A.P.C. Faaij

A.P.C. Faaij
TNO | tno · Energy Transition

Professor

About

786
Publications
225,993
Reads
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33,878
Citations
Introduction
Ongoing research covers transition processes towards low carbon energy systems and related energy system integration, model development, impact analysis, innovation and policy questions. Key themes are: Biobased Economy, renewable energy technologies, alternative transport fuels, capture and storage of CO2, hydrogen economy, waste treatment, material & energy efficiency, technological learning and innovation in energy systems.
Additional affiliations
April 2014 - present
University of Groningen
Position
  • Professor
April 2014 - November 2018
New Energy Coalition & Energy Academy Europe
Position
  • Principal Investigator
Description
  • In this position, I worked with many stakeholders on energy transitions from regional to international level. The Energy Academy Europe is set-up as a centre of excellence and Public Private Partnership on Energy Research, Education and Entrepreneurship and is as such a cross-cutting strategy priority for the University of Groningen and its’ partners (including the energy sector, the Hanze University of Applied Sciences and the regional government), including some 500 scientists from natural to
January 2013 - March 2014
Utrecht University
Position
  • Managing Director
Description
  • Scientific Director of the Copernicus Institute (Department of Environmental, Innovation and Energy Sciences of the Faculty of Geosciences). of Utrecht University (130 scientists); positioned on place 24 of the Shanghai Ranking in the field of Energy Science and Engineering.
Education
September 1991 - September 1997
Utrecht University
Field of study
  • Energy Science; Energy from Biomass & Waste
September 1987 - September 1991
Utrecht University
Field of study
  • Chemistry & Environmental Sciences

Publications

Publications (786)
Article
Full-text available
It is essential to consider the social context when designing sustainable energy systems that lead to successful implementation in neighbourhoods. Current methods often only consider techno-economic aspects and are insufficiently capable of including social factors, because they are unclear about which social factors are relevant and how they can b...
Article
Switchgrass is a promising energy crop has the potential to mitigate global warming and energy security, improve local ecology and generate profit. Its quantitative traits, such as biomass productivity and environmental adaptability, are determined by genotype‐by‐environment interaction (GEI) or response of genotypes grown across different target e...
Article
Full-text available
The North Sea Offshore Grid concept has been envisioned as a promising alternative to: 1) ease the integration of offshore wind and onshore energy systems, and 2) increase the cross-border capacity between the North Sea region countries at low cost. In this paper we explore the techno-economic benefits of the North Sea Offshore Grid using two case...
Article
Full-text available
Biomass use for energy and materials is, on the one hand, one of the key mitigation options to reach the 1.5 °C GMT target set in the Paris Agreement, as highlighted by the IPCC and many other key analyses. On the other hand, particularly in parts of the EU, a strong negative connotation has emerged in public debate and EC policy, with a particular...
Article
Municipalities are key actors in planning and enabling the transition in the built environment to sustainable heat systems. Literature on the municipal experiences in the early phases of the heat transition is scarce. This paper addresses this gap by depicting the approaches of twenty-eight municipalities in the Netherlands. It aims to assess the m...
Article
Owing to the complexity of the sector, industrial activities are often represented with limited technological resolution in integrated energy system models. In this study, we enriched the technological description of industrial activities in the integrated energy system analysis optimisation (IESA-Opt) model, a peer-reviewed energy system optimisat...
Article
The techno-economic performance and CO2 equivalent (CO2eq) reduction potential of bio-based aromatic production cases with and without CO2 capture and storage (CCS) have been evaluated and compared to those of fossil-based aromatic production. The bio-cases include naphtha catalytic reforming (NACR), tail gas reactive pyrolysis (TGRP), catalytic py...
Article
Full-text available
Spatially sensitive regional renewables’ potentials are greatly influenced by existing land-use claims and related spatial and environmental policies. Similarly, heat particularly related to low-temperature demand applications in the built environment (BE) is highly spatially explicit. This study developed an analytical approach for a detailed spat...
