Anurag Agrawal

Anurag Agrawal
Ashoka University Trivedi School of Biosciences

MD PhD

About

394
Publications
228,425
Reads
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43,346
Citations
Introduction
I completed initial graduate medical training at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi, India, followed by post graduate training in Medicine, Pulmonary Disease, and Critical Care at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, USA. Initial research training through the MeRIT program at Baylor led to PhD thesis on the physiology of airway mucus secretion. My interests include experimental and computational approaches for understanding biological and clinical aspects of respiratory diseases.
Additional affiliations
October 2017 - present
Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology
Position
  • Managing Director
January 2013 - present
Baylor College of Medicine
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
February 2010 - present
Education
July 2004 - February 2007
University of Delhi
Field of study
  • Physiology
July 2000 - June 2003
Baylor College of Medicine
Field of study
  • Pulmonary and Critical care
June 1996 - June 2000
Baylor College of Medicine
Field of study
  • Internal Medicine

Publications

Publications (394)
Article
There is emerging evidence that stem cells can rejuvenate damaged cells by mitochondrial transfer. Earlier studies show that epithelial mitochondrial dysfunction is critical in asthma pathogenesis. Here we show for the first time that Miro1, a mitochondrial Rho-GTPase, regulates intercellular mitochondrial movement from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC)...
Article
Full-text available
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs of length 22-25 nucleotides that act via an RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to post-transcriptionally regulate mRNAs, which contain complementary sequences. Highly stable circulating miRNAs are found in biological fluids and are potential biomarkers (1, 2). These are often enclosed in small secretory...
Article
The chest x-ray is a widely used medical imaging technique for the diagnosis of several lung diseases. Some nodules or other pathologies present in the lungs are difficult to visualize on chest x-rays because they are obscured by overlying bone shadows. Segmentation of bone structures and suppressing them assist medical professionals in reliable di...
Article
To develop regression equations to predict forced oscillation technique (FOT) parameters in Indian children and adolescents. Lung function was assessed in a multigeographic cohort of residential school children using a portable FOT-based device (PulmoScan) and spirometry. FOT measurements were performed in 1497 study participants, aged 9–19 y, from...
Article
Full-text available
Breakthrough infections with SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant have been reported in doubly-vaccinated recipients and as re-infections. Studies of viral spread within hospital settings have highlighted the potential for transmission between doubly-vaccinated patients and health care workers and have highlighted the benefits of high-grade respiratory protect...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has underlined the need to partner with the community in pandemic preparedness and response in order to enable trust-building among stakeholders, which is key in pandemic management. Citizen science, defined here as a practice of public participation and collaboration in all aspects of scientific research to increase knowledge...
Article
Full-text available
Pneumonia, an acute respiratory tract infection, is one of the major causes of mortality worldwide. Depending on the site of acquisition, pneumonia can be community acquired pneumonia (CAP) or nosocomial pneumonia (NP). The risk of pneumonia, is partially driven by host genetics. CYP1A1 is a widely studied pulmonary CYP family gene primarily expres...
Article
Full-text available
Global sequencing and surveillance capacity for SARS-CoV-2 must be strengthened and combined with multidisciplinary studies of infectivity, virulence and immune escape, in order to track the unpredictable evolution of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
Article
Full-text available
Immunization is expected to confer protection against infection and severe disease for vaccines while reducing risks to unimmunized populations by inhibiting transmission. Here, based on serial serological studies of an observational cohort of healthcare workers, we show that during a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome -Coronavirus 2 Delta-variant o...
Article
Full-text available
The variability of clinical course and prognosis of COVID-19 highlights the necessity of patient sub-group risk stratification based on clinical data. In this study, clinical data from a cohort of Indian COVID-19 hospitalized patients is used to develop risk stratification and mortality prediction models. We analyzed a set of 70 clinical parameters...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To use data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019 (GBD 2019) to estimate mortality and disability trends for the population aged ≥70 and evaluate patterns in causes of death, disability, and risk factors. Design Systematic analysis. Setting Participants were aged ≥70 from 204 countries and terri...
Article
Full-text available
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the significant infectious diseases across the globe. With increasing TB infections and a rise in multi-drug resistance, rapid diagnostic modalities are required to achieve TB control. Chest radiograph, sputum microscopy, and culture in both liquid and solid media are used to diagnose pulmonary TB. In many patients,...
