Anu Eskelinen

Anu Eskelinen
German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig | iDiv · Physiological Diversity

PhD

About

71
Publications
36,592
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2,121
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Introduction
I am generally interested in plant community dynamics and especially how biotic factors such as herbivory, plant competition and plant functional traits interact with changing environmental conditions due to global changes.
Additional affiliations
March 2010 - August 2014
University of California, Davis
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (71)
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims The amount of nitrogen (N) derived from symbiotic N2 fixation by legumes in grasslands might be affected by anthropogenic N and phosphorus (P) inputs, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Methods We evaluated symbiotic N2 fixation in 17 natural and semi-natural grasslands on four continents that are subjected to the sam...
Article
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Purpose Soil diaspore banks of bryophytes are poorly known in tundra grasslands, yet can be important for the maintenance of local bryophyte assemblages. We examined the effects of fertilization and grazing exclusion on above-ground bryophyte assemblages and soil diaspore banks in a tundra grassland. Methods We collected soil diaspore samples and...
Preprint
Background and aims: The amount of nitrogen (N) derived from symbiotic N 2 fixation by legumes in grasslands might be affected by anthropogenic N and phosphorus (P) inputs, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Methods: We evaluated symbiotic N 2 fixation in 17 grasslands on four continents that are subjected to the same full-factorial N and...
Article
Nutrients and herbivores are well-known drivers of grassland diversity and stability in local communities. However, whether they interact to impact the stability of aboveground biomass and whether these effects depend on spatial scales remain unknown. It is also unclear whether nutrients and herbivores impact stability via different facets of plant...
Article
Plants are subject to tradeoffs among growth strategies such that adaptations for optimal growth in one condition can preclude optimal growth in another. Thus, we predicted that a plant species that responds positively to one global change treatment would be less likely than average to respond positively to another treatment, particularly for pairs...
Article
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Fertilisation experiments have demonstrated that nutrient availability is a key determinant of biomass production and carbon sequestration in grasslands. However, the influence of nutrients in explaining spatial variation in grassland biomass production has rarely been assessed. Using a global dataset comprising 72 sites on six continents, we inves...
Article
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Abstract Biotic and abiotic factors interact with dominant plants—the locally most frequent or with the largest coverage—and nondominant plants differently, partially because dominant plants modify the environment where nondominant plants grow. For instance, if dominant plants compete strongly, they will deplete most resources, forcing nondominant...
Article
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Plant communities worldwide show varied responses to nutrient enrichment—including shifts in species identity, decreased diversity, and changes in functional trait composition—but the factors determining community recovery after the cessation of nutrient addition remain uncertain. We manipulated nutrient levels in a tundra community for 6 years of...
Article
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The effects of altered nutrient supplies and herbivore density on species diversity vary with spatial scale, because coexistence mechanisms are scale dependent. This scale dependence may alter the shape of the species–area relationship (SAR), which can be described by changes in species richness (S) as a power function of the sample area (A): S = c...
Article
Plant damage by invertebrate herbivores and pathogens influences the dynamics of grassland ecosystems, but anthropogenic changes in nitrogen and phosphorus availability can modify these relationships. Using a globally‐distributed experiment, we describe leaf damage on 153 plant taxa from twenty‐seven grasslands worldwide, under ambient conditions a...
Article
Soil seed banks represent reservoirs of diversity in the soil that may increase resilience of communities to global changes. Two global change factors that can dramatically alter the composition and diversity of aboveground communities are nutrient enrichment and increased rainfall. In a full‐factorial nutrient and rainfall addition experiment in a...
Article
Spatial rarity is often used to predict extinction risk, but rarity can also occur temporally. Perhaps more relevant in the context of global change is whether a species is core to a community (persistent) or transient (intermittently present), with transient species often susceptible to human activities that reduce niche space. Using 5‐12 years of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Nutrients and herbivores have independent effects on the temporal stability of aboveground biomass in grasslands; however, their joint effects may not be additive and may also depend on spatial scales. In an experiment adding nutrients and excluding herbivores in 34 globally distributed grasslands, we found that nutrients and herbivores mainly had...
Preprint
Full-text available
Interannual variability in grassland primary production is strongly driven by precipitation, nutrient availability and herbivory, but there is no general consensus on the mechanisms linking these variables. If grassland biomass is limited by the single most limiting resource at a given time, then we expect that nutrient addition will not affect bio...
