Arend L Schwab

Arend L Schwab
Delft University of Technology | TU · Department of Biomechanical EngineeringHead Bicycle Lab

PhD

About

122
Publications
111,722
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3,508
Citations
Citations since 2017
28 Research Items
1506 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250

Publications

Publications (122)
Article
Full-text available
Experiments and human rider models were used to investigate bicycle balance and steering using visuo/vestibular motion and proprioceptive feedback taking into account sensory delays. An instrumented steer-by-wire bicycle designed and built at the TU Delft bicycle laboratory was used to investigate rider responses with and with reduced steering torq...
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces a framework for modelling the cyclist’s comfort zone. Unlike the driver’s comfort zone, little is known about the cyclist’s. The framework draws on existing literature in cognitive science about driver behaviour to explain experimental results from cycling field trials, and the modelling of these results. We modelled braking a...
Article
Full-text available
In road cycling, cyclists strategically use their energetic resources in unique race-specific circumstances. For time-trial events, professional cycling teams design pacing plans aimed at the effective management of anaerobic work capacities of individual cyclists, allowing for more consistent speeds and therefore, faster times. Patently, adherence...
Article
Full-text available
A review of the current use of multibody dynamics methods in the analysis of the dynamics of vehicles is given. Railway vehicle dynamics as well as road vehicle dynamics are considered, where for the latter the dynamics of cars and trucks and the dynamics of single-track vehicles, in particular motorcycles and bicycles, are reviewed. Commonalities...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to identify the dynamic response of the bicycle rider’s body during translational perturbations, in an effort to improve two-wheeler safety and comfort. A bicycle mock-up was equipped with sensors measuring three-dimensional seat and trunk accelerations and rider’s force responses at the seat, handlebars, and footpeg...
Preprint
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to identify the dynamic response of the bicycle rider’s body during translationalperturbations, in an effort to improve two-wheeler safety and comfort. A bicycle mock-up was equipped with sensorsmeasuring 3D seat and trunk accelerations and riders force responses at the seat, handlebars and footpegs. The bicyclemock-...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The use of motorcycle simulators enables manufacturers to develop new motorcycle technologies taking into account rider behaviour. Unfortunately, few motorcycle simulators are used in the development of new motorcycles and motorcycle safety systems. Furthermore, validation of the available motorcycle simulators is lacking and little design knowledg...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The objective of this research is to study the effect of haptic steering feedback on the balancing task of a bicycle during lateral perturbation tests, in an effort to improve two-wheeler safety. The steer-by-wire bicycle designed and built at TU Delft bicycle laboratory is used as an experimental platform to analyze the rider response with and wit...
Article
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With the resurgence in bicycle ridership in the last decade and the continuous increase of electric bicycles in the streets a better understanding of bicycle rider behaviour is imperative to improve bicycle safety. Unfortunately, these studies are dangerous for the rider, given that the bicycle is a laterally unstable vehicle and most of the time i...
Article
Measuring the roll angle of single-track vehicles has always been a challenging task; however, accurate and reliable measurements of this magnitude are paramount for controlling the stability of these vehicles, both for autonomous riding and for safety reasons. A roll angle estimation is also useful in other situations, such as tests to perform the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Since the 1800s, the design of bicycles involves a mechanical linkage between the handlebar and the fork assembly. Herein, we propose an innovation, where the traditional mechanical connection between the handlebar and fork is decoupled and replaced with sensors, servomo-tors and a microcontroller allowing artificial manipulation of the bicycle and...
Article
The quantification of mechanical power can provide valuable insight into athlete performance because it is the mechanical principle of the rate at which the athlete does work or transfers energy to complete a movement task. Estimates of power are usually limited by the capabilities of measurement systems, resulting in the use of simplified power mo...
Article
Full-text available
Metabolic energy expenditure during human gait is poorly understood. Mechanical energy loss during heel strike contributes to this energy expenditure. Previous work has estimated the energy absorption during heel strike as 0.8 J using an effective foot mass model. The aim of our study is to investigate the possibility of determining the energy abso...
Article
Full-text available
The bicycle, being unstable at low speed and marginally stable at high speed, is sensitive to lateral perturbations. One of the major lateral perturbations is crosswind, which can lead to accidents and fatalities. Here we investigate the effect of crosswind on the lateral dynamics and control of the bicycle in a wide range of forward speeds and var...
Article
Full-text available
Descend technique and performance vary among elite racing cyclists and it is not clear what slower riders should do to improve their performance. An observation study was performed of the descending technique of members of a World Tour cycling team and the technique of each member was compared with the fastest descender amongst them. The obtained d...
Article
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In gait studies body pose reconstruction (BPR) techniques have been widely explored, but no previous protocols have been developed for speed skating, while the peculiarities of the skating posture and technique do not automatically allow for the transfer of the results of those explorations to kinematic skating data. The aim of this paper is to det...
