Anuradha Dube

Anuradha Dube
Central Drug Research Institute | CDRI · Parasitology Division (CDRI)

M.Sc, Ph.D

About

165
Publications
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4,204
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March 1978 - June 2013
Central Drug Research Institute

Publications

Publications (165)
Article
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Aims Visceral leishmaniasis(VL) represents one of the most challenging infectious diseases worldwide. The reason that once infected, patient develops immunity against Leishmania parasite has paved way to develop prophylactic vaccines against disease, but only some of these have moved ahead for clinical trials. Herein, the study to explore novel and...
Article
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People suffering from malnutrition show compromised levels of ω-6 fatty acid and malnutrition is frequently observed among visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients as disease inflicts primarily the socioeconomic destitute communities. Dietary linoleic acid (LA, 18:2; ω-6 fatty acid) is the principal source of essential fatty acid and its derivatives i....
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Infection with L. donovani affects mainly visceral organs. Importantly, the parasitic load differs in different visceral organs; therefore there is a need to understand the organ specific immune regulation, particularly in the spleen and liver. Comparative studies between these organs in Leishmania infected hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) are lackin...
Article
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Background Current understanding of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) depends upon the experimental model. Different species of mouse and hamster have been used as model for VL. It is already evident that the mouse model of VL is not a true reflection of the pathology of human visceral leishmaniasis (HuVL). On the other hand, hamster is reported to be a...
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Intracellular protozoan parasites have evolved an efficient protein quality control (PQC) network comprising protein folding and degradation machineries that protect the parasite’s proteome from environmental perturbations and threats posed by host immune surveillance. Interestingly, the components of PQC machinery in parasites have acquired sequen...
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Development of a suitable vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a fatal parasitic disease, is considered to be vital for maintaining the success of kala-azar control programs. The fact that Leishmania-infected individuals generate life-long immunity offers a viable proposition in this direction. Our prior studies demonstrated that T-helper1...
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Background and objective: The synergy of interleukin (IL)-17 along with other pro-inflammatory cytokines is well known in various autoimmune and infectious diseases. A longitudinal study in the Sudanese population showed an association of IL-17 with the protection of kala-azar outbreak. The protective role of IL-17 is also known in terms of expans...
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Purpose: To fabricate, characterize and evaluate 3-O-sn-Phosphatidyl-L-serine (PhoS) anchored PLGA nanoparticles for macrophage targeted therapeutic intervention of VL. Materials and methods: PLGA-AmpB NPs were prepared by well-established nanoprecipitation method and decorated with Phos by thin film hydration method. Physico-chemical characteri...
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An effective therapeutic vaccination strategy is required for controlling visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a fatal systemic disease, through boosting the immunosuppressed state in Leishmania-infected individuals, as the majority of them living in the endemic regions exhibit either subclinical or asymptomatic infection which further often develops into...
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The visceralizing potential of apparently dermotropic Leishmania donovani in Sri Lanka ( L. donovani -SL) was investigated through long-term follow-up of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients and in vivo and in vitro experimental infection models. CL patients ( n = 250) treated effectively with intra-lesional antimony therapy were followed-up six m...
Article
The goal of study was to develop micellar formulation of Amphotericin B (AmB) to improve its antileishmanial efficacy. AmB loaded pluronic F127 (PF 127) micelles were developed and coated with chitosan (Cs-PF-AmB-M) to accord immunoadjuvant and macrophage targeting properties. Hemolysis and cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that Cs-PF-AmB-M was 7.9...
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Despite immense efforts, vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis has yet not been developed. Earlier our proteomic study revealed a novel protein, cofactor-independent phoshoglycerate mutase (LdiPGAM), an important enzyme in glucose metabolism, in T helper cells type 1 (Th1) stimulatory region of soluble Leishmania donovani antigen. In this study, L...
Article
Lipid nanoparticles are stable, biodegradable and biocompatible carriers offering excellent therapeutic efficacy. Here, a novel effort has been made to develop Miltefosine (HePC- hexadecylphosphocholine) stabilized chitosan anchored nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) of Amphotericin B (AmB) as co-delivery vehicle to enhance killing of L. donovani....
Article
Predicting the role of protein is one of the most challenging problems. There are few approaches available for the prediction of role of unknown protein in terms of drug target or vaccine candidate. We propose here Naïve Bayes probabilistic classifier, a promising method for reliable predictions. This method is tested on the proteins identified in...
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Green fluorescent protein produces significant fluorescence and is extremely stable, however its excitation maximum is close to the ultraviolet range and thus can damage living cells. Hence, Leishmania donovani stably expressing DsRed were developed and their suitability for flow cytometry-based antileishmanial screening was assessed by evaluating...
Article
