Antony Bayer

Antony Bayer
Cardiff University | CU · School of Medicine

MB

About

268
Publications
77,756
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17,656
Citations
Citations since 2017
45 Research Items
10131 Citations
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Additional affiliations
January 1984 - present
Cardiff University
Position
  • Professor of Geriatric Medicine

Publications

Publications (268)
Article
Background: The merit of using baseline cognitive assessments in mid-life to help interpret cross-sectional cognitive tests scores in later life is uncertain. Objective: Evaluate how accuracy for diagnosing dementia is enhanced by comparing cross-sectional results to a midlife measure. Methods: Cohort study of 2,512 men with repeated measures...
Article
Reaction time (RT) in Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI) is particularly slowed when assessed using tests of executive function, however, these tests do not reveal the integrity of specific functional subcomponents of information processing related to RT that are affected by VCI, thus limiting understanding of behavioural change, symptoms and dise...
Article
Introduction A timely diagnosis of dementia is crucial for initiating and maintaining support for people living with dementia. The coronavirus disease (COVID) pandemic temporarily halted Memory Clinics, where this is organised, and rate of dementia diagnosis has fallen. Despite increasing use of alternatives to face-to-face (F2F) consultations in o...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The study of reaction time (RT) and its intraindividual variability (IIV) in aging, cognitive impairment, and dementia typically fails to investigate the processing stages that contribute to an overall response. Applying "mental chronometry" techniques makes it possible to separately assess the role of processing components during envi...
Article
Objective/Aims Does Subjective Cognitive Decline (SCD) indicate susceptibility to Functional Cognitive Disorder (FCD) more often than it indicates neurodegeneration? Prior research has focused on clinical populations where FCD is increasingly identified, but associations could differ at the community level. A clinical diagnosis of FCD requires cogn...
Article
Full-text available
Background GPs often report using clinical judgement to diagnose dementia. Aim Investigate the accuracy of GPs’ clinical judgement for the diagnosis of dementia. Design & setting Diagnostic test accuracy study, recruiting from 21 practices around Bristol. Method The clinical judgement of the treating GP (index test) was based on the information...
Article
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Aims Sleep disorders are highly prevalent with growing evidence that sleep problems may predict cognitive decline and dementia. A previous analysis of the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS), a cohort of middle-aged men, found that daytime sleepiness predicted vascular dementia and cognitive impairment. We have re-examined this hypothesis with addi...
Article
Full-text available
Background Care homes are an increasingly important sector of care. Care home residents are particularly vulnerable to infections and are often prescribed antibiotics, driving antibiotic resistance. Probiotics may be a cheap and safe way to reduce antibiotic use. Efficacy and possible mechanisms of action are yet to be rigorously evaluated in this...
Article
We used the MILO (Multi-Item Localization) task to characterise the performance of a group of older adults diagnosed with mild to moderate vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). The MILO task is designed to explore the temporal context of visual search and in addition to measuring overall completion time, provides a profile of serial reaction time (S...
Article
To improve the characterisation and the understanding of VCI by examining reaction time (RT), the intra individual variability of RT (IIV), errors, practice, the effects of processing load (e.g. the influence of distracting information) and the effects of hesitancy in cognitively healthy (CH) ageing compared to patients with Subcortical Ischaemic V...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The accuracy of General Practitioners’ (GPs’) clinical judgement for dementia is uncertain. Aim Investigate the accuracy of GPs’ clinical judgement for the diagnosis of dementia. Design and Setting Diagnostic test accuracy study, recruiting from 21 practices around Bristol. Method The clinical judgement of the treating GP (index test)...
Preprint
Full-text available
We used the MILO (Multi-Item Localization) task to characterise the performance of a group of older adults diagnosed with mild to moderate vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). The MILO task is designed to explore the temporal context of visual search and in addition to measuring overall completion time, provides a profile of serial reaction time (S...
Article
Importance Probiotics are frequently used by residents in care homes (residential homes or nursing homes that provide residents with 24-hour support for personal care or nursing care), although the evidence on whether probiotics prevent infections and reduce antibiotic use in these settings is limited. Objective To determine whether a daily oral p...
Article
Full-text available
Behaviors which are associated with the preservation of health include nonsmoking, regular exercise, a low body weight, a healthy diet, and a low alcohol intake. Together, as a healthy lifestyle, these have been shown to be associated with marked protection against a wide range of diseases: diabetes, vascular disease, cancer, and dementia. On the o...
Article
The way that a diagnosis of dementia is delivered to patients, what information is provided and what practical advice and support is arranged has a lasting impact and deserves at least as much attention as the process of assessment and investigation. Individuals and their families require an honest yet sensitive discussion about the nature and caus...
