engagement (2) whether interventions focused on behavioral change techniques are effective to sustain student’s proactive behaviors during the university experience. We hypothesized that (1) students make self...
Article
Full-text available
This research presents the development of a short scale named "NOTECHS+" to measure the Non-Technical Skills (i.e., NOTECHS: Cooperation, Leadership and Managerial skills, Decision-Making, and Situational Awareness), Resilience and Emotion Regulation, in a sector that comprises the aviation and the emergency personnel: the Helicopter Emergency Medi...
Article
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Most relevant theories of prosocial behavior aim at exploring and understanding helping motivations from an evolutionary perspective. This article summarizes findings from research on prosocial behavior from both a socioeconomic and psychological perspective. Building on literature exploring the basic processes and determinant variables of helping,...
Article
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Purpose – This study aims to investigate the relationship between organisation-based self-esteem (OBSE) and work engagement during a new strength-based intervention over nine months. Design/methodology/approach – A sample of 82 workers composed of 70 sales consultants and 12 area-managers working in an Italian pharmaceutical company received a one-...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The present study examines the impact of a positive psychology intervention on job crafting, positive emotions and work engagement. Design A sample of 43 employees working in a public organisation received a three day-long resource-based intervention grounded on meaningfulness and practical exercises. Findings Results showed that the inte...
Article
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Emerging research has highlighted the utility of measuring individual differences in decision-making competence (DMC), showing that consistently following normatively rational principles is associated with positive psychosocial and health behaviors. From another level of analysis, functional theories of personality suggest that broad trait dimensio...
Article
Traditionally, studies examining decision-making heuristics and biases (H&B) have focused on aggregate effects using between-subjects designs in order to demonstrate violations of rationality. Although H&B are often studied in isolation from others, emerging research has suggested that stable and reliable individual differences in rational thought...
Article
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The article aims to be a reflective paper on the interconnected concepts of training, development and innovation and the potential they have in dealing with change in organizations. We call change both the process through which something becomes different and the result of that process. Change management is the expression used to define the complex...
Article
Full-text available
An organization's survival and its performance are often connected to employees' well-being, which in intensive work conditions can be compromised by employee exhaustion. To date, the last economic crisis has forced several companies to downsize and leave the remaining employees facing higher job demands and vulnerability toward job exhaustion. The...
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents the results of a study on the relationship between the Big Five of personality and job performance carried out by surveying workers and employees’ perception on the matter instead of passing through the computation of possibly faked (and biased) correlation coefficients between them. This in order to both fill a void in the liter...
Article
Full-text available
Orientation: Organisations need energetic and dedicated employees to enhance the quality of their services and products continuously. According to the Conservation of Resources Theory, it is possible to increase work engagement of employees by improving their personal resources. Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to examine the extent...
Chapter
In this chapter, we discuss the potential advantages of taking a work and organisational psychology (WOP) perspective on Workplace Innovation (WPI). WPI represents a construct that can be applied at different organisational levels and be considered from multiple inter-related perspectives. Accordingly, this contribution takes a systemic perspective...
Article
Full-text available
Managers often have to deal with the financial and ethical risks that companies face. Evidence from risk management research suggests a negative relationship between people's age and risk taking tendencies. Within such a framework, the present contribution examines how different perceived occupational rewards may mediate or interact with the relati...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we present a review of recent studies on workplace innovation (WPI) from a work and organizational psychology (WOP) perspective, with the aim of showing the potential advantages of taking a WOP perspective on WPI. We first outline a few different conceptualisations of WPI and of its main outcomes, that is, quality of working life a...
Conference Paper
A lifelong learning perspective to the development of individuals needs to rely on a dynamic educational environment, able to support multiple career pathways. Accordingly, educational settings need to possess the knowledge to design effective career counseling programs to allow institutional permeability and options to move horizontally to differe...
Conference Paper
Since the mass diffusion of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Italian educational institutions have been implementing several experimental projects in order to enhance students learning experience (Moricca, 2016). The initial Vocational Education and Training (VET) has been part of this innovation process with several pilot projects,...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – This paper aims to link findings from laboratory-based decision-making research and decision-making competence (DMC) aspects that may be central for career-related decision-making processes. Past research has identified individual differences in rational responses in decision situations, which the authors refer to as DMC. Although there i...