Preprint
In gait studies body pose reconstruction (BPR) techniques have been widely explored, but no previous protocols have been developed for speed skating, while the peculiarities of the skating posture and technique do not automatically allow for the transfer of the results of those explorations to kinematic skating data. The aim of this paper is to det...
Article
Full-text available
Advice about the optimal coordination pattern for an individual speed skater, could be addressed by simulation and optimization of a biomechanical speed skating model. But before getting to this optimization approach one needs a model that can reasonably match observed behaviour. Therefore, the objective of this study is to present a verified three...
Article
Full-text available
In a cycling time trial, the rider needs to distribute his power output optimally to minimize the time between start and finish. Mathematically, this is an optimal control problem. Even for a straight and flat course, its solution is non-trivial and involves a singular control, which corresponds to a power that is slightly above the aerobic level....
Article
Full-text available
To assist speed skaters in improving their skating performance, we would like to provide them with real time feedback on the orientation of the skate within a single stroke. While of course the forces generated by the skater on the ice determine the acceleration of the skater, the orientation of the skate determines in which direction this force, a...
Article
Full-text available
The optimal pacing strategy of a cyclist in an individual time-trial depends on terrain, weather conditions and the cyclists endurance capacity. Previous experimental and theoretical studies have shown that a suboptimal pacing strategy may have a substantial negative effect. In this paper we express the optimal pacing problem as a mathematical opti...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Push-off in speed skating requires an extensive motion strategy. During speed skating the skater continuously changes the lean and steering angle of the skate and therewith the direction of push-off. The forces in an inertial coordinate system can give insight into what amount of the push-off force is directed into the forward motion. In this paper...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To assist speed skaters in improving their skating performance, we would like to provide them with real time feedback on the orientation of the skate within a single stroke. While of course the forces generated by the skater on the ice determine the acceleration of the skater, the orientation of the skate determines in which direction this force, a...
Article
Full-text available
In the current project we aim to provide speed skaters with real-time feedback on how to improve their skating performance within an individual stroke. The elite skaters and their coaches wish for a system that determines the mechanical power per stroke. The push-off force of the skater is a crucial variable in this power determination. In this stu...
Article
Full-text available
The role of simulation models in sport disciplines has become relevant lately due to the multiple advantages that they may offer sports teams, coaches and practitioners. This paper develops and presents a simple three-dimensional multibody dynamic model of a cross-country skier, modeling a single propulsion phase to obtain the kinetic parameters in...
Article
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Rigid-body mechanisms (RBMs) and compliant mechanisms (CMs) are traditionally treated in significantly different ways. In this paper, we present a synthesis approach that is appropriate for both RBMs and CMs. In this approach, RBMs and CMs are generalized into modularized mechanisms that consist of five basic modules, including compliant links (CLs...
Conference Paper
In this paper, a three-dimensional multibody dynamic model of a cross-country skier is developed and presented where a single propulsion phase is modeled to obtain the kinetic parameters involved in the movement. A professional Olympic-level skier performed the skating technique without poles in a ski tunnel under controlled conditions and on an in...
Article
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The goal of the Human Power Team from the TU Delft and the Free University of Amsterdam is to break the world speed record in unpaced cycling (Sam Whittingham, 133.28 km/h). The design of such a faired recumbent bicycle is a challenge. The Delft design, called VeloX (Human Power Team (2013)), is a fully-faired monocoque front-driven recumbent bicyc...
Data
Use of electrically assisted bicycles with a maximum speed of 25 km/h is rapidly increasing. This growth has been particularly rapid in the Netherlands, yet very little research has been conducted to assess the road safety implications. This case–control study compares the likelihood of crashes for which treatment at an emergency department is need...
Article
Use of electrically assisted bicycles with a maximum speed of 25 km/h is rapidly increasing. This growth has been particularly rapid in the Netherlands, yet very little research has been conducted to assess the road safety implications. This case–control study compares the likelihood of crashes for which treatment at an emergency department is need...
Conference Paper
One method for modeling idealized contact between two bodies in mechanical system is based on the constraint approach, where Lagrange multipiers are introduced, which serve as constraint forces. In the usage of this formulation, there exists a linear dependancy between the Lagrange multipliers. Moreover, it has been observed that some Lagrange mult...
Article
Full-text available