Article
Full-text available
This study elucidated the clinical, humoral immune response and genomic analysis of vaccine breakthrough (VBT) infections after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/Covishield vaccine in healthcare workers (HCWs). Amongst 1858 HCWs, 1639 had received either two doses (1346) or a single dose (293) of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies and neutralizing an...
Article
Full-text available
SARS-CoV2 pandemic exposed the limitations of artificial intelligence based medical imaging systems. Earlier in the pandemic, the absence of sufficient training data prevented effective deep learning (DL) solutions for the diagnosis of COVID-19 based on X-Ray data. Here, addressing the lacunae in existing literature and algorithms with the paucity...
Preprint
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation alleviates metabolic defects in diseased recipient cells by intercellular mitochondrial transport (IMT). However, the effect of host metabolic conditions on MSCs in general, and IMT in particular, has largely remained unexplored. This study has identified a molecular pathway that primarily governs the met...
Article
Full-text available
The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant was first identified in the state of Maharashtra in late 2020 and spread throughout India, outcompeting pre-existing lineages including B.1.617.1 (Kappa) and B.1.1.7 (Alpha)1. In vitro, B.1.617.2 is 6-fold less sensitive to serum neutralising antibodies from recovered individuals, and 8-fold less sensitive t...
Article
Background SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) have threatened COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine, predominantly against the delta (B.1.617.2) variant, in addition to the cellular immune response to vaccination. Methods We did a test-negative, case-control study at two medical rese...
Article
Digital transformations are well underway in all areas of life. These have brought about substantial and wide-reaching changes, in many areas, including health. But large gaps remain in our understanding of the interface between digital technologies and health, particularly for young people. The Lancet and Financial Times Commission on governing h...
Article
Full-text available
Delhi, the national capital of India, has experienced multiple SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in 2020 and reached population seropositivity of over 50% by 2021. During April 2021, the city became overwhelmed by COVID-19 cases and fatalities, as a new variant B.1.617.2 (Delta) replaced B.1.1.7 (Alpha). A Bayesian model explains the growth advantage of Delta t...
Article
Full-text available
Background Documentation of patterns and long-term trends in mortality in young people, which reflect huge changes in demographic and social determinants of adolescent health, enables identification of global investment priorities for this age group. We aimed to analyse data on the number of deaths, years of life lost, and mortality rates by sex an...
Article
The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant was frst identifed in the state of Maharashtra in late 2020 and spread throughout India, outcompeting pre-existing lineages including B.1.617.1 (Kappa) and B.1.1.7 (Alpha)1 . In vitro, B.1.617.2 is 6-fold less sensitive to serum neutralising antibodies from recovered individuals, and 8-fold less sensitive to...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer globally and is one of the most important contributors to cancer-related deaths. Earlier diagnosis is known to reduce mortality, and better biomarkers are needed. MiRNA clusters often co-express and target mRNAs in a coordinated fashion, perturbing entire pathways; they thus merit...
Article
Background: Delhi is one of the most polluted cities in the world with annual average ambient PM10 and PM2.5 levels exceeding the World Health Organization standards by over 15 fold. We aimed to study the prevalence of respiratory and allergic symptoms and asthma among adolescent children living in Delhi (D) and compare it with children living in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Immunization is expected to confer protection against infection and severe disease for vaccinees, while reducing risks to unimmunized populations by inhibiting transmission. Here, based on serial serological studies, we show that during a severe SARS-CoV2 Delta-variant outbreak in Delhi, 25.3% (95% CI 16.9-35.2) of previously uninfected, ChAdOx1-nC...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: India saw a massive surge and emergence of SARS CoV2 variants. We elucidated clinical and humoral immune response and genomic analysis of vaccine breakthrough (VBT) infections after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine in healthcare workers (HCWs). Methods: The study was conducted on 1858 HCWs receiving two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV- 19 vaccine. Serial...
Article
A chest radiograph, commonly called chest x-ray (CxR), plays a vital role in the diagnosis of various lung diseases. Automated segmentation of the lungs is an important step to design a computer-aided diagnostic tool for examination of a CxR. Precise lung segmentation is considered extremely challenging because of variance in the shape of the lung...
