Antonio Virdis

Antonio Virdis
Università di Pisa | UNIPI · Department of Information Engineering

PhD

About

89
Publications
18,914
Reads
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850
Citations
Additional affiliations
February 2018 - present
Università di Pisa
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
January 2015 - January 2018
Università di Pisa
Position
  • PostDoc Position
January 2012 - December 2014
Università di Pisa
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (89)
Preprint
Full-text available
In the shipping digitalisation process, the peak will be reached with the advent of a wholly autonomous and at the same time safe and reliable ship. Full autonomy could be obtained by two linked Artificial-Intelligence systems representing the ship navigator and the ship engineer that possess sensing and analysis skills, situational awareness, plan...
Article
Full-text available
The Internet of Things (IoT) brings internet connectivity to everyday devices. These devices generate a large volume of information that needs to be transmitted to the nodes running the IoT applications, where they are processed and used to make some output decisions. On the one hand, the quality of these decisions is typically affected by the fres...
Preprint
Full-text available
Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) will enable context-aware services for users of mobile 4G/5G networks. MEC application developers need tools to aid the design and the performance evaluation of their apps. During the early stages of deployment, they should be able to evaluate the performance impact of design choices - e.g., what round-trip delay c...
Article
In edge computing environments, microservices are typically deployed in the form of containers. To maintain proximity between edge computing services and mobile users, containers need to be migrated between nodes. When migrating containers, however, it is important to consider that they typically have ongoing communications with client endpoints. M...
Article
Full-text available
The Internet of Things (IoT) brings Internet connectivity to devices and everyday objects. This huge volume of connected devices has to be managed taking into account the severe energy, memory, processing, and communication constraints of IoT devices and networks. In this context, the OMA LightweightM2M (LWM2M) protocol is designed for remote manag...
Article
Full-text available
In the shipping digitalisation process, the peak will be reached with the advent of a wholly autonomous and at the same time safe and reliable ship. Full autonomy could be obtained by two linked Artificial-Intelligence systems representing the ship navigator and the ship engineer that possess sensing and analysis skills, situational awareness, plan...
Article
In critical alert services (e.g., a collision alert in a vehicular network) a message must reach all the recipients in a prespecified area within a maximum time, usually of few milliseconds, with guaranteed reliability. In this paper, we consider a Device-to-device (D2D)-enabled cellular network where User Equipments (UEs) use D2D transmissions to...
Article
Real-time emulation of 5G networks is highly beneficial for several purposes, such as prototyping or performance evaluation of distributed applications meant to run on 5G networks, research demonstration, evaluation of other technologies (e.g., Multi-access Edge Computing) meant to interoperate with 5G access. In this work, we describe how to use S...
Preprint
Full-text available
Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) is expected to act as the enabler for the integration of 5G (and future 6G) communication technologies with cloud-computing-based capabilities at the edge of the network. This will enable low-latency and context-aware applications for users of such mobile networks. In this paper we describe the implementation of a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) is expected to act as the enabler for the integration of 5G (and future 6G) communication technologies with cloud-computing-based capabilities at the edge of the network. This will enable low-latency and context-aware applications for users of such mobile networks. In this paper we describe the implementation of a...
Article
This paper describes the SAPIENT system, a real-time monitoring and control infrastructure for Air Traffic Man-agement. Within the latter, aircrafts constantly measure the state and quality of their datalinks, and report these measurements to a ground entity, tagging them with a time/space reference. The ground entity, then, builds a map of the mon...
Experiment Findings
We verified that Simu5G can run in emulation mode, by connecting real application endpoints to modules in a simulation and having the simulation run in real time. We verified that Simu5G can emulate up to 10 cells and 1000 users on a desktop machine.
Article
Full-text available
Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) promises to deliver localized computing power and storage. Coupled with low-latency 5G radio access, this enables the creation of high added-value services for mobile users, such as in-vehicle infotainment or remote driving. The performance of these services as well as their scalability will however depend on how M...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we introduce Simu5G, a new OMNeT++-based model library to simulate 5G networks. Si-mu5G allows users to simulate the data plane of 5G New Radio deployments, in an end-to-end perspective and including all protocol layers, making it a valuable tool for researchers and practitioners interested in the performance evaluation of 5G networks...
Conference Paper
Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) allows users to run appli-cations on demand near their mobile access points. MEC appli-cations will exploit 5G infrastructure, and they will have to be designed by taking into account the characteristics of 5G mobile networks. This work describes how to use a system-level simula-tor of 5G networks – namely Simu5G,...