Background: Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae), commonly known as Ashwagandha, is one of the most important medicinal plant in the traditional Indian medical systems. Pharmacological studies have established that root extracts of W. somnifera contain several bioactive constituents called withanolides. The plant has long been used for its s...
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Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a phlebotomine-borne neglected tropical disease, is caused by parasites of the Leishmania donovani complex. While L. donovani infection is restricted to the Indian subcontinent and East Africa, where transmission is anthroponotic, Leishmania infantum occurs in Europe, North Africa, and parts of Latin America, where it i...
Article
Novel chitosan-coated nanoparticles with a high payload of amphotericin B (AmB) and doxorubicin (Dox) were formulated employing a nanoprecipitation technique and evaluated for antileishmanial activity against Leishmania donovani. FTIR, DSC and TG-DTA analysis ensured the physicochemical compatibility of drugs and polymers. The chitosan-coated optim...
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Purpose To develop a biocompatible and bioresorbable calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles (NPs) bearing Amphotericin B (AmB) with an aim to provide macrophage specific targeting in visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Materials & Methods CaP-AmB-NPs were architectured through emulsion precipitation method. The developed formulation was extensively charact...
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Our prior studies demonstrated that cellular response of T helper 1 (Th1) type was generated by a soluble antigenic fraction (ranging from 89.9 to 97.1 kDa) of Leishmania donovani promastigote, in treated Leishmania patients as well as hamsters and showed significant prophylactic potential against experimental visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Eighteen...
Article
In visceral leishmaniasis (VL), it is well-known that a patient in clinical remission of VL remains immune to reinfection, which provides a rationale for the feasibility of a vaccine against this deadly disease. In earlier studies, observation of significant cellular responses in treated Leishmania patients as well as in hamsters against leishmania...
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We investigated efficacy of nitric oxide (NO) against Leishmania donovani. NO is a mediator of host response to infection, with direct parasiticidal activity in addition to its role in signalling to evoke innate macrophage responses. However, it is short-lived and volatile, and is therefore difficult to introduce into infected cells and maintain in...
Article
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Background: Resistance emergence against antileishmanial drugs, particularly Sodium Antimony Gluconate (SAG) has severely hampered the therapeutic strategy against visceral leishmaniasis, the mechanism of resistance being indistinguishable. Cysteine leucine rich protein (CLrP), was recognized as one of the overexpressed proteins in resistant isola...
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Exploitation of lactoferrin-appended amphotericin B bearing nanoreservoir (LcfPGNP-AmB) for targeted eradication of Leishmania donovani. LcfPGNP-AmB was architechtured through ionic adsorption of lactoferrin over core poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles and characterized. Anti-Leishmania activity in visceral leishmaniasis models, immunomo...
Article
To improve oral delivery of AmB by achieving increased oral bioavailability and synergistically enhanced antileishmanial activity using copaiba oil (Cop) through nano-emulsified carrier system (CopNEC). The AmB encapsulated nano-emulsified carrier (CopNEC-AmB) comprised of Cop, d-alpha Tocopheryl Polyethylene Glycol 1000 Succinate and phosphatidylc...
Article
Isolation of the soluble exogenous antigens (SEAgs), its immune response study and proteome profiling is an essential prerequisite for understanding the molecular pathogenesis of Leishmania donovani. The immunostimulatory potential of L. donovani SEAgs, purified from culture of L. donovani clinical isolate was evaluated for their ability to induce...
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Background: The development of a vaccine conferring long-lasting immunity remains a challenge against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Immunoproteomic characterization of Leishmania donovani proteins led to the identification of a novel protein NAD+-dependent Silent Information regulatory-2 (SIR2 family or sirtuin) protein (LdSir2RP) as one of the pot...
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Objective: To evaluate the antileishmanial activity of a marine sponge Haliclona oculata. Methods: The crude methanol extract was prepared from the freshly collected sponge and its three fractions were also prepared by maceration method. The antileishmanial activity of these extract and fractions was tested against Leishmania donovani. Results: The...
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Since, Leishmania protozoans are obligate intracellular parasites of macrophages, an immunopotentiating macrophage-specific Amphotericin B (AB) delivery system would be ideally appropriate to increase its superiority for leishmaniasis treatment and to eliminate undesirable toxicity. Herein, we report AB entrapped mannose grafted chitosan nanocapsul...
Article
Antigen presenting cells (APC) are well-recognized therapeutic targets for intracellular infectious diseases including visceral leishmaniasis. These targets have raised concerns regarding their potential for drug delivery due to over expression of a variety of receptors for pathogen associated molecular pathways after infection. Since, Lipoteichoic...
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Exploration of safe and effective antileishmanials from natural resources is an active area of research. Therefore we have selected C. hornemanni to evaluate its antileishmanial potential. The crude ethanol extract and its fractions were tested both in vitro and in vivo. The crude ethanol extract yielded almost (88.0 ± 6.9% inhibition of promastigo...
Article
To address issues related to Amphotericin B (AmpB) clinical applications, we developed macrophage targeted cationic stearylamine lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNPs) with complementary characteristics of both polymeric nanoparticles and liposomes, for enhancement of therapeutic efficacy and diminishing toxic effect of encapsulated AmpB. The L...