Article
Full-text available
Slowed behavioral reaction time is associated with pathological brain changes, including white matter lesions, the common clinical characteristic of subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (SIVCI). In the present study, reaction time (RT) employing Trails B of the Trail Making Test, with responses capped at 300 s, was investigated in SIV...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, reaction time (RT), intraindividual variability (IIV), and errors, and the effects of practice and processing load upon such function, were compared in patients with subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (SIVCI) [n = 27] and cognitively healthy older adults (CH) [n = 26]. Compared to CH aging, SIVCI was characterized by...
Article
Full-text available
Risk for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD), the most prevalent dementia, is partially driven by genetics. To identify LOAD risk loci, we performed a large genome-wide association meta-analysis of clinically diagnosed LOAD (94,437 individuals). We confirm 20 previous LOAD risk loci and identify five new genome-wide loci (IQCK, ACE, ADAM10, ADAMT...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Care home residents are at increased risk of infections and antibiotic prescription. Reduced antibiotic use from fewer infections would improve quality of life. The P robiotics to R educe I nfections i N C ar E home re S ident S (PRINCESS) trial aims to determine the efficacy and investigate mechanisms of daily probiotics on antibiotic...
Article
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We studied resting-state oscillatory connectivity using magnetoencephalography in healthy young humans (N = 183) genotyped for APOE-ɛ4, the greatest genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Connectivity across frequencies, but most prevalent in alpha/beta, was increased in APOE-ɛ4 in a set of mostly right-hemisphere connections, including lateral...
Article
Full-text available
Risk for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD), the most prevalent dementia, is partially driven by genetics. To identify LOAD risk loci, we performed a large genome-wide association meta-analysis of clinically diagnosed LOAD (94,437 individuals). We confirm 20 previous LOAD risk loci and identify five new genome-wide loci (IQCK, ACE, ADAM10, ADAMT...
Article
Full-text available
Background Cognitive rehabilitation (CR) is an individualised, person-centred intervention for people with mild to moderate dementia that addresses the impact of cognitive impairment on everyday functioning. Objectives To determine whether or not CR is a clinically effective and cost-effective intervention for people with mild to moderate Alzheime...
Article
Full-text available
OBJECTIVE: Genome‐wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 30 susceptibility loci associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using AD GWAS data from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP), Polygenic Risk Score (PRS) was successfully applied to predict life time risk of AD development. A recently introduced Polygenic Haz...
Article
Full-text available
Risk for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD), the most prevalent dementia, is partially driven by genetics. To identify LOAD risk loci, we performed a large genome-wide association meta-analysis of clinically diagnosed LOAD (94,437 individuals). We confirm 20 previous LOAD risk loci and identify five new genome-wide loci (IQCK, ACE, ADAM10, ADAMT...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To determine whether individual goal‐oriented cognitive rehabilitation (CR) improves everyday functioning for people with mild‐to‐moderate dementia. Design and methods Parallel group multi‐centre single‐blind randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing CR added to usual treatment (CR) with usual treatment alone (TAU) for people with an...
Article
Risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), the most prevalent dementia, is partially driven by genetics. To identify LOAD risk loci, we performed a large genome-wide association meta-analysis of clinically diagnosed LOAD (94,437 individuals). We confirm 20 previous LOAD risk loci and identify five new genome-wide loci (IQCK, ACE, ADAM10, ADAMT...
Article
Full-text available
Disorders of the brain can exhibit considerable epidemiological comorbidity and often share symptoms, provoking debate about their etiologic overlap. We quantified the genetic sharing of 25 brain disorders from genome-wide association studies of 265,218 patients and 784,643 control participants and assessed their relationship to 17 phenotypes from...
Article
Full-text available
Brainstorming diseases Consistent classification of neuropsychiatric diseases is problematic because it can lead to misunderstanding of etiology. The Brainstorm Consortium examined multiple genome-wide association studies drawn from more than 200,000 patients for 25 brain-associated disorders and 17 phenotypes. Broadly, it appears that psychiatric...
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduction Late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD, onset age > 60 years) is the most prevalent dementia in the elderly ¹ , and risk is partially driven by genetics ² . Many of the loci responsible for this genetic risk were identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) 3–8 . To identify additional LOAD risk loci, the we performed the largest...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Progress in understanding and management of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) has been hampered by lack of consensus on diagnosis, reflecting the use of multiple different assessment protocols. A large multinational group of clinicians and researchers participated in a two-phase Vascular Impairment of Cognition Classification Conse...