Conference Paper
This paper presents Simu5G, a new OMNeT++-based system-level simulator of 5G networks. Simu5G is built starting from the SimuLTE simulation library, which models 4G (i.e., LTE/LTE-A) networks, and is compatible with the latter, thus allowing the simulation of 4G-5G coexistence and transition scenarios. We discuss the modelling of the protocol layer...
Article
Biomedical systems that aim at monitoring parameters over a long period of time will require non-invasive wearable devices. A wide range of applications, including continuous workers monitoring or daily monitoring of patients, is expected to exploit wearable devices, each one characterized by different requirements. Such devices will adopt a design...
Conference Paper
Evaluating edge deployments from a user perspective requires modeling, in a unified framework, the communication part, i.e., the cellular access network, and the computation part, i.e., the Mobile-edge server. This paper presents a framework that enables this, by joining the SimuLTE 4G network simulator and the Intel CoFluent edge-computing simulat...
Article
Multi-access edge computing (MEC) brings data and computational resources near mobile users, with the ultimate goal of reducing latency, improving resource utilization, and leveraging context and radio awareness. Relocation policies for applications in the MEC environment are necessary to guarantee its effectiveness and performance, and can use a m...
Article
Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) brings data and computational resources near mobile users, with the ultimate goal ofreducing latency, improving resource utilization and leveraging context- and radio-awareness. Relocation policies for applicationsin the MEC environment are necessary to guarantee its effectiveness and performance, and can use a mul...
Chapter
In the next years, cellular networks are expected to foster the development of inter-vehicle communication supporting advanced driver-assistance systems and self-driving cars. The evaluation of such systems can be performed via OMNeT++, which supports two independent frameworks for simulating Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) communications and Long Term...
Chapter
This chapter describes SimuLTE, a framework within the OMNeT++ ecosystem for simulating Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks. The main focus of SimuLTE lies on developing and testing of communication protocols and resource-allocation algorithms, with an emphasis on the impact at the system level. The chapter starts with a detailed description of the...
Preprint
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) play a major role in the expansion of the Internet of Things (IoT) market as they allow the deployment of low cost and low power networks possibly in large areas. The introduction of the 6LoWPAN standard allowed WSN to move into the IPv6 era, with a seamless integration of sensors into external networks. The recent a...
Book
This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the OMNeT++ simulation environment and an overview of its ecosystem of ever-growing frameworks, which provide simulation models for diverse communication systems, protocols, and standards. The book covers the most recent advances of the three key points in the OMNeT++ environment: (1) The latest f...
Article
Full-text available
Technology advancements in wireless communication and embedded computing are fostering their evolution from standalone elements to smart objects seamlessly integrated in the broader context of the Internet of Things. In this context, wearable sensors represent the building block for new cyber-physical social systems, which aim at improving the well...
Article
These are the proceedings of the 5th International OMNeT++ Community Summit held at the University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy from September 05 to 07, 2018.
Article
In Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A), network-controlled device-to-device (D2D) communications allow User Equipments (UEs) to communicate directly, without involving the Evolved Node-B in data relaying, while the latter still retains control of resource allocation. The above paradigm allows reduced latencies for the UEs and increased resource ef...
Conference Paper
Over the next few years, future aeronautical communications are expected to move from the OSI protocol stack to the TCP/IP one. Multiple data-link channels (e.g., satellite, terrestrial) will be available to each aircraft to communicate with ground, realizing the so-called multilink. In order to ensure a seamless handover between different data-lin...
Conference Paper
Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) is a novel paradigm to enrich current 4G and future 5G cellular networks by placing cloud-computing-based capabilities at the edge of the network. This will allow operators and service providers to endow the cellular network with enriched services. In this paper we describe the modeling and development of a MEC ext...
Article
Full-text available
5G networks will have to offer extremely high volumes of content, compared to today’s. Moreover, they will have to support heterogeneous traffics, including Machine-to-machine, generated by a massive volume of Internet-of-Things devices. Traffic demands will be variable in time and space. In this work, we argue that all this can be achieved in a co...
Conference Paper
Cellular network nodes should be dynamically switched on/off based on the load requirements of the network, to save power and minimize inter-cell interference. This should be done keeping into account global interference effects, which requires a centralized approach. In this paper, we present an architecture, realized within the Flex5GWare EU proj...
Article
Open-access full text here: http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/18/5/1527 Abstract: Platooning is a cooperative driving application where autonomous/semi-autonomous vehicles move on the same lane in a train-like manner, keeping a small constant inter-vehicle distance, in order to reduce fuel consumption and gas emissions and to achieve safe and efficien...
