Antonio Torralba

Antonio Torralba
Singapore-MIT Alliance

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366
Publications
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64,533
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Publications

Publications (366)
Article
Natural disasters, such as floods, tornadoes, or wildfires, are increasingly pervasive as the Earth undergoes global warming. It is difficult to predict when and where an incident will occur, so timely emergency response is critical to saving the lives of those endangered by destructive events. Fortunately, technology can play a role in these situa...
Preprint
Full-text available
The way an object looks and sounds provide complementary reflections of its physical properties. In many settings cues from vision and audition arrive asynchronously but must be integrated, as when we hear an object dropped on the floor and then must find it. In this paper, we introduce a setting in which to study multi-modal object localization in...
Preprint
We introduce the task of local relighting, which changes a photograph of a scene by switching on and off the light sources that are visible within the image. This new task differs from the traditional image relighting problem, as it introduces the challenge of detecting light sources and inferring the pattern of light that emanates from them. We pr...
Preprint
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The ability to separate signal from noise, and reason with clean abstractions, is critical to intelligence. With this ability, humans can efficiently perform real world tasks without considering all possible nuisance factors.How can artificial agents do the same? What kind of information can agents safely discard as noises? In this work, we categor...
Preprint
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Recovering the spatial layout of the cameras and the geometry of the scene from extreme-view images is a longstanding challenge in computer vision. Prevailing 3D reconstruction algorithms often adopt the image matching paradigm and presume that a portion of the scene is co-visible across images, yielding poor performance when there is little overla...
Preprint
The CLIP network measures the similarity between natural text and images; in this work, we investigate the entanglement of the representation of word images and natural images in its image encoder. First, we find that the image encoder has an ability to match word images with natural images of scenes described by those words. This is consistent wit...
Preprint
Modern image generative models show remarkable sample quality when trained on a single domain or class of objects. In this work, we introduce a generative adversarial network that can simultaneously generate aligned image samples from multiple related domains. We leverage the fact that a variety of object classes share common attributes, with certa...
Preprint
Large text-guided diffusion models, such as DALLE-2, are able to generate stunning photorealistic images given natural language descriptions. While such models are highly flexible, they struggle to understand the composition of certain concepts, such as confusing the attributes of different objects or relations between objects. In this paper, we pr...
Article
Self-powered sensing systems augmented with machine learning (ML) represent a path toward the large-scale deployment of the internet of things (IoT). With autonomous energy-harvesting techniques, intelligent systems can continuously generate data and process them to make informed decisions. The development of self-powered intelligent sensing system...
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This paper studies the problem of fixing malfunctional 3D objects. While previous works focus on building passive perception models to learn the functionality from static 3D objects, we argue that functionality is reckoned with respect to the physical interactions between the object and the user. Given a malfunctional object, humans can perform men...
Preprint
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Objects' motions in nature are governed by complex interactions and their properties. While some properties, such as shape and material, can be identified via the object's visual appearances, others like mass and electric charge are not directly visible. The compositionality between the visible and hidden properties poses unique challenges for AI m...
Article
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Machine learning has been advancing dramatically over the past decade. Most strides are human-based applications due to the availability of large-scale datasets, however, opportunities are ripe to apply this technology to more deeply understand non-human communication. We detail a scientific roadmap for advancing the understanding of communication...
Preprint
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When humans design cost or goal specifications for robots, they often produce specifications that are ambiguous, underspecified, or beyond planners' ability to solve. In these cases, corrections provide a valuable tool for human-in-the-loop robot control. Corrections might take the form of new goal specifications, new constraints (e.g. to avoid spe...
Preprint
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Our environment is filled with rich and dynamic acoustic information. When we walk into a cathedral, the reverberations as much as appearance inform us of the sanctuary's wide open space. Similarly, as an object moves around us, we expect the sound emitted to also exhibit this movement. While recent advances in learned implicit functions have led t...
Preprint
In this paper, we are interested in modeling a how-to instructional procedure, such as a cooking recipe, with a meaningful and rich high-level representation. Specifically, we propose to represent cooking recipes and food images as cooking programs. Programs provide a structured representation of the task, capturing cooking semantics and sequential...
Preprint
Dataset distillation is the task of synthesizing a small dataset such that a model trained on the synthetic set will match the test accuracy of the model trained on the full dataset. In this paper, we propose a new formulation that optimizes our distilled data to guide networks to a similar state as those trained on real data across many training s...
