Antonio Paoli

Antonio Paoli
University of Padova | UNIPD · Department of Biomedical Sciences - DSB

MD, BSc FECSS FACSM

About

306
Publications
407,993
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Introduction
I am currently Professor and Chair of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Director of the Nutrition & Exercise Physiology Laboratory at the Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Italy. I am also professor and Chair of Strength Training and sport Nutrition at the Catholic University of Murcia (UCAM), Murcia, Spain. My research interests include the interaction of exercise and diet on skeletal muscle metabolism with special interest on ketogenic diet and fasting; the molecular bases of exercise training adaptation; and the sports biomechanics. I am a consultant for several professional sports athletes and team.
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present
Università degli Studi di Padova
Position
  • Ketogenic diets - metabolic effects of resistance training
January 2000 - present
University of Padova
Description
  • Theory and Methodology of Fitness - Physiology

Publications

Publications (306)
Article
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Stiffness is a fundamental property of living tissues, which may be modified by pathologies or traumatic events but also by nutritional, pharmacological and exercise interventions. This review aimed to understand if specific forms of exercise are able to determine specific forms of tissue stiffness adaptations. A literature search was performed on...
Article
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Resistance training has been proposed as a valid practice to counteract the aging effect on body mass and its components, which can be easily evaluated though the bioelectrical impedance analysis. This study aimed to achieve a systematic review with meta-analysis on the impact of resistance training on bioelectrical proprieties in older adults. A l...
Article
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Studies pertaining to muscle dysmorphia (MD) have concentrated the most on males. However, a new body ideal for women is emerging: a very toned, athletic body with flat, smooth muscles. The emphasis on the level of muscularity represents a contribution to the growth of MD symptoms in women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factorial struct...
Chapter
Urban green areas are of fundamental importance for the mental and physical well-being of citizens. However, these areas are often designed without considering the needs of all users, especially people with disabilities and the elderly. To fill this gap, the SHIP project aims at designing and developing urban furniture, rides, and tools for physica...
Article
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a worldwide pandemic illness that is impacting the cardiovascular, pulmonary, musculoskeletal, and cognitive function of a large spectrum of the worldwide population. The available pharmacological countermeasures of these long-term effects of COVID-19 are minimal, while myriads of non-specific non-pharmacologi...
Article
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Background Physical fitness status is a key aspect of health and, consequently, it is important to create and adopt appropriate interventions to maintain or improve it, and assess it using valid measures. While in other testing contexts, standard operating procedures (SOPs) are commonly and widely adopted, in physical fitness testing, a variety of...
Article
Objectives Critical velocity and its related total distance covered above critical velocity can be used to evaluate and monitor the training and competition performance in athletes. While it is well researched in sports such as cycling and running, the literature on critical velocity in swimming is less available. Therefore, the objectives of this...
Article
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Neuromuscular fatigue could negatively affect postural balance, but its effects on dynamic postural regulation are still debated. This study aimed to investigate whether a fatigue protocol on calf muscle could affect muscle activation strategies and dynamic balance performance. Seventeen male adults (age 24.1 ± 4.6 years; height 183.9 ± 7.2 cm; wei...
Conference Paper
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Rapid weight loss is omnipresent in combat sports [1]. By reducing a substantial amount of weight prior to an official weigh-in and regaining weight after having made into desired weight class, combat athletes try to gain an advantage over their lighter opponents [2]. This type of behavior is often coined weight cycling and can take place on multip...
Article
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Background As combat sports are classified by body mass, many athletes engage in rapid weight loss (RWL) prior to competition so they can gain an advantage over lighter opponents. Following the weigh-in, athletes engage in rapid weight gain (RWG), whereby some athletes have been able to compete up to three weight categories greater than the officia...
Article
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Background: The COVID-19 pandemic forced most Italian athletes to cease their regular training activities, with possible consequences on both mental and physical health. The present study aimed at assessing changes in Physical Activity (PA) from pre- to lockdown, and examining the relationships among lockdown PA, quality of life (mental and physica...
Article
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Aging and menopause are associated with morphological and functional changes which may lead to loss of muscle mass and therefore quality of life. Resistance training (RT) is an effective training mode to increase muscle mass. We reviewed the existing literature to identify studies implementing RT protocols and evaluating muscle hypertrophy exclusiv...