Chapter
Point-to-multipoint device-to-device (P2MP D2D) communications have been standardized in LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) for proximity-based services, such as advertisement and public safety. They can be combined in a multi-hop fashion to achieve geofenced broadcasts in a fast and reliable way, over areas possibly covered by several cells [18]. This allows LT...
Article
Fog computing is envisaged as the evolution of the current cen-tralized cloud to support the forthcoming Internet of Things (IoT) revolution. While IoT devices will still communicate with applications running in the cloud, localized fog clusters, with IoT devices communicating with application logic running on a proximate fog node, will also appear...
Article
Coordinated Scheduling (CS) is used to mitigate inter-cell interference in present (4G) and future (5G) cellular networks. We show that coordination of a cluster of nodes can be formulated as an optimization problem, i.e., placing the Resource Blocks (RB) in each node’s subframe with the least possible over-lapping with neighboring nodes. We provid...
Article
One-to-one device-to-device (D2D) communications are expected to play a major role in future releases of LTE-A, as well as in future 5G networks. Despite the abundance of works on resource allocation for D2D communications, few works, if any, discuss how D2D should be realized within the LTE-A protocol stack. While it is generally understood that D...
Article
Full-text available
Several applications, from Internet of Things for smart cities to those for vehicular networks, need fast and reliable proximity-based broadcast communications, i.e. the ability to reach all peers in a geographical neighborhood around the originator of a message, as well as ubiquitous connectivity. In this paper, we point out the inherent limitatio...
Patent
A method for managing data packets (IP PDUtx, PDCP PDUtx, RLC PDUtx, MAC PDUtx) transmitted by a first user equipment (105tx) to be received by a second user equipment (105rx) is proposed. The first user equipment (105tx) is arranged for communicating with the second user equipment (105rx) in a direct mode by directly connecting to the second user...
Patent
A method for managing data packets (MAC PDUtx, RLC PDUtx) transmitted by a first user equipment (105tx) to be received by a second user equipment (105rx) through a radio network is proposed. The method comprising having the radio network comprising a radio transceiver station (110) configured for receiving data packets (MAC PDUtx; RLC PDUtx) transm...
Conference Paper
The SESAR (Single European Sky ATM Research) Exploratory Research project called SAPIENT (Satellite and terrestrial architectures improving performance, security and safety in ATM) is a program of the SESAR Joint Undertaking under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement 699328 [1][2]. It aims at def...
Conference Paper
Future aeronautical communications will be based on the TCP/IP protocol stack, and will occur through a number of different data-link channels (e.g., satellite, terrestrial), with multipath capabilities – the so-called multilink. Seamless vertical handover between different data-links is a requirement and it will improve the safety and reliability...
Article
These are the Proceedings of the 4th OMNeT++ Community Summit, which was held at the University of Bremen - Germany - on September 7-8, 2017.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
[The paper is available at the following link: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1709.02208.pdf] The evolution of cellular technologies toward 5G progressively enables efficient and ubiquitous communications in an increasing number of fields. Among these, vehicular networks are being considered as one of the most promising and challenging applications, requir...
Article
Almost Blank Subframes (ABSs) have been defined in LTE as a means to coordinate transmissions in heterogeneous networks (HetNets), composed of macro and micro eNodeBs: the macro issues ABS periods, and refrains from transmitting during ABSs, thus creating interference-free subframes for the micros. Micros report their capacity demands to the macro...
Conference Paper
Coordinated Scheduling (CS) is one of the main techniques to control inter-cell interference in present (4G) and future (5G) cellular networks. We show that coordination of a cluster of nodes can be formulated as an optimization problem, i.e., placing the Resource Blocks in each node’s subframe with the least possible overlapping with neighboring n...
Conference Paper
This paper describes the software architecture and the implementation of a fully operational testbed that demonstrates the benefits of flexible, dynamic resource allocation with virtualized LTE-A nodes. The testbed embodies and specializes the general software architecture devised within the Flex5Gware EU project, and focuses on two intelligent pro...
Conference Paper
The need for massive content delivery is a consolidated trend in mobile communications, and will even increase for next years. Moreover, while 4G maturity and evolution is driven by video contents, next generation (5G) networks will be dominated by heterogeneous data and additional massive diffusion of Internet of Things (IoT). The current network...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a framework to activate and deactivate micro nodes in a heterogeneous multi-cell LTE network, based on load and energy efficiency consideration. The framework exploits historical data (i.e., per-macro-cell load curves) to select a set of candidate switch-on/switch-off instants of micro cells, assuming a limited number of state c...
Conference Paper
Using Coordinated Scheduling (CS), eNodeBs in a cellular network dynamically agree on which Resource Blocks (not) to use, so as to reduce the interference, especially for celledge users. This paper describes a software framework that allows dynamic CS to occur among a relatively large number of nodes, as part of a more general framework of network...
