Arend Hintze

Arend Hintze
Dalarna University · Complex Dynamical Systems and MicroData Analytics

Dr. rer. nat.

About

121
Publications
13,005
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1,978
Citations
Citations since 2017
49 Research Items
1242 Citations
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Introduction
At the Hintzelab we are researching the evolution of natural and artificial intelligence. We use computational modeling to understand what environments and evolutionary pressures give rise to intelligence, and how cognitive mechanisms evolved. At the same time, we want to bring about Artificial Intelligence by the means of evolution. The idea is that conventional approaches in software design will ultimately be limited to our understanding of the human brain, and we simply don’t want to wait until cognitive- and neuro-science figured “it” out, but instead use the one process that already made cognitive entities: evolution! When I say “artificial intelligence”, I don’t mean smart algorithms, I actually do mean artificial beings that have cognitive abilities similar to those of humans.
Additional affiliations
January 2020 - present
Dalarna University
Position
  • Professor
June 2015 - present
Michigan State University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Description
  • Big Data and Machine Learning
August 2010 - August 2015
Michigan State University
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (121)
Preprint
Full-text available
Deep-learning of artificial neural networks (ANNs) is creating highly functional tools that are, unfortunately, as hard to interpret as their natural counterparts. While it is possible to identify functional modules in natural brains using technologies such as fMRI, we do not have at our disposal similarly robust methods for artificial neural netwo...
Article
Full-text available
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are one of the most promising tools in the quest to develop general artificial intelligence. Their design was inspired by how neurons in natural brains connect and process, the only other substrate to harbor intelligence. Compared to biological brains that are sparsely connected and that form sparsely distributed r...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines new challenges for sustainability presented by artificial intelligence (AI) in infrastructure megaprojects. We differentiate between the deliberative processes of infrastructure megaproject construction and the everyday uses of such infrastructure, focusing on the latter as both having major sustainability impacts and presenti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Autonomous agents that act with each other on behalf of humans are becoming more common in many social domains, such as customer service, transportation, and health care. In such social situations greedy strategies can reduce the positive outcome for all agents, such as leading to stop-and-go traffic on highways, or causing a denial of service on a...
Article
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Background Predictive models for mental disorders or behaviors (e.g., suicide) have been successfully developed at the level of populations, yet current demographic and clinical variables are neither sensitive nor specific enough for making individual clinical predictions. Forecasting episodes of illness is particularly relevant in bipolar disorder...
Article
Deep learning (primarily using backpropagation) and neuroevolution are the preeminent methods of optimizing artificial neural networks. However, they often create black boxes that are as hard to understand as the natural brains they seek to mimic. Previous work has identified an information-theoretic tool, referred to as R, which allows us to quant...
Article
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Despite life’s diversity, studies of variation often remind us of our shared evolutionary past. Abundant genome sequencing and analyses of gene regulatory networks illustrate that genes and entire pathways are conserved, reused, and elaborated in the evolution of diversity. Predating these discoveries, 19th-century embryologists observed that thoug...
Article
Any foraging animal is expected to allocate its efforts among resource patches that vary in quality across time and space. For social insects, this problem is shifted to the colony level: the task of allocating foraging workers to the best patches currently available. To deal with this task, honeybees rely upon differential recruitment via the danc...
Article
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The public goods game is a famous example illustrating the tragedy of the commons (Hardin in Science 162:1243–1248, 1968). In this game cooperating individuals contribute to a pool, which in turn is distributed to all members of the group, including defectors who reap the same rewards as cooperators without having made a contribution before. The qu...
Chapter
A key challenge in Evolutionary Computation is fitness landscape design. While the objective of the optimization process is often predefined, the actual fitness function, computational substrate, mutation scheme, and selection function must often be chosen by the experimenter. These choices are recognized to possibly have a large impact on experime...
Article
Full-text available
Artificial intelligence (AI), like many revolutionary technologies in human history, will have a profound impact on societies. From this viewpoint, we analyze the combined effects of AI to raise important questions about the future form and function of cities. Combining knowledge from computer science, urban planning, and economics while reflecting...
Chapter
Artificially intelligent machines have to explore their environment, store information about it, and use this information to improve future decision making. As such, the quest is to either provide these systems with internal models about their environment or to imbue machines with the ability to create their own models—ideally the later. These mode...
Preprint
Full-text available
The public goods game is a famous example illustrating the tragedy of the commons. In this game cooperating individuals contribute to a pool, which in turn is distributed to all members of the group, including defectors who reap the same rewards as cooperators without having made a contribution before. The question is now, how to incentivize group...
Preprint
Full-text available
Despite the diversity of life, studies of variation across animals often remind us of our deep evolutionary past. Abundant genome sequencing over the last ~25 years reveals remarkable conservation of genes and recent analyses of gene regulatory networks illustrate that not only genes but entire pathways are conserved, reused, and elaborated in the...
Chapter
This chapter examines how evolution impacts the strategies and capacities we use to deal with uncertainty, focusing on insights gathered from computational studies and simulations of evolution in action.