Article
To analyze the role of nuclear power in an integrated energy system, we used the IESA-Opt-N cost minimization model focusing on four key themes: system-wide impacts of nuclear power, uncertain technological costs, flexible generation, and cross-border electricity trade. We demonstrate that the LCOE alone should not be used to demonstrate the econom...
Article
Full-text available
Offshore wind is a rapidly maturing low-carbon energy technology, for which the technology cost has increased before starting to decline. In literature, the cost development trends of offshore wind and factors responsible were poorly studied. Understanding the factors contributing to the cost developments and their individual impacts are vital for...
Preprint
Full-text available
The North Sea Offshore Grid concept has been envisioned as a promising alternative to: 1) ease the integration of offshore wind and onshore energy systems, and 2) increase the cross-border capacity between the North Sea region countries at low cost. In this paper we explore the techno-economic benefits of the North Sea Offshore Grid using two case...
Article
Full-text available
Models with a wide technological representation of energy systems can hardly adopt hourly resolutions to study the energy transition towards low-carbon technologies due to extended problem size. This compromises the model's ability to address the challenges of variable renewable energy sources and the cost-effectiveness of cross-sectoral flexibilit...
Article
The oil and gas industry is responsible for 6% of total global CO2 emissions, from exploration to downstream petrochemical production and account for another 50% when including the use of its products. Thus, this industry has a significant role in realising the target of net “zero” CO2 emissions by 2070, essential to limit global warming to 1.8 °C...
Preprint
Intending to analyze the role of nuclear power in an integrated energy system, we used the IESA-Opt-N cost minimization model focusing on four key themes: system-wide impacts of nuclear power, uncertain technological costs, flexible generation, and cross-border electricity trade. We demonstrate that the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) alone should...
Preprint
Full-text available
Intending to analyze the role of nuclear power in an integrated energy system, we used the IESA-Opt-N cost minimization model focusing on four key themes: system-wide impacts of nuclear power, uncertain technological costs, flexible generation, and cross-border electricity trade. We demonstrate that the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) alone should...
Article
Environmental factors including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and soil organic carbon (SOC) should be considered for building a sustainable biofuel supply chain. This work developed a three‐step optimization approach integrating a geographical information system‐based mixed‐integer linear programming model to economically optimize the biofuel supp...
Article
Full-text available
Land use change (LUC) related GHG emissions determine largely if bioenergy is a suitable option for climate change mitigation. This study assesses how LUC emissions influence demand for bioenergy to mitigate GHG emissions, and how this affects the energy mix, using Brazil as a case study. A methodological framework is applied linking bioenergy supp...
Article
Full-text available
Agricultural intensification is a key strategy to help meet increasing demand for food and bioenergy. It has the potential to reduce direct and indirect land use change (LUC) and associated environmental impacts while contributing to a favorable economic performance of the agriculture sector. We conduct an integral analysis of environmental and eco...
Article
Estimating the oil recovery potential using CO 2 (CO 2 -EOR) at a national level is resource-intensive at a scale that is not usually available. The aim of this study is two-fold: first, the potential for CO 2 storage and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in Colombia is evaluated; and, second, the results from two different calculation methods (stochasti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Detailed analysis of technological learning of energy technologies is scarce. For floating wind, this is missing altogether. In this study, we applied experience curve and bottom-up cost modeling methodologies and assessed the long-term cost reduction potential of fixed-bottom and floating offshore wind in their mature markets. The contributing fac...
Article
Full-text available
La expansión de las plantaciones de palma de aceite, tanto para la extracción de aceite de palma crudo (APC) como para la elaboración de productos de origen biológico, ha generado gran preocupación en torno al impacto de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) de este cultivo. Aunque Colombia tiene el potencial para producir bienes de or...
Article
Full-text available
As natural gas (NG) demand increases in China, the question arises how the NG infrastructure fit into a low greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions future towards 2050. Herein, the potential role of the NG infrastructure in supplying low-carbon gases during 2020–2050 for China at a provincial resolution was analyzed for different scenarios. In total, four l...
Article
Integrated energy system modeling tools predominantly focus on the (inter)national or local scales. The intermediate level is important from the perspective of regional policy making, particularly for identifying the potentials and constraints of various renewable resources. Additionally, distribution variations of economic and social sectors, such...
