A.R. Harland

A.R. Harland
Sports Technology Institute, Loughborough University · Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

BEng, DIS, PhD

About

87
Publications
19,172
Reads
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851
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2001 - present
Loughborough University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (87)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of delivery method on upper-body kinematics in cricketers playing a front foot drive and a back foot pull shot. Fourteen male cricketers were played both shots against a bowler, bowling machine, and Sidearm TM ball thrower. The availability of pre-release visual cues appears to affect upper-body kin...
Article
Full-text available
Many studies have investigated the forces acting on a football in flight and how these change with the introduction or modification of surface features; however, these rarely give insight into the underlying fluid mechanics causing these changes. In this paper, force balance and tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were taken o...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous variables can introduce errors into the measurement chain of a digital image correlation (DIC) system. These can be grouped into two categories: measurement quality and the correlation principle. Although previous studies have attempted to investigate each error source in isolation, there are still no comprehensive, standardized procedures...
Article
Full-text available
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167945718303026 The ability of a batsman to clear the boundary is a major contributor to success in modern cricket. The aim of this study was to identify technique parameters characterising those batsmen able to generate greater bat speeds, ball launch speeds, and carry distances during a range...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Injuries in association football (soccer) are debilitating for players and can also be detrimental to the success of a team or club. The type or condition of a playing surface has been empirically linked to injuries, yet results are inconclusive. The overall purpose of this study was to analyse elite football players' perceived links b...
Article
Full-text available
Much discussion surrounds the flight of association footballs (soccer balls), particularly where the flight may be perceived as irregular. This is particularly prevalent in high-profile competitions due to increased camera coverage and public scrutiny. All footballs do not perform in an identical manner in flight. This article develops methods to c...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this investigation was to establish the strains and strain rates experienced by tennis ball cores during impact to inform material characterisation testing and finite element modelling. Three-dimensional surface strains and strain rates were measured using two high-speed video cameras and corresponding digital image correlation software...
Article
Full-text available
https://shapeamerica.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02640414.2017.1389484#.XQ1jAe7TWyU Three-dimensional kinematic data of bat and ball were recorded for 239 individual shots performed by twenty batsmen ranging from club to international standard. The impact location of the ball on the bat face was determined and assessed against the resultant i...
Article
Full-text available
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1754337117723275 This study aimed to develop a methodology for accurate determination of the impact location of a cricket ball on the bat face, as well as the identification of bat–ball contact timing and post-impact instantaneous ball velocity in a whole-body kinematic data collection environment. Thr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to identify the technique parameters characterising batsmen who generate large carry distances, ball launch speeds, and bat speeds during a range hitting task in cricket. Kinematic data were collected for 20 batsmen, and a series of ball launch, impact, and technique parameters were calculated for each trial. A regression...
Article
Full-text available
The current British Standard for head protectors for cricketers has been recently revised to include a projectile-based battery of tests, the intention being to ensure that a certified helmet will also prevent contact of the ball or grille with the specified headform facial region. The purpose of this study was to characterise the dynamic response...
Article
Polyamide 12 (PA-12) test plates were injection molded using different melt temperatures and the influence on mechanical properties was investigated using quasi-static tensile and instrumented impact behavior in two conditioned states: dried, and following accelerated moisture intake. Energy absorption in tension is strongly dependent on process te...
Article
Full-text available
Tennis balls are acknowledged to degrade with use and are replaced at regular intervals during professional matches to maintain consistency and uniformity in performance, such that the game is not adversely affected. Balls are subject to the international tennis federation’s (ITF) ball approval process, which includes a degradation test to ensure a...
Article
Full-text available
The current British Standard for head protectors for cricketers specifies a projectile test to ensure that a helmet can prevent the ball penetrating the peak-grille gap and deformation of the grille onto the face. For practical reasons, it is specified that the headform is mounted onto a grounded frame. This study aims to determine whether this “Fi...