Article
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Droughts can strongly affect grassland productivity and biodiversity, but responses differ widely. Nutrient availability may be a critical factor explaining this variation, but is often ignored in analyses of drought responses. Here, we used a standardized nutrient addition experiment covering 10 European grasslands to test if full‐factorial NPK‐ad...
Article
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A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-20997-9.
Article
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A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-20985-z.
Article
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Human activities are transforming grassland biomass via changing climate, elemental nutrients, and herbivory. Theory predicts that food-limited herbivores will consume any additional biomass stimulated by nutrient inputs (‘consumer-controlled’). Alternatively, nutrient supply is predicted to increase biomass where herbivores alter community composi...
Article
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Eutrophication is a widespread environmental change that usually reduces the stabilizing effect of plant diversity on productivity in local communities. Whether this effect is scale dependent remains to be elucidated. Here, we determine the relationship between plant diversity and temporal stability of productivity for 243 plant communities from 42...
Article
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Variation in intraspecific traits is one important mechanism that can allow plant species to respond to global changes. Understanding plant trait responses to environmental changes such as grazing patterns, nutrient enrichment and climate warming is, thus, essential for predicting the composition of future plant communities. We measured traits of e...
Article
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Many global changes take the form of resource enhancements that have potential to transform multiple aspects of ecosystems from slower to faster cycling, including a suite of both above‐ and belowground variables. We developed a novel analytic approach to measure integrated ecosystem responses to resource‐enhancing global changes, and how such whol...
Article
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Soil nitrogen (N) availability is critical for grassland functioning. However, human activities have increased the supply of biologically‐limiting nutrients, and changed the density and identity of mammalian herbivores. These anthropogenic changes may alter net soil N mineralization (soil net Nmin), i.e., the net balance between N mineralization an...
Article
Microbial processing of aggregate‐unprotected organic matter inputs is key for soil fertility, long‐term ecosystem carbon and nutrient sequestration and sustainable agriculture. We investigated the effects of adding multiple nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium plus nine essential macro‐ and micro‐nutrients) on decomposition and biochemica...
Article
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The majority of variation in six traits critical to the growth, survival and reproduction of plant species is thought to be organised along just two dimensions, corresponding to strategies of plant size and resource acquisition. However, it is unknown whether global plant trait relationships extend to climatic extremes, and if these interspecific r...
Article
Spatial heterogeneity in composition and function enables ecosystems to supply diverse services. For soil microbes and the ecosystem functions they catalyze, whether such heterogeneity can be maintained in the face of altered resource inputs is uncertain. In a 50-ha northern California grassland with a mosaic of plant communities generated by diffe...
Article
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Soil nitrogen mineralisation (Nmin), the conversion of organic into inorganic N, is important for productivity and nutrient cycling. The balance between mineralisation and immobilisation (net Nmin) varies with soil properties and climate. However, because most global-scale assessments of net Nmin are laboratory-based, its regulation under field-con...
Article
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Global change drivers (GCDs) are expected to alter community structure and consequently, the services that ecosystems provide. Yet, few experimental investigations have examined effects of GCDs on plant community structure across multiple ecosystem types, and those that do exist present conflicting patterns. In an unprecedented global synthesis of...
Article
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Aim Plant functional groups are widely used in community ecology and earth system modelling to describe trait variation within and across plant communities. However, this approach rests on the assumption that functional groups explain a large proportion of trait variation among species. We test whether four commonly used plant functional groups rep...
Article
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Motivation: The Tundra Trait Team (TTT) database includes field‐based measurements of key traits related to plant form and function at multiple sites across the tundra biome. This dataset can be used to address theoretical questions about plant strategy and trade‐offs, trait–environment relationships and environmental filtering, and trait variation...
Article
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The tundra is warming more rapidly than any other biome on Earth, and the potential ramifications are far-reaching because of global feedback effects between vegetation and climate. A better understanding of how environmental factors shape plant structure and function is crucial for predicting the consequences of environmental change for ecosystem...
Article
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Biodiversity is declining in many local communities while also becoming increasingly homogenized across space. Experiments show that local plant species loss reduces ecosystem functioning and services, but the role of spatial homogenization of community composition and the potential interaction between diversity at different scales in maintaining e...