Conference Paper
Representations, or sensor-independent internal models of the environment, are important for any type of intelligent agent to process and act in an environment. Imbuing an artificially intelligent system with such a model of the world it functions in remains a difficult problem. However, using neuro-evolution as the means to optimize such a system...
Article
Full-text available
Information integration theory has been developed to quantify consciousness. Since conscious thought requires the integration of information, the degree of this integration can be used as a neural correlate (Φ) with the intent to measure degree of consciousness. Previous research has shown that the ability to integrate information can be improved b...
Article
Natural evolution keeps inventing new complex and intricate forms and behaviors. Digital evolution and genetic algorithms fail to create the same kind of complexity, not just because we still lack the computational resources to rival nature, but because (it has been argued) we have not understood in principle how to create open-ended evolving syste...
Chapter
Within the field of Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) a variety computational substrates with the power to find solutions to a large variety of problems have been described. Research has specialized on different computational substrates that each excel in different problem domains. For example, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN...
Preprint
One may as well begin with two overly-cited quotations about novelty. “On or about December, 1910, human character changed.” And, more predictably: “Make It New!” at these two statements about change and innovation have been so frequently cited reveals a contradiction in modernist studies: novelty is commonplace, both for modernist writers and for...
Article
Full-text available
Theories of decision-making often posit optimal or heuristic strategies for performing a task. In optimal strategies, information is integrated over time in order to achieve the ideal outcomes; in the heuristic case, some shortcut or simplification is applied in order to make the decision faster or easier. In this paper, we use a computational fram...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A central challenge to evolutionary computation is enabling techniques to evolve increasingly complex target end products. Frequently direct approaches that reward only the target end product itself are not successful because the path between the starting conditions and the target end product traverses through a complex fitness landscape, where the...
Article
Full-text available
Artificial neural networks (ANNs), while exceptionally useful for classification, are vulnerable to misdirection. Small amounts of noise can significantly affect their ability to correctly complete a task. Instead of generalizing concepts, ANNs seem to focus on surface statistical regularities in a given task. Here we compare how recurrent artifici...
Article
Objective: Bipolar disorder is a severe mood disorder characterized by alternating episodes of mania and depression. Several interventions have been developed to decrease high admission rates and high suicides rates associated with the illness, including psychoeducation and early episode detection, with mixed results. More recently, machine learni...
Article
Full-text available
Systems are typically made from simple components regardless of their complexity. While the function of each part is easily understood, higher order functions are emergent properties and are notoriously difficult to explain. In networked systems, both digital and biological, each component receives inputs, performs a simple computation, and creates...
Article
Full-text available
Plants engage in complex multipartite interactions with mutualists and antagonists, but these interactions are rarely included in studies that explore plant invasiveness. When considered in isolation, we know that beneficial microbes can enhance an exotic plant’s invasive ability and that herbivorous insects often decrease an exotic plant’s likelin...
Article
Full-text available
There are two common approaches for optimizing the performance of a machine: genetic algorithms and machine learning. A genetic algorithm is applied over many generations whereas machine learning works by applying feedback until the system meets a performance threshold. These methods have been previously combined, particularly in artificial neural...
Article
Full-text available
Markov Brains are a class of evolvable artificial neural networks (ANN). They differ from conventional ANNs in many aspects, but the key difference is that instead of a layered architecture, with each node performing the same function, Markov Brains are networks built from individual computational components. These computational components interact...
Conference Paper
Systems are typically made from simple components regardless of their complexity. While the function of each part is easily understood, higher order functions are emergent properties and are notoriously difficult to explain. In networked systems, both digital and biological, each component receives inputs, performs a simple computation, and creates...
Conference Paper
Evolutionary computation and neuroevolution seek to create systems of ever increasing sophistication, such that the digitally evolved forms reflect the variety, diversity, and complexity seen within nature in living organisms. In general, most evolutionary computation and neuroevolution techniques do so by encoding the final form without any type o...
Article
Full-text available
How cooperation can evolve between players is an unsolved problem of biology. Here we use Hamiltonian dynamics of models of the Ising type to describe populations of cooperating and defecting players to show that the equilibrium fraction of cooperators is given by the expectation value of a thermal observable akin to a magnetization. We apply the f...
Article
Full-text available
There are two common approaches for optimizing the performance of a machine: genetic algorithms and machine learning. A genetic algorithm is applied over many generations whereas machine learning works by applying feedback until the system meets a performance threshold. Though these are methods that typically operate separately, we combine evolutio...
Article
Full-text available
While all organisms on Earth share a common descent, there is no consensus on whether the origin of the ancestral self-replicator was a one-off event or whether it only represented the final survivor of multiple origins. Here, we use the digital evolution system Avida to study the origin of self-replicating computer programs. By using a computation...
Article
This is a Reply to comments published in Physics of Life Reviews, on our article "Evolutionary game theory using agent-based methods" (Physics of Life Reviews, 2016, arXiv:1404.0994).