Article
Full-text available
It is acknowledged that chronic job demands may be depleting workers' stamina resulting in burnout conditions and ultimately causing further health problems. This relation, known as health impairment process, has recently been considered as a possible explanation for the emergence of counterproductive work behavior (CWB). The present work aims to e...
Article
The paper reports the results of a study on the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and job performance carried out by surveying business workers and employees perception instead of passing through the computation of possibly faked (and biased) correlation coefficients between them. The sample is composed of 100 Italian workers and...
Chapter
Since Neuroticism is the only negative personality trait out of the so-called Big Five (the other four are Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Openness), researchers often reverse it into the complementary one of Emotional Stability (Jeronimus, Riese, Sanderman, and Ormel, 2014). Emotional Stability is considered to be one of the two...
Article
Full-text available
The needs for personality assessment in organizations are peculiar. For example, personality measures for the assessment of candidates or employees should be related to job performance. Even strong correlations between personality tests and job performance might not be sufficient, though, because some tests make use of a language people working in...
Article
In recent years, such organizations as businesses, companies and firms have improved their abilities to carry out their own research. Indeed, they have become able to improve their predictions thanks to new management techniques and to the development of technological instruments capable of capturing and analyzing large volumes of data. In a system...

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Projects

Projects (8)
Project
Guidance and career guidance services have been defined both by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, 2004) and by a World Bank report (Watts and Fretwell, 2004) as services designed to help people, at any age and at any time in their life, make educational, training and professional choices and manage their careers. They include three main elements: · Career information, relative to courses, occupations, career paths, and the labor market. This aspect mostly relies on Web resources, although information may also be provided in paper format. · Career advising, on an individual or group basis (small size). The focus is on the distinctive career problems faced by individuals. · Professional training, as part of the training curriculum, where attention is given to helping groups of individuals develop skills to manage their professional development. Career orientation is about helping people to choose from the full range of opportunities available, about their skills, interests, and distinctive values. In the past, a distinction has often been made between “educational orientation”, which concerns the choices of the course, and “professional orientation”, relatively to professional choices. This was based on the opinion that educational choices preceded, or should be separated from, vocational choices. This opinion is now widely considered obsolete. Changes in the workplace mean that more people are now making several changes in their career direction throughout their lives and have to learn new skills to do so. Therefore, more and more, learning and work are intertwined, for a lifetime. Careers are not commonly “chosen” at a single point in time, but “constructed” through a series of related learning and work choices made throughout life. This led to a new paradigm in vocational guidance designed to support the development of a permanent career. The political importance attached to career guidance has been significantly elevated over the last decade through a series of analyses of related policies conducted by many international organizations including the OECD (2004), the World Bank (Watts and Fretwell, 2004), and the European Parliament Commission and its agencies. Every career for people working in organizations started with the job searching phase. During this time and also prior to this, it is fundamental to develop and increase employability. This concept has been described in many ways over the years and it's often strictly bounded with education. Very often the core notion of employability relates to the propensity of students to obtain a job (Harvey, 2001). Employability processes are sometimes also confused with outcomes. "Employability-linked learning is likely to continue to be subject to crude measures of outcome, such as the proportion of graduates who achieve a full-time job within a specified period. In the UK, for example, `first-destination returns’ are logged after six months as employability performance indicators and there is considerable pragmatic pressure from government and funding agency circles to `keep employability simple’'" (Harvey, 2001) So, in effect, employability is being de facto equated with the gaining and retaining of fulfilling work (Hillage & Pollard, 1998). Because of this sort of equation measuring employability could happen to be tricky. Despite this, the advancement of employability within the workplace and among young individuals, the unemployed, and other possibly impeded groups in the work environment remains an important goal for the European Employment Strategy, defined in 2003, which underscores three overarching goals: full work; quality and efficiency at work. Whereas the first EU procedure included employability as an important part of its approach, the more