Article
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The original version of this Article contained errors in Figure 2. The dark green symbols on the scatter plot were light green, and vice versa. These errors have now been corrected in the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
Article
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Temporal stability of ecosystem functioning increases the predictability and reliability of ecosystem services, and understanding the drivers of stability across spatial scales is important for land management and policy decisions. We used species-level abundance data from 62 plant communities across five continents to assess mechanisms of temporal...
Article
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Climate warming is altering the diversity of plant communities but it remains unknown which species will be lost or gained under warming, especially considering interactions with other factors such as herbivory and nutrient availability. Here, we experimentally test effects of warming, mammalian herbivory and fertilization on tundra species richnes...
Article
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Microbial traits related to ecological responses and functions could provide a common currency facilitating synthesis and prediction; however, such traits are difficult to measure directly for all taxa in environmental samples. Past efforts to estimate trait values based on phylogenetic relationships have not always distinguished between traits wit...
Article
1. Few experimental studies have tested how abundance and diversity of grassland bryophytes respond to global environmental changes such as climate shifts and eutrophication. Because bryophytes in grasslands are low-statured, and because plant height is a key functional trait governing plant responses to resource gradients, their responses to these...
Article
Understanding the consequences of extreme climatic events is a growing challenge in ecology. Climatic extremes may differentially affect varying elements of biodiversity, and may not always produce ecological effects exceeding those of "normal" climatic variation in space and time. We asked how the extreme drought years of 2013- 2014 affected the c...
Article
Herbivory and nutrient limitation can increase the resistance of temperature-limited systems to invasions under climate warming. We imported seeds of lowland species to tundra under factorial treatments of warming, fertilization, herbivore exclusion and biomass removal. We show that warming alone had little impact on lowland species, while exclusio...
Article
Understanding the consequences of extreme climatic events is a growing challenge in ecology. Climatic extremes may differentially affect varying elements of biodiversity, and may not always produce ecological effects exceeding those of “normal” climatic variation in space and time. We asked how the extreme drought years of 2013–2014 affected the co...
Article
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Microsite and propagule limitation are predicted to jointly influence plant community assembly and diversity, with shifts in their relative contributions under different ecological conditions. Mammalian herbivory can also exhibit strong impact on community assembly and diversity. However, to date few studies have considered how herbivory might inte...
Article
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Ecological theory and evidence suggest that plant community biomass and composition may often be jointly controlled by climatic water availability and soil nutrient supply. To the extent that such colimitation operates, alterations in water availability caused by climatic change may have relatively little effect on plant communities on nutrient-poo...
Article
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The environmental and biotic context within which plants grow have a great potential to modify responses to climatic changes, yet few studies have addressed both the direct effects of climate and the modulating roles played by variation in the biotic (e.g. competitors) and abiotic (e.g. soils) environment. In a grassland with highly heterogeneous s...
Article
Background and aims: Much evidence suggests that plant communities on infertile soils are relatively insensitive to increased water deficit caused by increasing temperature and/or decreasing precipitation. However, a multi-decadal study of community change in the western USA does not support this conclusion. This paper tests explanations related t...
Article
It is generally predicted that grazers enhance soil microbial activity and nutrient availability and promote soil bacteria in fertile ecosystems, but retard microbial activity and nutrient availability and promote soil fungi in infertile ecosystems. We tested these predictions in tundra by comparing grazing effects between fertile and infertile hab...
Article
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Tundra soils, which usually contain low concentrations of soil nutrients and have a low pH, store a large proportion of the global soil carbon (C) pool. The importance of soil nitrogen (N) availability for microbial activity in the tundra has received a great deal of attention; however, although soil pH is known to exert a considerable impact on mi...
Article
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Bryophyte communities of semi-arid grassland ecosystems are little studied, and it is poorly known how they vary in relation to soil quality, disturbance and the invasion status of vascular plants. By analogy with short-statured, competitively inferior native vascular plants, we hypothesized that bryophytes would show high beta diversity and increa...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Does environmental change affect ecosystem function consistently across landscapes, or do impacts vary with site properties? We addressed this question for functions mediated by soil microbes at a site where three very different soil types (coarse serpentine, serpentine clay and non-serpentine loam) occur in close prox...