Article
Full-text available
[The full paper is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11276-016-1193-3 and http://info.iet.unipi.it/~stea/] Network-controlled device-to-device (D2D) communication allows cellular users to communicate directly, i.e., without passing through the eNodeB, while the latter retains control over resource allocation. This allows the same time-freque...
Patent
A method of broadcasting a message (m) among user equipment (UE0-8) in a broadcast area (115; 515) covered by a wireless communication network (100) is proposed. The wireless communication network comprises at least one radio base station (105; 420, 425; 505A-E) which is adapted to manage communications of user equipment in one or more respective s...
Article
Future 5G cellular networks are expected to play a major role in supporting the future Internet of Things (IoT), due to their ubiquitous coverage, plug-and-play configuration and embedded security. Besides connectivity, however, IoT will need computation and storage in proximity of sensors and actuators to support time-critical and opportunistic ap...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
SimuLTE is a tool that enables system-level simulations of LTE/LTE-Advanced networks within OMNeT++. It is designed such that it can be plugged within network elements as an additional Network Interface Card (NIC) to those already provided by the INET framework (e.g. Wi-Fi). Recently, device-to-device (D2D) technology has been widely studied by the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Simulation is widely adopted in the study of modern computer networks. In this context, OMNeT++ provides a set of very effective tools that span from the definition of the network, to the automation of simulation execution and quick result representation. However, as network models become more and more complex to cope with the evolution of network...
Conference Paper
[The full PDF can be downloaded here: http://www.iet.unipi.it/g.stea/Research/papers/D2D_PIMRC-open_access.pdf] In an LTE-Advanced network, network-controlled Device-to-Device (D2D) communications can be combined in a multihop fashion to distribute broadcasts over user-defined (and possibly large) areas, with small latencies and occupying few reso...
Conference Paper
Here is a link to the full paper: http://info.iet.unipi.it/~stea/papers/IWSLS2_2016_X2.pdf Many LTE-Advanced algorithms and protocols rely on node coordination and cooperation to reduce power consumption, increase spectral efficiency and improve cell-edge performance. Functions such as Coordinated Multi Point, Network Assisted Handover, etc., requ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
[Here is the full paper http://info.iet.unipi.it/~stea/papers/IWSLS2_2016_D2D.pdf] In LTE-Advanced (LTE-A), device-to-device (D2D) transmissions allow two peering User Equipments to communicate directly without using the Evolved Node-B as relay. D2D is regarded as one of the enablers to bring LTE-A in the context of vehicular networks, smart citie...
Poster
The virtualized Radio Access Network (V-RAN) is a key technology for 5G networks. In this paper we present a live prototype of Virtual RAN implementing a Coordinated Scheduling algorithm enforced by a centralized coordinator. The 5G proof of concept, devised to improve the usage of radio resource and efficiency, is realized by exploiting open-sourc...
Conference Paper
The PDF is here: http://info.iet.unipi.it/~stea/papers/CLEEN2016_CR.pdf Research on 4G/5G cellular networks is progressively shifting to paradigms that involve virtualization and cloud computing. Within this context, prototyping assumes a growing importance as a performance evaluation method, besides large-scale simulations, as it allows one to ev...
Conference Paper
Research on 4G/5G cellular networks is progressively shifting to paradigms that involve virtualization and cloud computing. Within this context, prototyping assumes a growing importance as a performance evaluation method, besides large-scale simulations, as it allows one to evaluate the computational requirements of the system. Both approaches shar...
Conference Paper
[Here is the full paper: http://info.iet.unipi.it/~stea/papers/VTC_Spring_2016_D2D_TCP.pdf] Direct (or device-to-device, D2D) communications are being investigated in the framework of LTE-Advanced. They allow one-to-one communications between two endpoints, under the control of the eNodeB, which allocates resources for the d2d flow, but does not a...
Conference Paper
[Here is the full paper: http://info.iet.unipi.it/~stea/papers/VTC_Spring_2016_D2D_Switching.pdf] Direct (or D2D) communications allow two UEs to communicate without passing through the eNodeB. However, the two UEs may still need to relay their communication through the eNB from time to time, hence should be able to switch from the direct to the r...
Chapter
In this work we present SimuLTE, an OMNeT++-based simulator for LTE and LTE-Advanced networks. Following well-established OMNeT++ programming practices, SimuLTE exhibits a fully modular structure, which makes it easy to be extended, verified and integrated. Moreover, it inherits all the benefits of such a widely-used and versatile simulation framew...