Arend van Peer

Arend van Peer
Wageningen University & Research | WUR · Wageningen Plant Research

Doctor of Philosophy

About

50
Publications
9,168
Reads
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406
Citations
Introduction
My mission is to explore and expand the applications of mushroom forming fungi in the bio-based economy, bio-materials, cultivation of existing and new mushrooms, and new applications in medicine. I am Arend van Peer, team leader of Mushroom Research at Plant Breeding of Wageningen University & Research. I manage a team of 8 professionals consisting of PIs, Postdocs and Technicians. My other roles include acquisition, project management, education and consultancy, and exchange of information through our various international networks and industries. For this, I run projects varying from a fundamental and publicly funded nature up to strictly confidential private partnerships.
Additional affiliations
October 2017 - July 2022
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • Position to promote collaboration and research on mushrooms between WUR and FAFU
May 2017 - present
Wageningen University & Research
Position
  • Group Leader
Description
  • My mission is to explore and expand the applications of mushroom forming fungi in the bio-based economy, bio-materials, cultivation of existing and new mushrooms, and new applications in medicine. My roles include acquisition, project management, education and consultancy, and exchange of information through our various international networks and industries. We run projects varying from a fundamental and publicly funded nature up to strictly confidential private partnerships.
October 2013 - April 2017
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • We apply and develop new technology for the mushroom Flammulina velutipes (a.o. Overexpression, RNAi, KO, CRISPR, NGS, RNAseq) to study the genetics of (tissue)differentiation, especially in relation to environmental signals (light, cold, CO2, nutrients).