Article
Full-text available
Football being one of the most popular sports globally sees the emergence of new ball products and technologies on a regular basis, with the governing body FIFA having set a standard to ensure consistency between products. Despite this, differences are commonly perceived between footballs. The aim of this study was to evaluate players’ perceptions...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine potential explanatory factors that may be associated with different attitudes amongst the global population of elite footballers to the use of different surfaces for football. A questionnaire was used to capture elite football players’ perceptions of playing surfaces and a mixed effects ordinal logistic regres...
Article
Full-text available
To assess ball performance for research and development purposes requires greater understanding of the impact conditions a tennis ball experiences in professional tournament play. Ball tracking information taken from three consecutive years of an ATP 250 tour event played on hard court was analysed. The frequency of first serves, second serves, rac...
Article
A dynamic finite element model of a shod running footstrike was developed and driven with six degree of freedom foot segment kinematics determined from a motion capture running trial. Quadratic tetrahedral elements were used to mesh the footwear components with material models determined from appropriate mechanical tests. Model outputs were compare...
Article
Carbon fabric-reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates employed in sports products are usually subjected to large-deflection quasi-static and dynamic bending deformations during service. Such loading conditions induce damage within the material affecting its strength, stiffness and energy-absorbing capability. To study this, mechanical behaviour of wove...
Article
Carbon fabric-reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates employed in sports products are usually subjected to large-deflection quasi-static and dynamic bending deformations during service. Such loading conditions induce damage within the material affecting its strength, stiffness and energy-absorbing capability. To study this, mechanical behaviour of wove...
Article
In this paper, flexural loading of woven carbon fabric-reinforced polymer laminates is studied using a combination of experimental material characterisation, microscopic damage analysis and numerical simulations. Mechanical behaviour of these materials was quantified by carrying out tensile and large-deflection bending tests. A substantial differen...
Article
Full-text available
For the past century, football boots have constantly changed, with new designs and materials being developed by sporting goods manufacturers to meet player demands. Investigating the effect of such changes on performance was important to further develop football boots. Bending stiffness has been demonstrated as an important performance parameter in...
Article
Full-text available
Given the global spread of football (soccer) there are substantial differences in the playing surfaces used between FIFA member associations. This paper contains results from the second part of a study on elite football players’ perceptions of playing surfaces from across the globe. Using a questionnaire, which was developed based on an initial qua...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper was to examine differences in delivery characteristics and the resulting response exhibited by ten elite cricket batsmen when hitting repeated front foot drives against three different ball delivery methods; a bowling machine, a Sidearm™ ball thrower and a bowler. Synchronous three-dimensional Vicon motion capture technology a...
Conference Paper
Fabric-reinforced polymer composites used in various applications can be subjected to dynamic loading such as impacts causing bending deformations. Under such loading scenarios, composite structures demonstrate multiple modes of damage and fracture if compared with more traditional, macroscopically homogeneous, structural materials such as metals a...
Article
In this paper, an experimental study is performed to characterise the behaviour of fabric-reinforced composites used in sports products under large-deflection bending in Izod-type impact tests. X-ray micro computed tomography (micro-CT) is used to investigate various damage modes in the impacted CFRP specimens. It revealed that matrix cracking, del...
Conference Paper
The study presented in this paper was conducted in support of the development of a proposed revision to a cricket helmet certification test standard. Helmets were impacted between the peak and faceguard by 'projecting' balls at them at velocities up to 80 mph. The velocity at which the balls penetrated between the peak and the faceguard (or grille)...
Article
Full-text available
Fabric-reinforced polymer composites used in sports products can be exposed to different in-service conditions such as large deformations caused by quasi-static and dynamic loading. Composite materials subjected to such bending loads can demonstrate various damage modes - matrix cracking, delamination and, ultimately, fabric fracture. Damage evolut...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports a methodology that employs a three dimensional (3D) digital image correlation (DIC) system to measure dynamic foot shape during running. DIC is a non-contact optical measurement system, capable of high resolution surface deformation measurements derived from digital images captured of a surface undergoing a deformation. The metho...