Preprint
Full-text available
The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant was first identified in the state of Maharashtra in late 2020 and has spread throughout India, displacing the B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant and other pre-existing lineages. Mathematical modelling indicates that the growth advantage is most likely explained by a combination of increased transmissibility and immune...
Preprint
Full-text available
The risk for community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is partially driven by genetics. To identify the CAP-associated genetic risk loci, we performed a meta-analysis of clinically diagnosed CAP (3310 individuals) with 2655 healthy controls. The findings revealed CYP1A1 variants (rs2606345, rs4646903, rs1048943) associated with pneumonia. We observed rs26...
Preprint
Full-text available
After multiple SARS-CoV2 outbreaks in 2020 and a population seropositivity of about 50%, Delhi was overwhelmed by the fourth wave. Multi-modal data, including genomic surveillance, shows that a controlled phase characterized by Alpha variant (B.1.1.7) dominance, became uncontrollable during its displacement by the new Delta variant (B.1.617.2). Bay...
Article
The rise of more-transmissible viral mutants demands new ways to prevent, detect, track and treat SARS-CoV-2 infections. The rise of more-transmissible viral mutants demands new ways to prevent, detect, track and treat SARS-CoV-2 infections.
Data
This is a supplementary material for the article entitled "Measuring universal health coverage based on an index of effective coverage of health services in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019"
Article
Full-text available
Adolescents are growing up in an increasingly digital world. Whilst their access to-and engagements with-the digital world are diverse, adolescents' direct and indirect experiences of digital environments, and the technologies which mediate these interactions, are increasingly important determinants of adolescent well-being. In this background pap...
Article
Full-text available
Co-infection with ancillary pathogens is a significant modulator of morbidity and mortality in infectious diseases. There have been limited reports of co-infections accompanying SARS-CoV-2 infections, albeit lacking India specific study. The present study has made an effort toward elucidating the prevalence, diversity and characterization of co-inf...
Article
Background : Body mass index (BMI) is the most popular anthropometric marker to define obesity and cardiometabolic risk. BMI is limited in its ability to discriminate central adiposity and other indices such as waist circumference (WC), and waist to height ratio (WHtR) could be a better choice. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relative accur...
Article
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in South Asia, with rapidly increasing prevalence of hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and hyperlipidemia over the last two decades. Atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) affects South Asians earlier in life and at lower body weights, which is not fully explained by differential burden of conv...
Article
In order to define public health policies, simple, inexpensive and robust detection methods for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are vital for mass-testing in resource limited settings. The current choice of molecular methods for identification of SARS-CoV-2 infection includes nucleic acid-based testing (NAT) for viral g...
Article
Full-text available
Background COVID-19 pneumonia has been associated with severe acute hypoxia, sepsis-like states, thrombosis and chronic sequelae including persisting hypoxia and fibrosis. The molecular hypoxia response pathway has been associated with such pathologies and our recent observations on anti-hypoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of whole aqueous extrac...
Article
Full-text available
This communication highlights a case report from Delhi, India of a 52‐year‐old male, with two instances of SARS‐CoV2 infection. Next‐generation sequencing has shown two distinct SNP profile of SARS‐CoV2 genomes from both the episodes, thus highlighting a possible scenario of re‐infection against relapse. Additionally, this study highlights the pres...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Oxford-Astra Zeneca COVID 19 vaccine (AZD1222 or ChAdOx1) is an important part of the global vaccine roll-out against SARS-CoV-2, and a locally manufactured version (Covishield by Serum Institute, Pune, India) is the most commonly used vaccine in India. The vaccination program started in January 2021 and here we report effectiveness of the firs...
Preprint
Rationale: While determining normal variation of spirometric volumes, the geo-political construct of "Indians" inadequately captures the diverse racial structure and varied lifestyles that exist for 1 in 5 people globally. It is necessary to determine the degree of racial heterogeneity and other underlying factors to know whether lower spirometric...
Article
The airway epithelium is continuously exposed to a variety of pollutants and allergens, thanks to both natural and manmade environmental pollution. With numerous protective mechanisms, the airway epithelium protects the lungs. DNA repair mechanism is one such protective response and its failure could lead to the accumulation of DNA mutations. Our l...
Article
Full-text available
Background: SARS-CoV-2 infection may not provide long lasting post-infection immunity. While hundreds of reinfections have reported only a few have been confirmed. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of the viral isolates from the different episodes is mandatory to establish reinfection. Methods: Nasopharyngeal (NP), oropharyngeal (OP) and whole blood (W...