Article
Full-text available
Recognition of dementia relies on a good clinical history, supported by formal cognitive testing, but identifying the subtype of dementia may be wrong in 20% or more of cases. Accuracy may be improved by use of imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. Structural neuroimaging is recommended for most patients, not just to identify potentiall...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To examine the long-term predictive value of 28 biomarkers for subsequent non-ischaemic congestive heart failure (CHF) and separately for other cardiovascular outcomes (myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke). Methods The Caerphilly Prospective Study recruited 2171 men aged 55–69 years from the general population in 1989–1993; men were sc...
Article
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Context: UK Biobank is a prospective study of half a million subjects, almost all aged 40–69 years, identified in 22 centres across the UK during 2006–2010. Objective: A healthy lifestyle has been described as ‘better than any pill, and no side effects [5]. We therefore examined the relationships between healthy behaviours: low alcohol intake, non-...
Article
Full-text available
Context UK Biobank is a prospective study of half a million subjects, almost all aged 40–69 years, identified in 22 centres across the UK during 2006–2010. Objective A healthy lifestyle has been described as ‘better than any pill, and no side effects [5]. We therefore examined the relationships between healthy behaviours: low alcohol intake, non-s...
Article
Full-text available
Background Dementia and diabetes mellitus are common long-term conditions that coexist in a large number of older people. People living with dementia and diabetes may be at increased risk of complications such as hypoglycaemic episodes because they are less able to manage their diabetes. Objectives To identify the key features or mechanisms of pro...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the relationships between two measures of information processing speed associated with executive function (Trail Making Test and a computer-based visual search test), the perceived difficulty of the tasks, and perceived memory function (measured by the Memory Functioning Questionnaire) in older adults (aged 50+ y) with normal ge...
Article
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Background Dementia and diabetes mellitus are common long-term conditions and co-exist in a large number of older people. People living with dementia (PLWD) may be less able to manage their diabetes, putting them at increased risk of complications such as hypoglycaemia. The aim of this review was to identify key mechanisms within different interven...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive rehabilitation (CR) is an individualised intervention for people with early-stage dementia. CR aims to improve management of everyday activities and reduce functional disability through identifying personal goals, applying a problem-solving approach and implementing evidence-based rehabilitative strategies. We tested this approach in the...
Article
Full-text available
As society grapples with an aging population and increasing prevalence of disability, “reablement” as a means of maximizing functional ability in older people is emerging as a potential strategy to help promote independence. Reablement offers an approach to mitigate the impact of dementia on function and independence. This article presents a compre...
Article
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Objective Neuroimaging studies in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) yield conflicting results due to selective investigation. We conducted a comprehensive magnetoencephalography study of connectivity changes in AD and healthy ageing in the resting-state. Methods We performed a whole-brain, source-space assessment of oscillatory neural signalling in multipl...
Article
The visual processing of complex motion is impaired in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, it is unclear whether these impairments are biased towards the motion stream or part of a general disruption of global visual processing, given some reports of impaired static form processing in AD. Here, for the first time, we directly compared the relative p...
Article
Full-text available
Background People with cognitive problems, and their families, report distress and uncertainty whilst undergoing evaluation for dementia and perceive that traditional diagnostic evaluation in secondary care is insufficiently patient centred. The James Lind Alliance has prioritised research to investigate the role of primary care in supporting a mor...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Worldwide, the prevalences of diabetes and dementia are both increasing, particularly in older people. Rates of diabetes in people with dementia are between 13 and 20 %. Diabetes management and diabetic self-care may be adversely affected by the presence of dementia. There is a need to know what interventions work best in the managemen...
Article
Full-text available
The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is an inexpensive and effective measure for early detection of cognitive impairment in the elderly, which is important for timely diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment. Currently, medical experts assess the drawings based on their judgement and a number of available scoring systems. An automatic system for a...
Article
Full-text available
Extensive research on the concept of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as a potential prodromal stage of dementia has highlighted the likelihood that abnormalities in information processing occur at even earlier stages in the disease process with research increasingly focused on the relatively new concept of subjective cognitive impairment (SCI). An...
Article
To examine a panel of 28 biomarkers for prediction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and non-CVD mortality in a population-based cohort of men. Starting in 1979, middle-aged men in Caerphilly underwent detailed medical examination. Subsequently 2171 men were re-examined during 1989-1993, and fasting blood samples obtained from 1911 men (88%). Fibrino...
Article
Full-text available
Diagnosis of dementia often requires specialist referral and detailed, time-consuming assessments. To investigate the utility of simple clinical items that non-specialist clinicians could use, in addition to routine practice, to diagnose all-cause dementia syndrome. Cross-sectional diagnostic test accuracy study. Participants were identified from t...