Preprint
Language model (LM) pre-training has proven useful for a wide variety of language processing tasks, but can such pre-training be leveraged for more general machine learning problems? We investigate the effectiveness of language modeling to scaffold learning and generalization in autonomous decision-making. We describe a framework for imitation lear...
Article
Language model (LM) pre-training is useful in many language processing tasks. But can pre-trained LMs be further leveraged for more general machine learning problems? We propose an approach for using LMs to scaffold learning and generalization in general sequential decision-making problems. In this approach, goals and observations are represented a...
Preprint
Some neurons in deep networks specialize in recognizing highly specific perceptual, structural, or semantic features of inputs. In computer vision, techniques exist for identifying neurons that respond to individual concept categories like colors, textures, and object classes. But these techniques are limited in scope, labeling only a small subset...
Preprint
Contrastive learning relies on an assumption that positive pairs contain related views, e.g., patches of an image or co-occurring multimodal signals of a video, that share certain underlying information about an instance. But what if this assumption is violated? The literature suggests that contrastive learning produces suboptimal representations i...
Preprint
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Annotating images with pixel-wise labels is a time-consuming and costly process. Recently, DatasetGAN showcased a promising alternative - to synthesize a large labeled dataset via a generative adversarial network (GAN) by exploiting a small set of manually labeled, GAN-generated images. Here, we scale DatasetGAN to ImageNet scale of class diversity...
Preprint
Natural disasters, such as floods, tornadoes, or wildfires, are increasingly pervasive as the Earth undergoes global warming. It is difficult to predict when and where an incident will occur, so timely emergency response is critical to saving the lives of those endangered by destructive events. Fortunately, technology can play a role in these situa...
Preprint
We propose GAN-Supervised Learning, a framework for learning discriminative models and their GAN-generated training data jointly end-to-end. We apply our framework to the dense visual alignment problem. Inspired by the classic Congealing method, our GANgealing algorithm trains a Spatial Transformer to map random samples from a GAN trained on unalig...
Preprint
Full-text available
A critical aspect of human visual perception is the ability to parse visual scenes into individual objects and further into object parts, forming part-whole hierarchies. Such composite structures could induce a rich set of semantic concepts and relations, thus playing an important role in the interpretation and organization of visual signals as wel...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The visual world around us can be described as a structured set of objects and their associated relations. An image of a room may be conjured given only the description of the underlying objects and their associated relations. While there has been significant work on designing deep neural networks which may compose individual objects together, less...
Preprint
We present a methodology for modifying the behavior of a classifier by directly rewriting its prediction rules. Our approach requires virtually no additional data collection and can be applied to a variety of settings, including adapting a model to new environments, and modifying it to ignore spurious features. Our code is available at https://gith...
Article
This letter is a retrospective analysis of our team's research for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) project. Our initial approach was to use salience maps, English sentences, and lists of feature names to explain the behavior of deep-learning-based discriminative systems, with particula...
Preprint
Full-text available
The visual world around us can be described as a structured set of objects and their associated relations. An image of a room may be conjured given only the description of the underlying objects and their associated relations. While there has been significant work on designing deep neural networks which may compose individual objects together, less...
Preprint
Full-text available
Generative adversarial networks (GANs) have recently found applications in image editing. However, most GAN based image editing methods often require large scale datasets with semantic segmentation annotations for training, only provide high level control, or merely interpolate between different images. Here, we propose EditGAN, a novel method for...
Preprint
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We introduce Ego4D, a massive-scale egocentric video dataset and benchmark suite. It offers 3,025 hours of daily-life activity video spanning hundreds of scenarios (household, outdoor, workplace, leisure, etc.) captured by 855 unique camera wearers from 74 worldwide locations and 9 different countries. The approach to collection is designed to upho...
Preprint
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Humans have mental models that allow them to plan, experiment, and reason in the physical world. How should an intelligent agent go about learning such models? In this paper, we will study if models of the world learned in an open-ended physics environment, without any specific tasks, can be reused for downstream physics reasoning tasks. To this en...
Preprint
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A large body of recent work has identified transformations in the latent spaces of generative adversarial networks (GANs) that consistently and interpretably transform generated images. But existing techniques for identifying these transformations rely on either a fixed vocabulary of pre-specified visual concepts, or on unsupervised disentanglement...
Preprint
We introduce the task of weakly supervised learning for detecting human and object interactions in videos. Our task poses unique challenges as a system does not know what types of human-object interactions are present in a video or the actual spatiotemporal location of the human and the object. To address these challenges, we introduce a contrastiv...