Article
Severe asthma is a chronic airway disease that exhibits poor response to conventional asthma therapies. Growing evidence suggests that elevated hypoxia increases the severity of asthmatic inflammation among patients and in model systems. In this study, we elucidate the therapeutic effects and mechanistic basis of Adhatoda Vasica (AV) aqueous extrac...
Chapter
While asthma has a strong genetic component, our current ability to systematically understand and predict asthma risk remains low, despite over a hundred genetic associations. The reasons for this unfilled gap range from technical limitations of current approaches to fundamental deficiencies in the way we understand asthma. These are discussed in t...
Article
Full-text available
Bacterial pneumonia is a global healthcare burden, and unwarranted inflammation is suggested as an important cause of mortality. Optimum levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 are essential to reduce inflammation and improve survival in pneumonia. Elevated levels of the mitochondrial-DAMP cardiolipin (CL), reported in tracheal aspirates of...
Article
Full-text available
Findings Of 2379 cases of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, 85 (3 6%) were fully vaccinated compared with 168 (8 5%) of 1981 controls (adjusted OR [aOR] 0 37 [95% CI 0 28–0 48]), giving a vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection of 63 1% (95% CI 51 5–72 1). 157 (6 4%) of 2451 of cases and 181 (9 1%) of 1994) controls had received a single d...
Preprint
Full-text available
The clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is highly variable with the vast majority recovering uneventfully but a small fraction progressing to severe disease and death. Appropriate and timely supportive care can reduce mortality and it is critical to evolve better patient risk stratification based on simple clinical data...
Article
Global approaches towards pandemic control range from strict lockdowns to minimal restrictions. We asked experts worldwide about the lessons learned from their countries’ response. Their voices converge on the importance of scientifically guided interventions to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and its impact on human health.
Preprint
Background and Objective: Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant public health issue and a leading cause of death worldwide. Millions of deaths can be averted by early diagnosis and successful treatment of TB patients. Automated diagnosis of TB holds vast potential to assist medical experts in expediting and improving its diagnosis, especially in devel...
Preprint
A chest radiograph, commonly called chest x-ray (CxR), plays a vital role in the diagnosis of various lung diseases, such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and many more. Automated segmentation of the lungs is an important step to design a computer-aided diagnostic tool for examination of a CxR. Precise lung segmentation is considered extrem...
Article
Full-text available
Background : Body mass index (BMI) is the most popular anthropometric marker to define obesity and cardiometabolic risk. BMI is limited in its ability to discriminate central adiposity and other indices such as waist circumference (WC), and waist to height ratio (WHtR) could be a better choice. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relative accur...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Low vital capacity, one of the consequences of restricted lung growth, is a strong predictor of cardiovascular mortality. Vital capacity is lower in the developing world than the developed world, even after adjusting for height, weight and gender. This difference is typically dismissed as ethnic variation, adjusted for by redefining nor...
Article
Pandemic have affected us before and possibly will be challenging us in future with COVID-19 being an eye opener. One of the ways to understand our challenger is to know their genome sequence which helps identify the pathogen, vis-a-vis new strain or novel mutations in the pre-existing pathogen. The strength of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) base...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The importance of hypoxia inducible factor-1 α (HIF-1α) stabilization in uncontrolled infection and inflammation is widely accepted. Several inhibitors of HIF signalling are in clinical trials for malignancy, ischemia and inflammatory diseases. Increased hypoxia is being reported to be an important modifier for several pathological feat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: COVID-19 pneumonia has been associated with severe acute hypoxia, sepsis-like states, thrombosis and chronic sequelae including persisting hypoxia and fibrosis. The molecular hypoxia response pathway has been associated with such pathologies and our recent observations on anti-hypoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of whole aqueous extra...
Article
Full-text available
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in South Asia, with rapidly increasing prevalence of hypertension, type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia over the last two decades. Atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) affects South Asians earlier in life and at lower body weights, which is not fully explained by differential burden of conventiona...
Preprint
Full-text available
The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic exposed a limitation of artificial intelligence (AI) based medical image interpretation systems. Early in the pandemic, when need was greatest, the absence of sufficient training data prevented effective deep learning (DL) solutions. Even now, there is a need for Chest-X-ray (CxR) screening tools...