Article
A harmonized method was developed to assess CO2 mitigation performance and avoidance costs for different steel production routes, including blast furnace with blast oxygen furnace (BOF), direct reduced iron (DRI) production with electric arc furnace (EAF), and Hisarna with BOF. Mass and energy balances were used to evaluate each route's cradle-to-g...
Article
Full-text available
The North Sea region, located in the Northwest of Europe, is expected to be a frontrunner in the European energy transition. This paper aims to analyse different optimal system configurations in order to meet net-zero emission targets in 2050. Overall, the paper presents two main contributions: first, we develop and introduce the IESA-NS model. The...
Article
Full-text available
With a large marginal land area, the Loess Plateau in China holds great potential for biomass production and environmental improvement. Identifying suitable locations for biomass production on marginal land is important for decision makers from the viewpoint of land‐use planning. However, there is limited information on the suitability of marginal...
Article
Full-text available
A R T I C L E I N F O Keywords: Energy intensive industry CCS Biomass BECCS CO 2 mitigation Negative emission A B S T R A C T Meeting the Paris Agreement will most likely require the combination of CO 2 capture and biomass in the industrial sector, resulting in net negative emissions. CO 2 capture within the industry has been extensively investigat...
Article
Energy planning in the built environment increasingly takes place in local settings. Suitable planning models should therefore be able to capture local dynamics, such as stakeholder behaviour, resource availability and building characteristics. In relation to the key challenges of energy transition in the built environment, building efficiency and...
Article
Full-text available
This article reviews experience curve applications in energy technology studies to illustrate best practices in analyzing technological learning. Findings are then applied to evaluate future performance projections of three emerging offshore energy technologies, namely, offshore wind, wave & tidal, and biofuel production from seaweed. Key insights...
Article
Full-text available
The Colombian agricultural sector has the capacity and ambition to reduce its land use and GHG emissions through sustainable intensification of livestock production. However, the impact of such pathway on the availability of land for bioenergy crops production has not been thoroughly investigated. Moreover, previous assessments of the role bioenerg...
Article
In this paper, we present an optimisation integrated energy system model (IESA-Opt) for the Netherlands with the use of a linear programming formulation. This state-of-the-art model represents a scientific contribution as it integrates a European power-system model with a complete sectoral representation of the energy system technologies and infras...
Data
Supplementary material for https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2021.106096
Article
Full-text available
The North Sea basin is one of the busiest maritime areas globally with a considerable number of anthropogenic pressures impacting the functioning of the marine ecosystem. Due to growing EU ambitions for the deployment of large offshore wind farm projects (OWF), as part of the 2050 renewable energy roadmap, there is a key need for a holistic underst...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of spatial resolution for energy modelling has increased in the last years. Incorporating more spatial resolution in energy models presents wide benefits, but it is not straightforward, as it might compromise their computational performance. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of spatial resolution in energy models, inc...
Article
Full-text available
Rural communities in developing countries lack access to affordable, reliable, and sustainable forms of energy, which are essential factors for improving living conditions. These communities rely on diesel and kerosene, which are highly polluting compared to renewable energy technologies, to satisfy their energy needs. In this study, hybrid renewab...
Article
Full-text available
Energy crop expansion can increase land demand and generate displacement of food crops, which impacts greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mainly through land-use change (LUC). Increased agricultural productivity could compensate for this. Our study aims to evaluate the regional combined GHG emissions of increasing agricultural yields for food crop and b...
Article
Sustainability is critical for biomass feedstock supply and crop production. Most studies on agricultural residue estimations ignored the loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) and thus possibly overestimated its resource potential. This study estimated the resource potential of using agricultural residues for bioenergy in China, considering soil conser...
Article
Full-text available
Improving energy system modeling capabilities can directly affect the quality of applied studies. However, some modeling trade-offs are necessary as the computational capacity and data availability are constrained. In this paper, we demonstrate modeling trade-offs resulting from the modification in the resolution of four modeling capabilities, name...