Article
Full-text available
A dynamic finite element model of a shod footstrike was developed and driven with six degree of freedom kinematic boundary conditions calculated from a motion capture running trial. Linear tetrahedral elements were used to mesh the midsole and outsole of the footwear with material models determined from appropriate mechanical tests. The model was v...
Article
Full-text available
Mechanical simulators are used to simplify the human kicking motion to provide repeatable contact between the endeffector and ball. The aim of the study was to examine the feasibility of using an ankle joint capable of simulating the plantar flexion deformation mechanism experienced by the human foot during the interaction with the soccer ball. A f...
Article
Full-text available
Mechanical testing plays an important role in the development of athletic footwear. Typically, these tests do not accurately represent the forces and motions the footwear experiences during human use and there is substantial scope to improve this situation. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which RoboGuide software can be used a...
Article
Full-text available
In 16th century, a football found its way into the rafters of a room of Stirling Castle in the heart of Scotland. Roughly 450 years later, the ball was discovered undisturbed and it remains the oldest known object of its kind in the world. The distinctive leather panels and stitching surround and protect an inflated pig's bladder in a construction...
Article
Full-text available
This study took time-stamped ball-related event descriptions and coordinates from Prozone Sports to build a summary of the football's motion. Aerodynamic data from wind tunnel testing and rolling resistance information from FIFA tests were applied to specific scenarios from the dataset to better understand individual events. Slow, short events were...
Article
Full-text available
Football (soccer) is a truly global game but for many of the 208 Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) Member Associations their climate is not suitable for growing good quality natural grass pitches with a low maintenance cost. As a consequence, for the 2004/2005 season, the laws of the game were modified to sanction the use of...
Article
In this paper, various damage modes in woven carbon fabric reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates are studied using experimental material characterisation and numerical simulations. Experimental tests are carried out to assess the mechanical behaviour of these materials under tension, compression and large-deflection bending. To obtain in-plane shear...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon fabric-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites used in sports products can be exposed to different in-service conditions such as large dynamic bending deformations caused by impact loading. Composite materials subjected to such loads demonstrate various damage modes such as matrix cracking, delamination and, ultimately, fabric fracture. Damage...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites used in sports products can be exposed to different in-service conditions such as large dynamic bending deformations caused by impact loading. Composite materials subjected to such loads demonstrate various damage modes such as matrix cracking, delamination and, ultimately, fabric fracture. Damage e...
Conference Paper
This study used a coupled Eulerian Lagrangian (CEL) approach to model the air within a football (soccer ball) during two types of impacts. Conventional modelling techniques (and those used in all previous football finite element models known by the author) utilize a uniform pressure method incapable of accounting for spatial pressure variation. Int...
Article
In this paper, various damage modes in woven carbon fabric reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates are studied using experimental material characterisation and numerical simulations. Experimental tests are carried out to assess the mechanical behaviour of these materials under tension, compression and large-deflection bending. To obtain in-plane shear...
Article
Full-text available
This paper demonstrates the value of using a flight model in the analysis of the flight of a football, and explores the complexity of the model required to produce useful results. Two specific aspects of the simulation are addressed: the need to include a model of spin decay and the requirement to include a full aerodynamic drag profile as a functi...
Article
Full-text available
Much discussion surrounds the flight of a football, especially that which is perceived as irregular, and is typically done so with little understanding of the aerodynamic effects or substantive evidence of the path taken. This work establishes that for a range of FIFA-approved balls there is a significant variation in aerodynamic performance. This...
Article
Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites are widely used in aerospace, automotive and construction structures thanks to their high specific strength and stiffness. They can also be used in various products in sports industry. Such products can be exposed to different in-service conditions such as large bending deformation and multiple impa...