Article
In earlier studies, proteomic characterization of splenic amastigote fractions from clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani , exhibiting significant cellular responses in cured Leishmania subjects, led to the identification of cytosolic tryparedoxin peroxidase (LdcTryP) and chaperonin-TCP20 (LdTCP20) as Th1-stimulatory proteins. Both the proteins,...
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To investigate the applicability, localization, biodistribution and toxicity of self assembled ionically sodium alginate cross-linked AmB loaded glycol chitosan stearate nanoparticles for effective management of visceral leishmaniasis. Here, we fabricated Amphotericin B (AmB) encapsulated sodium alginate-glycol chitosan stearate nanoparticles (AmB-...
Article
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In visceral leishmaniasis, the recovery from the disease is always associated with the generation of Th1-type of cellular responses. Based on this, we have previously identified several Th1-stimulatory proteins of Leishmania donovani -triose phosphate isomerase (TPI), protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and elongation factor-2 (EL-2) etc. including h...
Article
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Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have emerged as an excellent substitute over polymeric nanoparticles and, when incorporated with chitosan which activates the macrophage to impart an immune response, produce excellent results to fight against deleterious diseases like leishmaniasis where its parasite diminishes the immunity of the host to induce re...
Article
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Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar, a vector-borne protozoan disease, shows endemicity in larger areas of the tropical, subtropical and the Mediterranean countries. WHO report suggested that nearly 500,000 new cases of VL occur annually, including 100,000 cases from India itself. Treatment with available anti-leishmanial drugs are not cost ef...
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The present study includes cloning and expression of recombinant Leishmania donovani histone proteins (rLdH2B, rLdH3, rLdH2A and rLdH4), assessment of their immunogenicity in Leishmania infected cured patients/endemic contacts as well as in cured hamsters and finally evaluation of their prophylactic efficacy in hamsters against L. donovani challeng...
Article
We have designed lectin functionalized Lipo-polymerosome bearing Amphotericin B (Lec-AmB-L-Psome) for specific internalization via lectin receptors overexpressed on infected macrophages of mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) for the effective management of intramacrophage diseases such as visceral leishmaniasis. The lipo-polymerosome composed of gl...
Article
The immunoprophylactic and therapeutic potentials of root extracts of Withania somnifera chemotypes (NMITLI-118, NMITLI-101) and pure withanolide–withaferin A was investigated against Leishmania donovani infection in hamsters. The naive animals, fed orally with immunostimulatory doses of chemotypes 101R, 118R (10 and 3 mg/kg) and withaferin A (9 an...
Article
Background and purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory and chemotherapeutic potential of alginate-(SA) coated nanocapsule (NCs) loaded with doxorubicin (SA-NCs-DOX) against visceral leishmaniasis in comparison with nano-emulsions containing doxorubicin (NE-DOX). Experimental approach: NE-DOX was prepared using...
Article
Previously, through a proteomic analysis, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was found to be overexpressed in the sodium antimony gluconate (SAG)-resistant clinical isolate compared to that in the SAG-sensitive clinical isolate of Leishmania donovani. The present study was designed to explore the potential role of the PCNA protein in SAG res...
Article
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Objective: The principle objective of this study was to develop 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (PS)-coated gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) bearing amphotericin B (AmB) for specific targeting to the macrophages involved in visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Method: The two-step desolvation method has been used for the preparation of GNPs with Am...
Article
With widespread resistance to pentavalent antimonial in the endemic eastern terai belt of Nepal and Bihar, India, Amphotericin B deoxycholate is now the first-line antileishmanial drug for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). However, universal occurrence of infusion-related fever and rigors with amphotericin B (AmB), occasional serious li...
Article
Amphotericin B remains the preferred choice for leishmanial infection, but has limited clinical applications due to substantial dose limiting toxicities. In the present work, AmB has been formulated in Lipo-polymerosome (L-Psome) by spontaneous self-assembly of synthesized glycol chitosan-stearic acid copolymer. The optimized L-Psome formulation wi...
Article
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Th1 immune responses play an important role in controlling Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) hence, Leishmania proteins stimulating T-cell responses in host, are thought to be good vaccine targets. Search of such antigens eliciting cellular responses in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cured/exposed/Leishmania patients and hamsters led to...
Article
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The control of visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani still remains a challenging problem. Due to limitations of available therapies, search for new antileishmanial agents becomes necessary. India, being rich in traditional medicinal plant species, provides good opportunity for exploration of new, effective and safe antileishmanials....
Article
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In visceral leishmaniasis (VL), Th1-type of immune responses play an important role which correlates with recovery from and resistance to disease resulting in lifelong immunity. Based on this rationale, the soluble leishmanial antigens that elicit cellular responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cured Leishmania patients were c...