adaptable, longer-term technique presently pushed by the European Commission talks of promoting more and way better ‘investment in human capital and techniques for lifelong learning’. In any case, this and numerous of the Commission’s other rules for executing the procedure reflect the focus on employability (McQuaid and Lindsay, 2004) Fully connected with employability and decision- making this research project proposes a survey about the analysis of the decision-making skills of career using as a reference model the Organizational Support Theory by Levinson. Investigating the perception of the support that an organization can give to workers and employees is useful to support organizational actions towards wellbeing and achieve the mission of the organization. This support has resulted at two different levels: the organizational level and the individual one. If workers and employees perceive a lack of organizational support, they could implement disadvantageous and inappropriate behaviors towards the company they belong to. This is all contemplated in the Theory of Planned Behaviour by Ajzen. Finally, on the one hand, employability needs to be improved from a young age, on the other hand, if the employability went well and the individual starts a career there will be many choices to make that could influence work-life in many ways. As important as employability if not even more it surely is career decision-making that also can and need to be learned and developed. References Watts, A. G. and Fretwell, D. (2004). “Public Policies for Career Development”. Washington DC, World Bank. A. G. Watts (2013). “Career guidance and orientation”. UNESCO Lee Harvey (2001) Defining and Measuring Employability Quality in Higher Education, Vol. 7, No. 2 Ronald W. McQuaid and Colin Lindsay (2004) The Concept of Employability, Urban Studies, Vol. 42, No. 2, 197– 219, February 2005
Project
Training interventions concern a wide area largely dealt by Industrial-Organizational Psychology. Continuous improvements in the skills and development of the workforce potentials to the highest level, are essential elements to assure the performance and effectiveness of an organization. Many studies have shown that workers who have experienced a feeling of a lack of or insufficient preparation, with the consequent perception of being inadequate over the task requested, can easily experience difficulty in adapting themselves, with consequent deterioration of their commitment to work: typical features of the burnout syndrome (work stress-related). Investing in every single worker will make him feel more responsible for his job, more involved in the company goal, and more well-being. All these aspects will lead him to be more productive. Frequent training interventions bring benefits not only to the single worker but to the whole Organization. These are the multiplicity of organizational training interventions that can be implemented by I/O psychologists: from individuals, such as Coaching, Mentoring or Managerial training, to groups, such as Team Building, or to those aimed at developing some basic constructs of the Work and Organization Psychology as a Resource-Based Training. For instance: coaching is a process that enables learning and development to occur and thus performance to improve. To be successful a Coach requires a knowledge and understanding of the process as well as the variety of styles, skills, and techniques that are appropriate to the context in which the coaching takes place. Mentoring is an off-line process where one person offers help, guidance, advice, and support to facilitate the learning or development of another. On the other hand, sometimes training instead focuses on learning in a very practical way. This is the case of vocational training (VET) a notion that takes many forms. It is the most heterogeneous of the main training sectors in Europe today. It is difficult to define the VET as a single institutional entity because it involves many other parts of the training system in many cases. VET could be defined as a "training which aims to equip people with knowledge, know-how, skills and/or competencies required in particular occupations or more broadly in the labor market" (Cedefop, 2014a, p. 292). This research project analyzes the so-called Lifelong Learning (LLL) between organizational training and vocational training. This is a process through which individuals acquire information, knowledge, and competencies in a range of formal and informal settings, throughout life (Sartori and Tacconi, 2017). Lifelong learning is considered to be an appropriate response to changes (Gibbs et al., 2007) and a key lever for resilience, adaptation, and development (Smidt and Sursock, 2011) of both individuals and organizations (Roland, 2010). It has been argued that it can represent how people go on acquiring such LLL key-competences (Garavan et al., 2002), gain expertise (Jarvis, 2009), adapt to different job market conditions (International Labour Organization, 2000), and develop employability while growing up (Commission of the European Communities, 2007). Because of the importance of these organizational policies regarding this topic is growing fast, majorly regarding young people. LLL policies aim to enable young adults to identify and develop those key-competences necessary to find, retain, and progress in employment: that is, to improve their employability. In the past two decades, the development of LLL policies resulted in a diversified market configuration for adult education throughout Europe, which is expected to increase further. The continuous acquisition of key-competences is a perceived determinant for professional success and career.