Article
Despite the possibilities offered by new approaches in design and advances in materials and manufacturing methods, few items of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) used in sport have seen significant change for many decades. A major reason for this is the tradition and conservative attitudes associated with many sports, although the absence of appr...
Article
Full-text available
Textile-reinforced composites such as glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) used in sports products can be exposed to different in-service conditions such as large bending deformation and multiple impacts. Such loading conditions cause high local stresses and strains, which result in multiple modes of damage and fracture in composite laminates due...
Article
Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) and glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) woven composites are widely used in aerospace, automotive and construction components and structures thanks to their lower production costs, higher delamination and impact strengths. They can also be used in various products in sports industry. These products are expos...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) textile composites are widely used in aerospace, automotive and construction components and structures thanks to their relatively low production costs, higher delamination and impact strength. They can also be used in various products in sports industry. These products are usually exposed to different in-servi...
Article
Textile-reinforced composites such as glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) used in sports products can be exposed to different in-service conditions such as large bending deformation and multiple impacts. Such loading conditions cause high local stresses and strains, which result in multiple modes of damage and fracture in composite laminates due...
Article
The sports ball market is a multi-million dollar industry; original equipment manufacturers are continually trying to develop sports balls and in order to achieve improvement in performance they often utilize launch and/or flight monitors to allow consistent measurement and benchmarking of their balls under test. This paper introduces a laser track...
Article
Full-text available
An explicit finite element (FE) tennis ball model which illustrates the effects of the viscoelastic materials of a tennis ball on ball deformation and bounce during normal impacts is presented. A tennis ball is composed of a rubber core and a fabric cover comprised of a wool-nylon mix which exhibit non-linear strain rate properties during high velo...
Article
Full-text available
Finite element analysis (FEA) techniques have been successfully integrated into the development of a variety of sports products, such as athletic footwear, for many years. This paper reports on the possibility of using FEA to assist the development of technical apparel, specifically compression garments. Of particular interest to the pattern engine...
Article
Full-text available
This study sought to determine the in-flight performance of footballs in a wind free environment to validate against simulated flight performance based on measured wind tunnel data. A mechanical kicker was used to provide consistent kicking parameters capturing flight trajectories using High Speed Video and a radar tracking system. Simulated trajec...
Article
This paper describes a novel force acquisition system capable of measuring the force profiles of high-energy short-duration impacts. This force acquisition system was used to test dynamically a cricket leg guard and to create a contour map of the peak transmitted forces across the garment’s surface. The cricket leg guard was found to provide most p...
Chapter
The sports ball market is extremely competitive and in the US alone valued in excess of $1200 million [SG1]. In order to research and develop sport balls it is vital to quantitatively measure the launch and flight characteristics of the ball.Original equipment manufacturers (OEM’s) are currently using a wide range of systems to measure these parame...
Chapter
The integration of electronics into performance sports equipment has increased in recent years and with it the facility to provide more accurate judging, improved coaching, participant health monitoring and to enhance the entertainment of spectators. The focus in this paper is to respond to recent interest in various martial arts in quantifying and...
Article
This paper gives details of a comprehensive dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) material characterisation activity for all constituent layers of two modern-day thermoformed soccer balls. The resulting material data were used to define a series of viscoelastic finite element (FE) models of each ball design which incorporated the through-thickness comp...
Article
The current paper details the development of a finite-element model of a manually stitched, textile reinforced 32-panel soccer ball used in elite competition. The model included material anisotropy, a stiffer region representative of the polyester fibre based stitching, and a latex bladder membrane which was pressurized through inflation. A stiffne...
Article
Analysis of acoustic wavefronts are important for a number of engineering design, communication and health-related reasons, and it is very desirable to be able to understand the interaction of acoustic fields and energy with obstructions. Experimental analysis of acoustic wavefronts in water has traditionally been completed with single or arrays of...