A model describing rider control while steering and stabilizing a bicycle has been developed. Experimental data were obtained from riding a bicycle on a narrow treadmill while perturbing balance with impulsive forces at the seat post. The experiments were conducted at 2-7 m/s covering both the stable and the unstable forward speed range. Bicycle an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To study the safety of e-bikes for the elderly, an experimental field study was conducted, using instrumented bicycles and comparing two age groups: older cyclists, n= 29, mean age = 70, SD = 4.2 and middle-aged cyclists, n = 29, mean age = 38, SD = 4.3. All were regular cyclists. They rode a fixed route with a length of about 3.5 km: once on an in...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is a review study on handling and control of bicycles and motorcycles, the so-called single-track vehicles. The first part gives a brief overview on the modelling of the dynamics of single-track vehicles and the experimental validation. The second part focusses on a review of modelling and measuring human rider control. The third part de...
Conference Paper
The purpose of this paper is to present the development of a simple multibody dynamic model matching the observed movements of the center of mass of a skier performing the skating technique in cross-country skiing. The formulation of the equation of motion was made using the Euler–Lagrange equations applied to a multibody tree-type system in three...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is a review study in dynamics and rider control of bicycles. The first part gives a brief overview of the modelling of the dynamics of bicycles and the experimental validation. The second part focuses on a review of modelling and measuring human rider control, together with the concepts of handling and manoeuvrability and their experimen...
Article
In a recent study published in Accident Analysis & Prevention, Vansteenkiste et al. (2013) - as one of the first in this field - investigated the visual control of bicycle steering. They undertook the interesting task of testing cyclists' eye fixation behaviour against Donges' two-level model of steering, i.e. the guidance level to anticipate alter...
Article
Full-text available
Finite element analysis using plate elements based on the absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) can predict the behaviors of moderately thick plates subject to large deformation. However, the formulation is subject to numerical locking, which compromises results. This study was designed to investigate and develop techniques to prevent or mit...
Article
Advice about the optimal coordination pattern for an individual speed skater to reach their optimal performance, could well be addressed by simulation and optimization of a biomechanical model of speed skating. But before getting to this optimization approach one needs a model that matches observed behavior. In this chapter we present a simple 2-di...
Article
In this work a bicycle simulator, in which the rider drives a monitored handlebar and receives realistic visual feedback and haptic feedback torques on the handlebar from the computer model of the bicycle, is described and utilized. Riders can be asked to follow prescribed trajectories while having diverse visual and haptic cues. This experiment se...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Rider control in bicycling is modeled by first adding the rider as a passive mechanism to the Whipple bicycle model. Next, for the rider control model a linear PID controller with and without delay is assumed, where the control inputs are the bicycle roll and steer angle with their higher derivatives, and the control output is the action-reaction s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A novel approach to bicycle design for handling qualities is presented. The design method is introduced through a case study in which a new front-wheel drive recumbent bicycle is developed. Since there exists no proper definition nor assessment for bicycle handling qualities, design process is based on comparing the uncontrolled dynamics of the new...
Article
Full-text available
This paper addresses the influence of a passive rider on the lateral dynamics of a bicycle model and the controllability of the bicycle by steer or upper body sideway lean control. In the uncontrolled model proposed by Whipple in 1899, the rider is assumed to be rigidly connected to the rear frame of the bicycle and there are no hands on the handle...
Article
Full-text available
Advice about the optimal coordination pattern for an individual speed skater to reach their optimal performance, could well be addressed by simulation and optimization of a biomechanical model of speed skating. But before getting to this optimization approach one needs a model that matches observed behavior. In this paper we present a simple 2-dime...
Article
Full-text available
A riderless bicycle can automatically steer itself so as to recover from falls. The common view is that this self-steering is caused by gyroscopic precession of the front wheel, or by the wheel contact trailing like a caster behind the steer axis. We show that neither effect is necessary for self-stability. Using linearized stability calculations a...
Article
Full-text available
Recent observations of a bicyclist riding through town and on a treadmill show that the rider uses the upper body very little when performing normal maneuvers and that the bicyclist may, in fact, primarily use steering input for control. The observations also revealed that other motions such as lateral movement of the knees were used in low speed s...
Conference Paper
Country-Specific Mortality and Growth Failure in Infancy and Yound Children and Association With Material Stature Use interactive graphics and maps to view and sort country-specific infant and early dhildhood mortality and growth failure data and their association with maternal
Article
The bicycle is an intriguing machine as it is laterally unstable at low speed and stable, or easy to stabilize, at high speed. During the last decade a revival in the research on dynamics and control of bicycles has taken place. Most studies use the so-called Whipple model of a bicycle. In this model a rigid rider is rigidly connected to the rear f...
Article
Full-text available
An overview of bicycle and rider kinematic motions from a series of experimental treadmill tests is presented. The full kinematics of bicycles and riders were measured with an active motion capture system. Motion across speeds are compared graphically with box and whiskers plots. Trends and ranges in amplitude are shown to characterize the system m...