Ari Ikonen

Ari Ikonen
Tampere University | UTA · Pori Department

About

64
Publications
4,247
Reads
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130
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2013 - present
Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase Ltd.
Position
  • biosphere assessment specialist
Description
  • managing director; senior expert (site characterisation, monitoring, and environmental & radiological safety case); certified radiation safety expert (use of nuclear energy)

Publications

Publications (64)
Article
Full-text available
The International Atomic Energy Agency has coordinated an international project addressing enhancements of methods for modelling in post-closure safety assessments of solid radioactive waste disposal. The project used earlier published work from the IAEA biosphere modelling and assessment (BIOMASS) project to further develop methods and techniques....
Article
The International Atomic Energy Agency has coordinated an international project addressing enhancements of methods for modelling the biosphere in post-closure safety assessments of solid radioactive waste disposal. This has resulted in the enhanced BIOMASS methodology that is described elsewhere in this special issue. To a large degree, the enhance...
Article
Ongoing national programmes and International forums have in recent decades developed and enhanced methods and strategies in how to address the characterisation of potentially suitable sites for radioactive waste repositories. Siting processes, site selection and site investigation programmes have been conducted for near surface and geological repo...
Article
The issue of how to address a changing climate when assessing post-closure radiological impacts in safety assessment of geological disposal of radioactive waste has been discussed, and suggested methods have been available, since the late 1990s. During recent decades, the increased attention on human-induced amplification of the greenhouse effect,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
NORM-involving industrial practices pose multifaceted environmental and radiation safety issues that need to be managed in a cost-effective but reliably safe manner that satisfies both regulatory and public concerns. In addition to the management and possible remediation of a site itself, often there are also aspects of waste and residue management...
Poster
Full-text available
In: Suopäivä 2020 – abstraktikirja [Finnish Peatland Day 2020, Book of Abstracts], Tieteiden talo, Helsinki 31.1.2020. Finnish Peatland Society, Helsinki, Finland. Abstract on p. 26.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Baltic Sea is characterised by high degree of freshwater input and limited oceanic connection that results in brackish water that hosts rather distinct biota communities, and its environmental protection values are widely recognised. The area has also received its share of the global fallout and deposition from nuclear accidents and, consequent...
Poster
Full-text available
* Mires are important habitats for versatile biota communities – important also to nature protection * Current radiological protection paradigm calls for considering also biota on its own right * This applies also to existing situations (e.g. post-emergency) * Radiation protection of humans and biota can be addressed together, the latter providing...
Article
Radionuclide transport with groundwater flow and subsequent doses to people are an aspect to be studied when assessing the long-term safety of geological nuclear waste repositories. A scenario where the radionuclide release migrates through a three-layer sediment structure of a lake in a farming environment is presented in this paper. The sediment...
Poster
Full-text available
The Baltic Sea is an enclosed arm of the North Atlantic Ocean, characterized by high degree of freshwater input and limited oceanic connection that is reflected in the brackish water type hosting relatively distinct biota communities. The sea is also important in many aspects to the people in the region. ... EnviroCase has now opted to invest in in...
Article
Non-human biota in radiological risk assessment is typically evaluated using Reference Organisms (ROs) or Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs), for all exposure situations. However, it still remains open whether the use of an increased number of species would improve the ability to demonstrate protectiveness of the environment. In this paper, the re...
Poster
Full-text available
In this conference poster we compared water-to-whole body concentration ratios for benthic macroinvertebrates in lakes in west Greenland (Kangerlussuaq), Sweden (Forsmark and Laxemar sites) and in Finland (lakes Koskeljärvi, Lutanjärvi and Säkylän Pyhäjärvi). A large number of data on stable elements were considered as a proxy to long-lived radionu...
Chapter
This contribution addresses biosphere modelling in safety assessments for various purposes. In general, such assessments comprise of relatively similar components, and here the focus is on assessments for radioactive waste disposal, even though the same principles can well be, and have been, applied for example to normal-operational and accidental...
Article
Full-text available