Article
Full-text available
This study assessed the techno-economic performance and life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for various liquefied natural gas (LNG) supply chains in China in order to find the most efficient way to supply and use LNG. This study improves current literature by adding supply chain optimization options (cold energy recovery and hydrogen producti...
Article
Industry, accounting for 24% of total global CO2 emissions, needs deep decarbonization in order to meet the climate goals of the Paris Agreement. Two important options for CO2 reduction are CO2 capture and storage (CCS) and biomass. CCS in industry has been broadly investigated, while biomass has seen limited attention. In addition, inconsistencies...
Preprint
Full-text available
The North Sea basin is one of the busiest maritime areas globally with a considerable number of anthropogenic pressures impacting the functioning of the marine ecosystem. Due to growing EU ambitions for the deployment of large-scale offshore wind farms (OWF), as part of the 2050 renewable energy roadmap, there is a key need for a holistic understan...
Article
Fossil fuels dominate the current energy and chemicals' supply and this leads to a rapid growth in global greenhouse gas emissions. One mitigation option is using renewable feedstock for materials, chemicals (ethylene, propylene, acrylic acid and butanol) and, mostly, energy carriers (biodiesel, renewable jet fuel, ethanol and bioelectricity). This...
Article
Full-text available
The oil industry needs to reduce CO2 emissions across the entire lifecycle of fossil fuels to meet environmental regulations and societal requirements and to sustain its business. With this goal in mind, this study aims to evaluate the CO2 mitigation potential of several bio‐oil co‐processing pathways in an oil refinery. Techno‐economic analysis wa...
Article
Full-text available
The transition to a sustainable bio-based economy is perceived as a valid path towards low-carbon development for emerging economies that have rich biomass resources. In the case of Colombia, the role of biomass has been tackled through qualitative roadmaps and regional climate policy assessments. However, neither of these approaches has addressed...
Data
Supplementary material for https://doi.org/10.1002/bbb.2167
Article
Full-text available
We reviewed the literature focusing on nineteen integrated Energy System Models (ESMs) to: (i) identify the capabilities and shortcomings of current ESMs to analyze adequately the transition towards a low-carbon energy system; (ii) assess the performance of the selected models by means of the derived criteria, and (iii) discuss some potential solut...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Colombian agricultural sector has the capacity and ambition to reduce its land use and GHG emissions through sustainable intensification of livestock production. However, an appraisal of the impact of achieving such goal on the availability of land to produce bioenergy crops remains lacking. Moreover, previous assessments of the role bioenergy...
Article
Full-text available
The demand for biofuels is expected to increase significantly in the coming years. However, there are major concerns on the impact of increased biofuel production on food security. As biofuel affects food security in various ways, it is important to assess the impacts on the four pillars of food security, availability, access, utilisation and stabi...
Article
Correction for ‘The global technical and economic potential of bioenergy from salt-affected soils’ by Birka Wicke et al. , Energy Environ. Sci. , 2011, 4 , 2669–2681, DOI: 10.1039/C1EE01029H.
Poster
Full-text available
Biomass can contribute to the low carbon development of the Colombian economy. However, previous investigations could not capture the complexity of the bioeconomy; in the wider context of energy and chemicals supply and climate change mitigation. We address this gap through system analysis, using a techno-economic optimization modelling framework....
Article
Full-text available
Spatially explicit farm‐gate production costs and the economic potential of three types of energy crop grown on available marginal land in China for 2017 and 2040 were investigated using a spatial accounting method and construction of cost–supply curves. The average farm‐gate cost from all available marginal land was calculated as 32.9 CNY GJ‐1 for...
Article
Full-text available
This article identifies marginal land technically available for the production of energy crops in China, compares three models of yield prediction for Miscanthus × giganteus, Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) and Jatropha, and estimates their spatially‐specific yields and technical potential for 2017. Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis of...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last decade, the accelerated transition towards cleaner means of producing energy has been clearly prioritised by the European Union through large-scale planned deployment of wind farms in the North Sea. From a spatial planning perspective, this has not been a straight-forward process, due to substantial spatial conflicts with the traditio...