Publications

Publications (50)
Article
Full-text available
The initiation of sexual development in the important edible and medicinal mushroom Flammulina velutipes is controlled by special genes at two different, independent mating type (MAT) loci: HD and PR. We expanded our understanding of the F. velutipes mating type system by analyzing the MAT loci from a series of strains. The HD locus of F. velutipes...
Article
Full-text available
Volvariella volvacea is an important crop in Southeast Asia, but erratic fruiting presents a serious challenge for its production and breeding. Efforts to explain inconsistent fruiting have been complicated by the multinucleate nature, typical lack of clamp connections and an incompletely identified sexual reproductive system. In this study we addr...
Article
A number of experiments were done to further our understanding of the substrate utilization in button mushroom crops ( Agaricus bisporus ). An analysis of the degradation of dry matter of the substrate during a crop cycle revealed that for pin formation the upper 1/3rd layer is used, for the production of flush one all layers are involved and for f...
Article
Oyster mushrooms are widely cultivated and consumed over the world for their easy cultivation and high biological efficiency (mushroom fresh weight/substrate dry weight × 100%). Fruiting bodies with dark caps are more and more popular according to consumer preferences, but dark varieties are rarely seen on the market.
Preprint
Full-text available
A number of experiments were done to further our understanding of the substrate utilization in button mushroom crops ( Agaricus bisporus ). An analysis of the degradation of dry matter of the substrate during a crop cycle revealed that for pin formation the upper layer is used, for the production of flush one all layers are involved and for flush t...
Article
Full-text available
The button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is represented mainly by two varieties, a secondarily homothallic variety with predominantly two heterokaryotic spores per basidia and a heterothallic variety with predominantly four homokaryotic spored basidium. Both varieties also differ in their recombination landscape with the former showing crossovers (CO)...
Article
Full-text available
p>The original version of this Article contained errors in Figure 4. The left and right panels for chromosome 1 were incorrectly swapped. Additionally, in the right hand panel of chromosome 10 and chromosome 11, the y-axis data points “0; 10; 20; 30; 40; 50; 60; 70; 80; 90” were incorrectly given as “0; 20; 40; 60; 80; 100”. The original Figure 4 a...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract:In heterothallic basidiomycete fungi, sexual compatibility is restricted by mating types,typically controlled by two loci:PR, encoding pheromone precursors and pheromone receptors, andHD, encoding two types of homeodomain transcription factors. We analysed the single mating-typelocus of the commercial button mushroom variety,Agaricus bispo...
Article
Full-text available
Nonself recognition leading to somatic incompatibility (SI) is commonly used by mycologists to distinguish fungal individuals. Despite this, the process remains poorly understood in basidiomycetes as all current models of SI are based on genetic and molecular research in ascomycete fungi. Ascomycete fungi are mainly found in a monokaryotic stage, w...
Article
Full-text available
Pleurotus ostreatus, one of the most widely cultivated edible mushrooms, produces high numbers of spores causing severe respiratory health problems for people, clogging of filters and spoilage of produce. A non-sporulating commercial variety (SPOPPO) has been successfully introduced into the market in 2006. This variety was generated by introgressi...
Article
Full-text available
Agaricus bisporus, the most cultivated edible mushroom worldwide, is represented mainly by the subspecies var. bisporus and var. burnettii. var. bisporus has a secondarily homothallic life cycle with recombination restricted to chromosome ends, while var. burnettii is heterothallic with recombination seemingly equally distributed over the chromosom...
Article
Full-text available
The button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is an economically important crop worldwide. Many aspects of its cultivation are well known, except for the precise biological triggers for its fructification. By and large, for most basidiomycete species, nutrient availability, light and a drop in temperature are critical factors for fructification. A. bisporu...
Article
Full-text available
Background Sexual development in Flammulina velutipes is controlled by two different mating type loci (HD and PR). The HD locus contains homeodomain (Hd) genes on two separate HD subloci: HD-a and HD-b. While the functionality of the HD-b sublocus has been largely confirmed, the status and content of the HD-a sublocus has remained unclear. Methods...
Article
Powdery mildews are an important obligate parasitic fungal group reported in nearly all regions of the world. DNA isolation for molecular identification of powdery mildew samples is now a standard practice and is becoming more affordable but remains a lengthy process. In this study, three direct DNA isolation methods have been developed for rDNA in...
Article
Full-text available
Ageratum conyzoides L., is a member of the Asteraceae and a competitive weed for crops in the sub tropics and tropics. In September 2016, we observed that a plant community of A. conyzoides was 85% infected with powdery mildew in a forest park at Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (FAFU), Fuzhou, China. Initially, circular to irregular whit...
Article
Full-text available
Euphorbia hirta is an important medicinal herb that can be found on grassland, roadsides and field pathways in tropical regions of world. In late October and early November 2016, powdery mildew was observed on E. hirta growing along roadsides in Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (26°5′16″N: 119°14′6″E), Fuzhou, China. Disease incidence app...
Article
Full-text available
Small GTPases play important roles in the growth, development and environmental responses of eukaryotes. Based on the genomic sequence of the straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea, 44 small GTPases were identified. A clustering analysis using human small GTPases as the references revealed that V. volvacea small GTPases can be grouped into five famili...
Article
Full-text available
The selection of appropriate internal control genes (ICGs) is a crucial step in the normalization of real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) data. Housekeeping genes are habitually selected for this purpose, despite accumulating evidence on their instability. We screened for novel, robust ICGs in the mushroom forming fungus Volvariella volvacea. Nine...
Article
White jelly mushroom, Tremella fuciformis, is a popular edible mushroom with interesting medicinal properties (e.g., immunostimulating, antidiabetic). The formation of T. fuciformis basidiomes is highly dependent on the presence of a specific host fungus, both in nature and for industrial production. This host has traditionally been indicated as “X...
Article
Full-text available
The edible white rot fungus Lentinula edodes possesses a variety of lignin degrading enzymes such as manganese peroxidases and laccases. Laccases belong to the multicopper oxidases, which have a wide range of catalytic activities including polyphenol degradation and synthesis, lignin degradation, and melanin formation. The exact number of laccases...
Article
Full-text available
The formation of fruiting body in Volvariella volvacea is affected by endogenous genes and environmental factors. However, its regulation at a molecular level is still poorly understood. To study the genes involved in the formation of fruiting body, we cloned a new regulator of the G protein signaling (RGS) encoding gene (rgs) from V. volvacea. Phy...
Article
Tremella fuciformis is a popular edible fungus with fruiting bodies that can be produced in large quantities at low costs, while it is easy to transform and cultivate as yeast. This makes it an attractive potential bioreactor. Enhanced heterologous gene expression through codon optimization would be useful, but until now codon usage preferences in...