Preprint
We present a framework for learning hierarchical policies from demonstrations, using sparse natural language annotations to guide the discovery of reusable skills for autonomous decision-making. We formulate a generative model of action sequences in which goals generate sequences of high-level subtask descriptions, and these descriptions generate s...
Preprint
Tactile sensing is critical for humans to perform everyday tasks. While significant progress has been made in analyzing object grasping from vision, it remains unclear how we can utilize tactile sensing to reason about and model the dynamics of hand-object interactions. In this work, we employ a high-resolution tactile glove to perform four differe...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present a passive non-line-of-sight method that infers the number of people or activity of a person from the observation of a blank wall in an unknown room. Our technique analyzes complex imperceptible changes in indirect illumination in a video of the wall to reveal a signal that is correlated with motion in the hidden part of a scene. We use t...
Preprint
Humans have a strong intuitive understanding of the 3D environment around us. The mental model of the physics in our brain applies to objects of different materials and enables us to perform a wide range of manipulation tasks that are far beyond the reach of current robots. In this work, we desire to learn models for dynamic 3D scenes purely from 2...
Preprint
This letter provides a retrospective analysis of our team’s research performed under the DARPA Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) project. We began by exploring salience maps, English sentences, and lists of feature names for explaining the behavior of deep-learning-based discriminative systems, especially visual question answering systems....
Preprint
Current vision systems are trained on huge datasets, and these datasets come with costs: curation is expensive, they inherit human biases, and there are concerns over privacy and usage rights. To counter these costs, interest has surged in learning from cheaper data sources, such as unlabeled images. In this paper we go a step further and ask if we...
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Understanding the generalization of deep neural networks is one of the most important tasks in deep learning. Although much progress has been made, theoretical error bounds still often behave disparately from empirical observations. In this work, we develop margin-based generalization bounds, where the margins are normalized with optimal transport...
Preprint
Realistic simulators are critical for training and verifying robotics systems. While most of the contemporary simulators are hand-crafted, a scaleable way to build simulators is to use machine learning to learn how the environment behaves in response to an action, directly from data. In this work, we aim to learn to simulate a dynamic environment d...
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The past decade has witnessed a groundbreaking rise of machine learning for human language analysis, with current methods capable of automatically accurately recovering various aspects of syntax and semantics - including sentence structure and grounded word meaning - from large data collections. Recent research showed the promise of such tools for...
Preprint
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Neural Radiance Fields (NeRF) have recently gained a surge of interest within the computer vision community for its power to synthesize photorealistic novel views of real-world scenes. One limitation of NeRF, however, is its requirement of accurate camera poses to learn the scene representations. In this paper, we propose Bundle-Adjusting Neural Ra...
Preprint
We introduce DatasetGAN: an automatic procedure to generate massive datasets of high-quality semantically segmented images requiring minimal human effort. Current deep networks are extremely data-hungry, benefiting from training on large-scale datasets, which are time consuming to annotate. Our method relies on the power of recent GANs to generate...
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Training deep networks with limited labeled data while achieving a strong generalization ability is key in the quest to reduce human annotation efforts. This is the goal of semi-supervised learning, which exploits more widely available unlabeled data to complement small labeled data sets. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for discriminati...
Article
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A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41928-021-00572-2.
Preprint
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We introduce a visually-guided and physics-driven task-and-motion planning benchmark, which we call the ThreeDWorld Transport Challenge. In this challenge, an embodied agent equipped with two 9-DOF articulated arms is spawned randomly in a simulated physical home environment. The agent is required to find a small set of objects scattered around the...
Preprint
We investigate the problem of zero-shot semantic image painting. Instead of painting modifications into an image using only concrete colors or a finite set of semantic concepts, we ask how to create semantic paint based on open full-text descriptions: our goal is to be able to point to a location in a synthesized image and apply an arbitrary new co...
Article
Full-text available
Recording, modelling and understanding tactile interactions is important in the study of human behaviour and in the development of applications in healthcare and robotics. However, such studies remain challenging because existing wearable sensory interfaces are limited in terms of performance, flexibility, scalability and cost. Here, we report a te...
Preprint
We present an efficient, effective, and generic approach towards solving inverse problems. The key idea is to leverage the feedback signal provided by the forward process and learn an iterative update model. Specifically, at each iteration, the neural network takes the feedback as input and outputs an update on the current estimation. Our approach...