Article
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1. Plant communities are structured by complex interactions between multiple factors, which veil our understanding of the effects of environmental changes on communities and ecosystems. Besides the relative role of biotic and abiotic factors as community-structuring processes, addressing how they jointly affect the ecological resilience and resista...
Article
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To predict the net impact of climate change on invasions, it is critical to understand how its effects interact with environmental and biotic context. In a factorial field experiment, we examined how increased late-season rainfall influences the growth and reproductive success of two widespread invasive species (Centaurea solstitialis and Aegilops...
Article
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Warm‐adapted low elevation plants are expected to exhibit considerable range shifts to higher altitudes and latitudes as a result of climate warming and increased nutrient loads. However, empirical studies show that the magnitude and direction of plant responses are highly species‐ and site‐specific, suggesting that several additional drivers inter...
Conference Paper
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Strong changes in northern tundra in response to climate changes are expected and in particular an increasing shrubiness. However, global changes contain not only warming or shifts in snow-cover but also changes in land-use, e.g. for arctic low productive ecosystems changes in grazing pressure. Grazing could also represent an important driver of fu...
Article
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The interactive effects of consumers and nutrients on terrestrial plant communities, and the role of plant functional traits in mediating these responses, are poorly known. We carried out a six-year full-factorial field experiment using mammalian herbivore exclusion and fertilization in two habitat types (fertile and infertile alpine tundra heaths)...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Certain easily measurable traits are useful indicators of plant stress tolerance and resource acquisition strategies; these include specific leaf area, leaf dry mass content, leaf C:N ratio, height, and wood density. Community-weighted mean (CWM) values of such traits can help indicate and predict community responses t...
Article
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Soil nitrogen (N) availability and pH constitute major abiotic controls over microbial community composition and activity in tundra ecosystems. On the other hand, mammalian grazers form an important biotic factor influencing resource coupling between plants and soil microorganisms. To investigate individual effects and interactions among soil nutri...
Article
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Herbivory, competition and soil fertility interactively shape plant communities and exhibit an important role in modifying conditions for host-dependent fungal symbionts. However, field studies on the combined impacts of natural herbivory, competition and soil fertility on root fungal symbionts are rare. We asked how mammalian herbivory, fertilizat...
Article
1. Theory suggests that herbivory, soil fertility and neighbourhood interactions interactively determine rates of species extinction and immigration in plant communities. Initial community properties and environmental conditions may also exert a profound influence on community responses to external alterations, yet only a few attempts have been mad...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Theoretical and empirical evidence suggest that herbivory, soil fertility and neighborhood interactions interactively determine rates of species extinctions and immigrations in plant communities. Initial community properties may also exert a profound influence on community responses to external alterations, yet only a fe...
Article
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Plant communities, soil organic matter and microbial communities are predicted to be interlinked and to exhibit concordant patterns along major environmental gradients. We investigated the relationships between plant functional type composition, soil organic matter quality and decomposer community composition, and how these are related to major env...
Article
How do reduced levels of summer grazing by reindeer affect the abundance, composition and species richness of mountain plant communities? Arctic-alpine mountain vegetation 700–850 m a.s.l., Saana Conservation Area, northwestern Finnish Lapland. Permanent plots were established in 1990 and resampled in 1999 or 2001. The number of reindeer had consid...
Article
Summary • I performed a factorial transplant experiment to test the roles of plant–plant interactions, herbivory by mammal grazers and resource availability for plant performance in two contrasting habitat types in a mountain tundra environment. • Three perennial dicot herbs, Solidago virgaurea, Erigeron uniflorus and Saussurea alpina, were used as...
Article
It is becoming widely accepted that plant community structure is determined not only by local scale factors, but that regional factors may play considerable role. The research studying the associated processes in different environments with different species assemblages is still limited. We conducted a two-year seed sowing experiment to test whethe...
Chapter
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High-mountain environments are regarded as susceptible to environmental change such as the global warming of climate (Grabherr et al. 1995; Körner 1999). It has been predicted that, in a warmer climate, lowland plants would migrate upwards and plant communities typically found in areas with late or moderate snow cover would be invaded by plant spec...

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Cited By
    • Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)-Centre for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications (CREAF)
    • German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig
    • University of Innsbruck