Poster
Poster presented at the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference, Washington D.C., USA.
Article
the risk factors for and frequency of antibiotic prescription and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) among care home residents are unknown. to prospectively study frequency and risks for antibiotic prescribing and AAD for care home residents. a 12-month prospective cohort study in care homes across South Wales. antibiotic prescriptions and the d...
Article
BACKGROUND: Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is heritable with 20 genes showing genome-wide association in the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP). To identify the biology underlying the disease, we extended these genetic data in a pathway analysis. METHODS: The ALIGATOR and GSEA algorithms were used in the IGAP data to ide...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Dementia is a syndrome caused by a chronic or progressive disease of the brain, which affects memory, orientation, thinking, calculation, learning ability and language. The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) are well-known cognitive assessment tests. A known obstacle to the wider usage of the CDT assessments is the sc...
Article
Full-text available
p>BACKGROUND: Antibiotic prescribing rates in care homes are higher than in the general population. Antibiotics disrupt the normal gut flora, sometimes causing antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD). Clostridium difficile (Hall and O'Toole 1935) Prévot 1938 is the most commonly identified cause of AAD. Little is known either about the frequency or t...
Article
Both dementia and diabetes mellitus are long-term disabling conditions and each may be a co-morbidity of the other. Type 2 diabetes is associated with a 1.5- to 2-fold higher risk of dementia. Diabetes also may occur for the first time in many individuals with mental ill health, including cognitive impairment and dementia, and this may complicate m...
Conference Paper
Approximately 800,000 people in the UK have Alzheimer’s disease (AD); approximately 5-20% of older people in the UK have mild cognitive impairment (MCI); and approximately one-quarter to one-half of older adults are believed to have subjective cognitive impairment (SCI). By 2050 the number of people living with AD in the UK will rise to 1.7 million...
Article
Full-text available
Insulin-like growth factors are peptide hormones that have an endocrine role in the development, growth and repair of human tissues including the respiratory tract. To date, only one population study exists which found positive cross-sectional associations with IGF-I and higher lung volumes. We hypothesised that higher IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3 and IG...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Alzheimer’s disease is a common debilitating dementia with known heritability, for which 20 late onset susceptibility loci have been identified, but more remain to be discovered. This study sought to identify new susceptibility genes, using an alternative gene-wide analytical approach which tests for patterns of association within genes...
Article
Full-text available
p>BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is a common debilitating dementia with known heritability, for which 20 late onset susceptibility loci have been identified, but more remain to be discovered. This study sought to identify new susceptibility genes, using an alternative gene-wide analytical approach which tests for patterns of association within gen...
Article
Full-text available
Multi-disciplinary research has revealed evidence of significant abnormality in a much wider range and level of information processing than that currently definitive for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This raises the possibility that the contemporary approach to MCI is inappropriately delimited, and the true nature and extent of brain dy...
Article
Background: The increasing incidence of cognitive impairment and dementia in an aging population poses a significant burden on healthcare. Consequently, identifying modifiable physiological factors which may influence the onset of cognitive decline are becoming increasingly important. Previous studies have suggested an association between levels o...
Article
Full-text available
Diabetes, a highly prevalent, chronic disease, is associated with increasing frailty and functional decline in older people, with concomitant personal, social, and public health implications. We describe the rationale and methods of the multi-modal intervention in diabetes in frailty (MID-Frail) study.Methods/design: The MID-Frail study is an open,...
Article
Full-text available
A set of 418 Mini-Mental State Examinations (MMSE) is analysed with the goal of identifying linguistic markers for discriminating between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia. The markers are identified by automatically annotating the sentence writing question of the MMSE with syntactic information. 101 variables are extracted from the annotat...
Article
Full-text available
The Clock Drawing Test is one of the most widely used screening tools for cognitive impairment and dementia. Since its introduction, more than fifteen scoring systems have been developed to assess the clock drawings. However, very little research has been conducted to study the significance of the elements (features) of the clock drawings for the c...
Article
Full-text available
Although there is some evidence that amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) can be characterized by significant deficits in visuospatial function, the cross-sectional design of the majority of these studies renders it impossible to determine whether such deficits occur in aMCI as a result of, or accompany, amnestic dysfunction per se or whether...
Article
Full-text available
Healthy lifestyles based on non-smoking, an acceptable BMI, a high fruit and vegetable intake, regular physical activity, and low/moderate alcohol intake, are associated with reductions in the incidence of certain chronic diseases, but to date there is limited evidence on cognitive function and dementia. In 1979 healthy behaviours were recorded on...