Article
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Although current physical activity (PA) guidelines regarding aerobic and anaerobic training are helpful for the population at large, many individuals prefer to engage in alternative forms of PA such as combat sports. As both a martial art and sport, judo is a physically demanding form of PA that potentially offers a novel experience, consequently l...
Article
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Exercise generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), creating a redox imbalance towards oxidation when inadequately intense. Normobaric and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) breathed while not exercising induces antioxidant enzymes expression, but literature is still poor. Twenty-two athletes were assigned to five groups: controls; 30%, or 50% O2; 100% O2 (HBO)...
Article
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Obesity remains a serious relevant public health concern throughout the world despite related countermeasures being well understood (i.e., mainly physical activity and an adjusted diet). Among different nutritional approaches, there is a growing interest in ketogenic diets (KDs) to manipulate body mass (BM) and to enhance fat mass (FM) loss. KDs re...
Article
Motor neuron degeneration, denervation, neuromuscular junction (NMJ) fragmentation and loss of motor units (MUs), play a key-role in the development of sarcopenia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the beneficial effects of regular practice of dancing in physically active elders on concentration of C-terminal Agrin fragment (CAF), a m...
Article
Introduction: Recently, a modified intermittent fasting protocol was demonstrated to be able to maintain muscle mass and strength, decrease fat mass and improve some inflammation and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy resistance-trained males after 2 months. The present study sought to investigate the long-term effects on these parameters. Me...
Article
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IntroductionUnderstanding the impact of lockdown upon resistance training (RT), and how people adapted their RT behaviours, has implications for strategies to maintain engagement in similar positive health behaviours. Further, doing so will provide a baseline for investigation of the long-term effects of these public health measures upon behaviours...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate if the combination of static and dynamic postural balance assessments gives more accurate indications on balance performance among healthy older adults. We also aimed at studying the effect of a dual-task condition on static and dynamic postural balance control. Fifty-seven healthy older adults (age = 73.2 ±...
Article
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Even though scientific literature shows numerous heath complications and performance decrements associated with rapid weight loss (RWL), its prevalence remains exceedingly high across various combat sports. The aim of this study was to thoroughly search the existing literature to explore the influence of RWL on kidney function in Olympic and non-Ol...
Article
This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the influence of intermittent fasting (IF) in combination with resistance training (RT) on body composition outcomes. Studies examining IF vs. non-IF diets in individuals performing RT, published up to February 2021, were identified through PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, and...
Article
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Manual wheelchair use may determine shoulder joint overload and rotator cuff injury. Chronic shoulder pathologies can also influence the propulsion ability of wheelchair athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI) during sport activities. However, the relationship between shoulder pathology and wheelchair performances has never been explored. Therefore,...
Article
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Even though staying active is extremely important in the COVID-19 pandemic, wearing a FM while exercising remains a controversial topic.
Article
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Accumulation of adipose tissue in specific body areas is related to many physiological and hormonal variables. Spot reduction (SR) is a training protocol aimed to stimulate lipolysis locally, even though this training protocol has not been extensively studied in recent years. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the effect of a circuit-tra...
Article
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Difficulty walking in older adults affects their independence and ability to execute daily tasks in an autonomous way, which can result in a negative effect to their health status and risk of morbidity. Very often, reduced walking speed in older adults is caused by an elevated metabolic energy cost. Passive exoskeletons have been shown to offer a p...
Article
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Stretching is commonly used to increase range of motion and flexibility. Therefore, investigations are usually oriented towards the muscle-tendon unit. Limited evidence exists regarding potential effects of stretching on peripheral nerves which lie within muscles. The objective of this investigation will be to elucidate the responses of peripheral...
Article
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Background: In proprioceptive training, unstable devices produce multidirectional perturbations that must be counterbalanced by the postural control systems and core-muscle activation. We investigated whether different sizes and shapes of three gymnastic balls could affect core-muscle activation and postural balance when performing the same exercis...