The International Atomic Energy Agency has coordinated an international project addressing climate change and landscape development in post-closure safety assessments of solid radioactive waste disposal. The work has been supported by results of parallel ongoing research that has been published in a variety of reports and peer reviewed journal arti...
Conference Paper
[In: 4th International Conference on Radioecology & Environmental Radioactivity, 3–8 September 2017, Berlin: Abstracts book. Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses, France. ISBN 978-2-9545237-7-4. pp. 453–454.]
Conference Paper
[In: 4th International Conference on Radioecology & Environmental Radioactivity, 3–8 September 2017, Berlin: Abstracts book. Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses, France. ISBN 978-2-9545237-7-4. pp. 606–607.]
Conference Paper
Transfer of radionuclides into biota is clearly regulated by the availability and uptake/intake and the respective levels also by the losses from the organisms. Conceptually, this can be addressed also with allometric scaling, phylogeny and ecological stoichiometry. These have been studied also for their applications in radioecology, but the ecolog...
Conference Paper
In many applications, especially in safety cases for nuclear facilities, objective evidence-based confirmation that models and data are fit for the purpose is warranted. In addition to the numerical uncertainty and sensitivity analyses, various other approaches have been used for example in nuclear waste disposal, pharmacology and environmental man...
Article
The assessment processes concerning the safety of nuclear waste repositories include the modelling of radionuclide transport in biosphere and the evaluation of the doses to the most affected humans. In this paper, a scenario, in which a contaminated lake is the water source for drinking water, irrigation water and watering of livestock, is presente...
Technical Report
The Olkiluoto Island on the western coast of Finland has been selected as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel and low- and intermediate-level nuclear waste. Due to the post-glacial crustal rebound (land uplift), at present about 6 mm/y, the present landscape of shallow sea areas around the island will change considerably in a time scale relati...
Chapter
In this paper the long-term evolution of the catchment area of Eurajoki River, situated in Western Finland, is studied. The modelling area, nearly 1000 km2 in size, is at present mostly covered by sea. Probabilistic digital elevation model and land uplift model form the basis for the future catchment area modelling. A land uplift model is required...
Article
Full-text available
In safety assessments for nuclear waste disposal, the biosphere is a completely open system, whereas the bedrock can be treated with comparably simple boundary conditions. The bedrock has a vital role in providing and maintaining favourable conditions for the waste, but the public interest tends to focus on the biosphere. More importantly, the bedr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mires are important in radiological impact assessments of nuclear waste repositories, especially for those located in boreal regions, since they are found in depressions and other wet areas in which groundwater typically discharges. They also accumulate many elements including many of the radionuclides possibly released from the repositories. In th...
Conference Paper
Lake Säkylän Pyhäjärvi has been a subject of scientific research for long due to its ecological, recreational and commercial importance. Signal crayfish was introduced to the lake in the 1980s and over the years it has become a common species and a valuable catch for the local fishermen. Olkiluoto Island, about 50 kilometres north-west to Lake Säky...
Article
Full-text available
Throughout the biosphere assessment in the Posiva Safety Case, knowledge quality assessment is a crucial issue, with the role of assess and demonstrate the quality in all knowledge used throughout the work. Implementing a systematic and consistent knowledge quality assessment includes the development of a set of tools to be utilised iteratively thr...
Technical Report
This working report presents results of biomass distribution and dimensions of an adult and a juvenile great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) and of cormorant eggs from the Puskakari colony, Bothnian Sea, close to the Olkiluoto nuclear waste repository site in south-western Finland. Also, element concentrations and distributions are presented for th...
Article
Full-text available
Natural bacterial communities impact the motility of isotopes, such as radionuclides, in the envi-ronment. As a result of post glacial crustal rebound radionuclides may escape the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel on Olkiluoto Island, Finland, and reach surface environments. Lastensuo Bog, a 5300-year-old raised bog in southwestern...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Link to file: http://www.posiva.fi/tietopankki/statistical_estimation_of_land_uplift_model_parameters_based_on_archaeological_and_geological_shore_level_displacement_data.1793.xhtml
Article