Article
The role of historical contingency in the origin of life is one of the great unknowns in modern science. Only one example of life exists-one that proceeded from a single self-replicating organism (or a set of replicating hypercycles) to the vast complexity we see today in Earth's biosphere. We know that emergent life has the potential to evolve gre...
Article
Full-text available
Genomic robustness is the extent to which an organism has evolved to withstand the effects of deleterious mutations. We explored the extent of genomic robustness in budding yeast by genome wide dosage suppressor analysis of 53 conditional lethal mutations in cell division cycle and RNA synthesis related genes, revealing 660 suppressor interactions...
Article
Full-text available
When humans fail to make optimal decisions in strategic games and economic gambles, researchers typically try to explain why that behaviour is biased. To this end, they search for mechanisms that cause human behaviour to deviate from what seems to be the rational optimum. But perhaps human behaviour is not biased; perhaps research assumptions about...
Conference Paper
Computer games are most engaging when their difficulty is well matched to the player’s ability, thereby providing an experience in which the player is neither overwhelmed nor bored. In games where the player interacts with computer-controlled opponents, the difficulty of the game can be adjusted not only by changing the distribution of opponents or...
Article
A common idiom in biology education states, "Eyes in the front, the animal hunts. Eyes on the side, the animal hides." In this paper, we explore one possible explanation for why predators tend to have forward-facing, high-acuity visual systems. We do so using an agent-based computational model of evolution, where predators and prey interact and ada...
Article
Full-text available
The role of historical contingency in the origin of life is one of the great unknowns in modern science. Only one example of life exists--one that proceeded from a single self-replicating organism (or a set of replicating hyper-cycles) to the vast complexity we see today in Earth's biosphere. We know that emergent life has the potential to evolve g...
Article
Full-text available
Genetic Algorithms (GA) are a powerful set of tools for search and optimization that mimic the process of natural selection, and have been used successfully in a wide variety of problems, including evolving neural networks to solve cognitive tasks. Despite their success, GAs sometimes fail to locate the highest peaks of the fitness landscape, in pa...
Article
Full-text available
Without competition, organisms would not evolve any meaningful physical or cognitive abilities. Competition can thus be understood as the driving force behind Darwinian evolution. But does this imply that more competitive environments necessarily evolve organisms with more sophisticated cognitive abilities than do less competitive environments? Or...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Most research on adaptive decision-making takes a strategy-first approach, proposing a method of solving a problem and then examining whether it can be implemented in the brain and in what environments it succeeds. We present a method for studying strategy development based on computational evolution that takes the opposite approach, allowing strat...
Article
Full-text available
The most prominent property of life on Earth is its ability to evolve. It is often taken for granted that self-replication--the characteristic that makes life possible--implies evolvability, but many examples such as the lack of evolvability in computer viruses seem to challenge this view. Is evolvability itself a property that needs to evolve, or...
Article
Full-text available
The evolution of cooperation has been a perennial problem in evolutionary biology because cooperation can be undermined by selfish cheaters who gain an advantage in the short run, while compromising the long-term viability of the population. Evolutionary game theory has shown that under certain conditions, cooperation nonetheless evolves stably, fo...
Article
Full-text available
Risk aversion is a common behavior universal to humans and animals alike. Economists have traditionally defined risk preferences by the curvature of the utility function. Psychologists and behavioral economists also make use of concepts such as loss aversion and probability weighting to model risk aversion. Neurophysiological evidence suggests that...
Article
Full-text available
Natural selection favors the evolution of brains that can capture fitness-relevant features of the environment's causal structure. We investigated the evolution of small, adaptive logic-gate networks ("animats") in task environments where falling blocks of different sizes have to be caught or avoided in a 'Tetris-like' game. Solving these tasks req...
Article
Full-text available
Evolutionary game theory is a successful mathematical framework geared towards understanding the selective pressures that affect the evolution of the strategies of agents engaged in interactions with potential conflicts. While a mathematical treatment of the costs and benefits of decisions can predict the optimal strategy in simple settings, more r...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mutational robustness is the extent to which an organism has evolved to withstand the effects of deleterious mutations. We explored the extent of mutational robustness in the budding yeast by genome wide dosage suppressor analysis of 53 conditional lethal mutations in cell division cycle and RNA synthesis related genes, revealing 660 suppressor int...
Article
Full-text available
Risk aversion is a common behavior universal to humans and animals alike. Economists have traditionally defined risk preferences by the curvature of the utility function. Psychologists and behavioral economists also make use of concepts such as loss aversion and probability weighting to model risk aversion. Neurophysiological evidence suggests that...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Within the framework of integrated information theory (IIT) (e.g. Tononi, 2012) we investigate how evolution by natural selection can shape the brain circuitry of simple creatures such that the causal information structure of their brain fits the cause-effect structure of their environment (‘information matching’). Using simple, adaptive logic-gate...
Article
Full-text available
Zero-determinant strategies are a new class of probabilistic and conditional strategies that are able to unilaterally set the expected payoff of an opponent in iterated plays of the Prisoner's Dilemma irrespective of the opponent's strategy (coercive strategies), or else to set the ratio between the player's and their opponent's expected payoff (ex...