Project
Decisions are a key issue in the organizational domain, and errors that could derive from bad choices are of terrible impact on the organization and its performance. In the financial and in the commercial sector, the exposure to overconfidence in decision-making is considered the main cause of target failing in companies (Frydman & Camerer, 2016; Russo & Schoemaker, 1989). Worst is the case of the health sector, where the medical error is estimated to be the third leading cause of death in the US connected to workplace decisions (Makary & Daniel, 2016), and most of these accidental deceases have been accounted for no-deliberative decisions made by the personnel (Zhang, Patel, Johnson, & Shortliffe, 2004). Research developed in organizations indicates that decisions taken in the workplace are often the result of entrenched preferences and subjective expectations, following the logic of situational appropriateness rather than rational procedure (March 1994). These illogical premises on which decisions often are based are named heuristics and cognitive biases. Heuristics, introduced by Herbert Simon (1957), are considered simple human algorithms present in peoples’ mind applied for economizing cognitive resources and simplify tasks, When such mind shortcut departs reasoning from logic and normative processes, it can sometimes show a bias, which is the tendency to induce an incorrect, illogical or irrational conclusion based on cognitive factors (Tversky & Kahneman, 1974). Based on research in the development psychology domain, Miller and Byrnes (2001) have defined and assessed the construct of Decision-Making Competency (DMCy), which relies on self-regulation and metacognitive processes for examining choice options and mastering decisions. The rising interest toward decisional competences and perceived job characteristics has lately met the recent psychology interventional paradigm, which is questioning if these are stable components or if some training programs can enhance them. In literature, the ultimate intervention for improving decision-making competences is named debiasing. Developed through experiments conducted in a laboratory, the debiasing aims at improving the awareness in decision-making processes, by addressing subjects to manage logical incongruences and incoherent perceptions (Gerling, 2009). Composed of several techniques, debiasing helps people to consider new information during the decision-making, which might support the generation of different solutions and avoid heuristics and biases. Recently, such a program has been revisited and applied in organizations as a single training session to improve employees’ decisional competences and much more their performance at work (Soll, Milkman, & Payne). Along with it, starting from empirical studies in the field, I/O psychologists have recently developed a new interventional program to improve the work experience. Namely, job crafting training, it aims to help employees to improve the control over perceived job characteristics and their psychological state, by shaping, molding, and redefining their work activities. Indeed, Job crafting is based on self-initiated change behaviors, and as a construct, it has been developed to study the alignment between employees’ expectations and their jobs (Petrou, Demerouti, Peeters, Schaufeli, & Hetland, 2012). Both interventional programs, built on single training sessions, have shown to improve significantly decision-making competencies and job crafting behaviors in participants. Whereas the former relies more on analytical improvements, and the latter is intrinsically related to motivational forces, they rely on similar processes. Both of them work by eliciting cognitive reframing (Hirt & Markman, 1995; Wrzesniewski & Dutton, 2001), developing self-regulation (Byrnes, Miller, & Reynolds, 1999; Tims, B. Bakker, & Derks, 2014), improving reflective thinking (Arkes, 1991; Niessen, Weseler, & Kostova, 2016) and proactivity (Bakker, Tims, & Derks, 2012; Emby & Finley, 1997). For what concerns the workplace, the effects of such training programs, are beneficial for the improvement of control over job resources and demands, and well-being at work. Still, evidence that both training programs can improve a work outcome as job performance is inconclusive at present (Claessens, Van Eerde, Rutte, & Roe, 2010; Morewedge et al., 2015; Tims, Bakker, Derks, & van Rhenen, 2013). Taking these training programs together, the current research project, by using a quasi-experiment grounded on two samples (experimental group VS control group) of employees from the health care and commercial sector, aims to empirically answer to some pragmatic questions. Firstly, with a one-shot intervention, is it possible to help employees