Article
Full-text available
Molecular markers and genetic maps are useful tools in genetic studies. Novel molecular markers and their applications have been developed in recent years. With the recent advancements in sequencing technology, the genomic sequences of an increasingly great number of fungi have become available. A novel type of molecular marker was developed to con...
Article
Full-text available
The edible mushroom Volvariella volvacea is an important crop in Southeast Asia and is predominantly harvested in the egg stage. One of the main factors that negatively affect its yield and value is the rapid transition from the egg to the elongation stage, which has a decreased commodity value and shelf life. To improve our understanding of the ch...
Article
The edible straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea is an important crop in South East Asia and is predominantly harvested in the egg stage. Rapid stipe elongation and cap expansion result in a swift transition from the egg to elongation and maturation stage, which are subjected to fast senescence and deterioration. In other mushrooms, β-1,3-glucanases...
Data
Contigs of F. velutipes KACC42780 that were used in this study. The table enlists the contigs of F. velutipes KACC42780 that were used in this study, describing their respective size and important genes that are located on those contigs. Genes that were specifically linked to mating type loci in this study are indicated with *. Pseudogene FvSTE3.s2...
Data
Amino acid positions of domains that were detected in proteins FvHd1-1, FvHd2-1 and FvHd2-2. Homeodomain proteins were analyzed for 9 amino acid transactivation domains (9AA TAD) with 9aaTAD [40] and nuclear localization signals (NLS) by WoLF PSORT [38]. Numbers in the table refer to the amino acid (AA) numbers of the domains in the respective prot...
Data
Primers used in this study. List of specific primers for each pheromone receptor, pheromone and homeodomain gene from F. velutipes KACC42780. The first primer sets for each gene were used to determine distribution of genes for segregation analysis. The ‘*additional sets’ for FvSTE3.1, FvSTE3.2 and FvSTE3.s5 were newly designed after amplification i...
Data
Alignment of the three pheromone precursor proteins from F. velutipes KACC42780. Conserved amino acids in the pheromone sequences are marked with *. The conserved putative proteolytic site represented by E and R is indicated by a bold line. The CAAX-box of each protein is designated by a dashed line. The C-terminal halves of FvPp2 and FvPp3 are hig...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Mating-type loci of mushroom fungi contain master regulatory genes that control recognition between compatible nuclei, maintenance of compatible nuclei as heterokaryons, and fruiting body development. Regions near mating-type loci in fungi often show adapted recombination, facilitating the generation of novel mating types and reducing...
Article
Full-text available
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was conducted in order to generate DNA insertional mutants of Flammulina velutipes. Agrobacterium tumefaciens AGL-1 harboring pBGgHg was transformed into gill tissues of Flammulina velutipes strain KACC42777. The transformants resistant on hygromycine () were confirmed by PCR. The targeted insertional sites wer...
Article
Mushroom-forming basidiomycetes colonize large areas in nature. Their hyphae are compartmentalized by perforated septa, which are usually covered by a septal pore cap (SPC). Here, we describe, for the first time, the composition and function of SPCs using the model system Schizophyllum commune. The SPC of S. commune was shown to consist of a protei...
Data
This septum is open and it closes slowly after the compartment is damaged. There is major spilling of cytoplasm from the compartment that is adjacent to the one that is damaged. (1.80 MB MP3)
Data
This septum is open but it closes quickly after the compartment is damaged. There is minor spilling of cytoplasm from the compartment that is adjacent to the one that is damaged. (6.65 MB MP3)
Data
This septum is closed. There is no spilling of cytoplasm from the compartment that is adjacent to the one that is damaged. (6.14 MB MP3)
Data
This septum is closed. There is no spilling of cytoplasm from the compartment that is adjacent to the one that is damaged. (2.40 MB MP3)
Data
This septum is open but it closes quickly after the compartment is damaged. There is minor spilling of cytoplasm from the compartment that is adjacent to the one that is damaged. (3.62 MB MP3)
Data
This septum is open and it closes slowly after the compartment is damaged. There is major spilling of cytoplasm from the compartment that is adjacent to the one that is damaged. (0.15 MB MP3)
Article
Full-text available
Phleomycin is mutagenic by introducing double-strand breaks in DNA. The ble gene of Streptoalloteychus hindustanus, which confers resistance to this substance, is widely used as a selection marker for transformation. Schizophyllum commune grows on 25 μg of phleomycin ml−1 after introduction of a resistance cassette based on the ble gene. However, w...
Article
Full-text available
Mycelia of higher fungi consist of interconnected hyphae that are compartmentalized by septa. These septa contain large pores that allow streaming of cytoplasm and even organelles. The cytoplasm of such mycelia is therefore considered to be continuous. Here, we show by laser dissection that septa of Schizophyllum commune can be closed depending on...
Thesis
Full-text available
Filamentous fungi form networks (mycelia) of long, tubular structures (hyphae) that extend at their tip (apex) and branch subapically (behind the tip). Hyphae are compartmentalized by cross walls (septa) that contain a central pore which is covered by a septal pore cap (SPC) in fungi belonging to the Basidiomycetes. In this thesis I studied the com...
Article
Full-text available
The hyphae of filamentous fungi are compartmentalized by septa that have a central pore. The fungal septa and septum-associated structures play an important role in maintaining cellular and intrahyphal homeostasis. The dolipore septa in the higher Basidiomycota (i.e., Agaricomycotina) are associated with septal pore caps. Although the ultrastructur...
Article
Full-text available
Septal pore caps occur in many filamentous basidiomycetes located at both sides of the dolipore septum and are at their base connected to the endoplasmic reticulum. The septal pore cap ultrastructure has been described extensively by the use of electron microscopy, but its composition and function are not yet known. To enable biochemical and functi...
Poster
The septal pore cap (SPC) structure covers the dolipore, a septal pore surrounded by a donut-like swelling, in many basidiomycetous fungi. The SPC is a membranous structure associated with endoplasmic reticulum. The morphology of the SPC is diverse within the different phylogenetic groups of basidiomycetes and can be divided in several main categor...

Questions

Questions (2)
Question
We are building an International Flammulina Community.
Professionals and non-professionals that are interested in Flammulina species are invited to join our community.
For more information please feel welcome to contact me.

Projects

Project (1)
Project
To create a network to coordinate activities that stimulate exchange of knowledge, preservation, and applications of mushroom forming fungi across Europe. Scope: European. The organised activities of the EMushWG will be focused on European issues. However, the platform is explicitly non-exclusive regarding members, and any person from outside the EU is welcome to participate in EMushWG activities. Mushroom. Interests represented by the EMushWG will be any topic on any fungus that, in principle, is able to form fruiting bodies. This extremely broad approach is purposely selected to create as many synergies as possible among different disciplines. These are currently lacking. Working Group. The EMushWG aims to offer a platform where professional, semi-professional, amateur, and commercial or business related people can meet, connect, and exchange information. http://euvrin.eu/EMushWG