Future biosphere modeling has an essential role in assessing the safety of a proposed nuclear fuel repository. In Finland the basic inputs needed for future biosphere modeling are the digital elevation model and the land uplift model because the surface of the ground is still rising due to the download stress caused by the last ice age. The future...
Article
Soil samples from three forest soil pits were examined down to a depth of approximately three metres using 1 M ammonium acetate extraction and microwave-assisted extraction with concentrated nitric acid (HNO3), to study the binding of cesium (Cs) at Olkiluoto Island, southern Finland. Ammonium acetate was used to extract the readily exchangeable Cs...
Article
Full-text available
A programme of work, commissioned within the BIOPROTA collaborative forum, has recently been undertaken to assess the quantitative and qualitative elements of uncertainty associated with non-human biota (NHB) dose assessment in relation to the potential long-term release of radionuclides from a geological disposal facility (GDF). This was achieved...
Article
Full-text available
In Finland, Olkiluoto Island on the western coast has been selected as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel disposal. With the approaching licensing steps (application for the nuclear construction licence in 2012), the biosphere assessment demonstrating the long-term safety of the repository is developed into more and more site specific. At the...
Article
Full-text available
In Finland, Olkiluoto Island on the western coast has been selected as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel. Due to the shallow sea areas around the island, the postglacial land uplift is going to change the landscape within the next millennia. For instance, new lakes and mires will develop on the present offshore areas. Concerning radionuclide...
Article
In Finland, Olkiluoto Island on the western coast has been selected as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel disposal. With approaching licensing steps, the biosphere assessment demonstrating the long-term safety of the repository is developed into more and more site specific. As the literature data on site-relevant crops and garden products on...
Article
Full-text available
In Finland, Olkiluoto Island has been selected for constructing a spent nuclear fuel disposal facility. With the approaching licensing step, submitting the application for nuclear construction licence in 2012, all components of the safety case are becoming more site-specific. In order to assess compliance with regulatory requirements, a prospective...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
BIOPROTA is an international open collaborative forum, started in 2002, designed to support resolution of key issues in the biosphere aspects of assessments of the long-term impact of potential radionuclide releases associated With radioactive waste management.
Article
Full-text available
In Finland, Olkiluoto Island on the western coast has been selected as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel disposal. A safety criterion is that typical exposures (dose rates) to flora and fauna should be demonstrated to be lower than those that according to best available knowledge could cause detrimental effect. To increase the confidence of...
Chapter
Full-text available
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are extensively used as basic components of geographic information systems. Our purpose in this study was to generate a high-resolution DEM based on available elevation data of varying levels of accuracy and reliability. High-resolution DEM can be used as an input for modeling landscape development of the Olkiluoto r...
Article
Full-text available
Olkiluoto Island on the western coast of Finland has been selected as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel in Finland. This study aimed at identifying differences in concentration ratios (CR), and their distributions, for the elements analysed on soil and vegetation samples taken on the island (Al, B, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, S, Zn...
Article
In Finland, a nuclear repository site is situated on the western coast where the current land uplift rate is 6mm/yr. A set of tools has been developed for predicting the future terrain and vegetation types, and for producing estimates of the site-specific parameter values for use in simplified radionuclide transport models. Although the landscape w...
Article
Full-text available
In Finland, Olkiluoto Island has been selected as the site for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. When creating biosphere models for the safety assessments, local main features and processes need to be taken into account. Characteristic of the site is land uplift (6 mm/a) exposing continuously new land for colonization by plant and animal communities....
Article
Full-text available
The protection of the environment from the effects of ionising radiation has become increasingly more topical over the last few years as the intentions enshrined in international principles and agreements have become more binding through national and international law. For example, the Directive on impact of certain projects on the environment (EIA...

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