to craft their jobs by improving also their decision-making processes? Secondly, can this combination, through better management of job characteristics and of the psychological state, enhance significantly the job performance? Before discussing the expected cross-benefits of such blend training, we first present the job crafting framework intervention considered in this study, and the debiasing program by introducing hypotheses related to the above questions. There are conceptual reasons to think how a joint intervention, composed of a debiasing and job crafting training together, can multiply the magnitude of improvements at work (e.g. better management of job resources and demands, less exhaustion, and finally greater job performance). These training present similarities in terms of cognitive mechanics and techniques, which can fruitfully interact together. Considering the practice, the use of daily or weekly diary studies is a common method for both approaches, which provides an accurate picture of the experience associated with work activity. Indeed, the development of awareness is the first step needed for eliciting reflective thinking and for learning new coping strategies over the heuristic response. Both of them, create a virtuous circle, which facilitate the elaboration of new information and the production of a less automatic response. The distinctive characteristic of the job crafting intervention is that such a bottom-up redesign approach starts with the personal initiative of the employee, who can put into action his/her attitude toward proactive work behaviors (Tims et al., 2012). Such a peculiarity differentiates the job crafting intervention from most of the other bottom-up job redesign approaches, recognizing to the individual a central role and idiosyncratic deals or employees’ participation in job redesign. Debiasing training is defined as an improvement program, continually developed over the last 50 years, to reduce heuristics and biases in decision-making (Croskerry, Singhal, & Mamede, 2013). To date, it met a mixed success, which appears to be related to the sector of application. In the health sector, an experimental procedure has been designed and proved to work for preventing the framing effect in diagnosis among the medical personnel (McNeil, Pauker, Sox, & Tversky, 1982). Due to its nature, debiasing has been mostly applied in jobs characterized by high decisional control and high outcomes value (such as trading and finance, engineering, medical sector, etc.). Nevertheless, recent research has shown that whether the sector appears to be contingent, much more, the presence of certain job characteristics, such as the support of colleagues or feedbacks at work, is the determinants of the training performance (Harvey, 2011; Kohler, Brenner, & Griffin, 2002) The intervention proposed by this research project was designed for about four weeks and based on a one-day workshop delivered to participants, together with a notebook with the contents of the training, and a diary with the monitoring questionnaires. Before the workshop session, the research staff provided to participants the baseline questionnaire, they were asked to complete it and explained the anonymous nature of the data collection during the instructions. After this, the first part of the workshop, based on face-to-face soft skill training and conducted by professional HR trainers, started. The training was firstly aimed to develop awareness toward such constructs including background theory on the JD-R model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007), participants first mapped their job demands, job resources, and recognized job crafting strategies, as well and decision-making processes that can be detrimental in such processes, such as biases or heuristics. Employees were trained to make small adjustments to their approach to decisions made at work and to formulate job crafting goals in a personal plan. Overall, results show that the intervention was fruitful for improving decision-making competences and an inclination toward the individual job redesign. Moreover, thanks to the use of growth models we were able to understand how these processes of learning develop over time. Finally, implications for companies consist of the employee-initiated improvement of job characteristics together with collaborative decision-making developed by this training, which in turn can positively increase the employee performance and as well job satisfaction. References Arkes, H. R. (1991). Costs and benefits of judgment errors: Implications for debiasing. Psychological Bulletin, 110(3), 486. Bakker, A. B., Tims, M., & Derks, D. (2012). Proactive personality and job performance: The role of job crafting and work engagement. Human Relations, 65(10), 1359-1378. Byrnes, J. P., Miller, D. C., & Reynolds, M. (1999). Learning to make good decisions: A self‐regulation perspective. Child Development, 70(5), 1121-1140. Ceschi, A., Sartori, R., Tommasi, F., Noventa, S., Morandini, S., & Zagarese, V. (2021). A combined resources‐strength intervention: Empirical evidence from two streams of the positive psychology approach. International Journal of Training and Development. Claessens, B. J., Van Eerde, W., Rutte, C. G., & Roe, R. A. (2010). Things to do today...: A daily diary study on task completion at work. Applied Psychology, 59(2), 273-295. Costantini, A., Ceschi, A., Viragos, A., De Paola, F., & Sartori, R. (2019). The role of a new strength-based intervention on organisation-based self-esteem and work engagement: A three-wave intervention study. Journal of Workplace Learning. Costantini, A., Demerouti, E., Ceschi, A., & Sartori, R. (2020). Implementing job crafting behaviors: Exploring the effects of a job crafting intervention based on the theory of planned behavior. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 0021886320975913. Croskerry, P., Singhal, G., & Mamede, S. (2013). Cognitive debiasing 2: impediments to and strategies for change. BMJ quality & safety, bmjqs-2012-001713. Emby, C., & Finley, D. (1997). Debiasing framing effects in auditors' internal control judgments and testing decisions. Contemporary Accounting Research, 14(2), 55-77. Frydman, C., & Camerer, C. F. (2016). The psychology and neuroscience of financial decision making. Trends in cognitive sciences, 20(9), 661-675. Gerling, P. (2009). Debiasing of managerial decisions: a new function of management accounting? Management, 169-189 Hirt, E. R., & Markman, K. D. (1995). Multiple explanations: A consider-an-alternative strategy for debiasing judgments. Journal of personality and social psychology, 69, 1069-1086. Makary, M. A., & Daniel, M. (2016). Medical error—the third leading cause of death in the US. BMJ, 353. doi:10.1136/bmj.i2139 March, J. (1994). A primer on decision making: How decisions happen. New York: The Free Press. Miller, D. C., & Byrnes, J. P. (2001). Adolescents' decision making in social situations A self-regulation perspective. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 22(3), 237-256. doi:10.1016/S0193-3973(01)00082-X Morewedge, C. K., Yoon, H., Scopelliti, I., Symborski, C. W., Korris, J. H., & Kassam, K. S. (2015). Debiasing decisions: Improved decision making with a single training intervention. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2(1), 129-140. Niessen, C., Weseler, D., & Kostova, P. (2016). When and why do individuals craft their jobs? The role of individual motivation and work characteristics for job crafting. Human Relations, 0018726715610642. Petrou, P., Demerouti, E., Peeters, M. C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Hetland, J. (2012). Crafting a job on a daily basis: Contextual correlates and the link to work engagement. Journal of organizational behavior, 33(8), 1120-1141. Sartori, R., Costantini, A., Ceschi, A., & Tommasi, F. (2018). How do you manage change in organizations? Training, development, innovation, and their relationships. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 313. Simon, H. A. (1957). Models of man: Social and rational. New York: Wiley. Soll, J. B., Milkman, K. L., & Payne, J. W. (2014). A user's guide to debiasing. Stanovich, K. E., Toplak, M. E., & West, R. F. (2008). The development of rational thought: A taxonomy of heuristics and biases. Advances in child development and behavior, 36, 251-285. Tims, M., B. Bakker, A., & Derks, D. (2014). Daily job crafting and the self-efficacy–performance relationship. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 29(5), 490-507. Tims, M., Bakker, A. B., Derks, D., & van Rhenen, W. (2013). Job crafting at the team and individual level: Implications for work engagement and performance. Group & Organization Management, 1059601113492421. Tommasi, F., Ceschi, A., Gostimir, M., Perini, M., & Sartori, R. (2021). Game-based training: an effective method for reducing behavioral-finance biases. Tommasi, F., Ceschi, A., Weller, J., Costantini, A., Passaia, G., Gostimir, M., & Sartori, R. (2021). An empirical evaluation of tech interventions to improve financial decision-making. European Journal of Training and Development. Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science, 185(4157), 1124. Wrzesniewski, A., & Dutton, J. E. (2001). Crafting a job: Revisioning employees as active crafters of their work. Academy of management review, 26(2), 179-201. Zhang, J., Patel, V. L., Johnson, T. R., & Shortliffe, E. H. (2004). A cognitive taxonomy of medical errors. Journal of biomedical informatics, 37(3), 193-204.