Article
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Background: Ketogenic diet (KD) is a nutritional approach that restricts daily carbohydrates, replacing most of the reduced energy with fat, while maintaining an adequate quantity of protein. Despite the widespread use of KD in weight loss in athletes, there are still many concerns about its use in sports requiring muscle mass accrual. Thus, the pr...
Article
The aim of this study will be to review the current body of literature to understand the effects of stretching on the responses of the cardiovascular system. A literature search was performed using the following databases: Scopus, NLM Pubmed and ScienceDirect. Studies regarding the effects of stretching on responses of the cardiovascular system wer...
Article
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The present study aimed to compare the activation of the lower lumbar erector spinae, gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, and rectus femoris in two trunk positioning (straight, and inclined) during three lunge exercises (static, step-forwarding, and walking) in trained young women. Twelve women (24 ± 3 years) were selected and then performed, in a ran...
Article
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Recent data on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic showed that the virus is mostly conveyed by respiratory droplets that are produced at high intensity especially when an infected subject coughs or sneezes. Therefore, elevated volume ventilations, usually reached during physical efforts and exercise, are a potential source of contamination...
Article
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Background Although there is substantial interest in intermittent fasting as a dietary approach in active individuals, information regarding its effects in elite endurance athletes is currently unavailable. The present parallel randomized trial investigated the effects of a particular intermittent fasting approach, called time-restricted eating (TR...
Article
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The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is posing a serious challenge to the health-care systems worldwide, with an enormous impact on health conditions and loss of lives. Notably, obesity and its related comorbidities are strictly related with worse clinical outcomes of COVID-19 disease. Recently, there is a growing interest in the clinical use o...
Article
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Gut microbiome influences athletes' physiology but, due to the complexity of sport performance and the great inter-variability of microbiome features, it is not reasonable to define a single healthy microbiota profile for athletes. We suggest the use of specific meta-omics analysis coupled with innovative computational systems to uncover the hidden...
Article
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In December of 2019, there was an outbreak of a severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by the coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) in China. The virus rapidly spread into the whole world causing an unprecedented pandemic and forcing governments to impose a global quarantine, entering an extreme unknown situation. The organizational consequences...
Article
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In sports, postural balance control has been demonstrated to be one of the limiting factors of performance and a necessary component to achieve any sport technique. Team players (TP) must process and react to multiple external stimuli while executing at the same time the skills of the game. By contrast, endurance athletes (END) must perform the sam...
Preprint
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Objectives: To determine how the onset of COVID-19, and the associated ‘lockdown’, affected RT behaviours, in addition to motivation, perceived effectiveness, enjoyment, and intent to continue, in those who regularly performed resistance training RT prior to the pandemic. Design: Observational, cross-sectional. Setting: Online surveys in multiple l...
Article
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Background: Bioimpedance vector analysis (BIVA) is a widely used method based on the interpretation of raw bioimpedance parameters to evaluate body composition and cellular health in athletes. However, several variables contribute to influencing BIVA patterns by militating against an optimal interpretation of the data. This study aims to explore th...
Article
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In Paralympic sports, the goal of functional classifications is to minimize the impact of impairment on the outcome of the competition. The present cross-sectional study aimed to investigate aerobic and anaerobic personalized tests in Paralympic athletes and to correlate them with the classification of the international wheelchair rugby federation...
Article
Objective: This study sought to investigate how glycemia and ketonemia variations during two ketogenic diet protocols affect appetite, executive functions, and mood in young women with overweight. Methods: Fifty healthy young females with overweight were randomly assigned to (1) a ketogenic diet without any restriction on energy intake, (2) a co...
Article
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of 5 month kettlebell-based training on jumping performance, balance, blood pressure and heart rate in female classical ballet dancers. It was a clinical trial study with 23 female dancers (age = 21.74 ± 3.1 years; body height = 168.22 ± 5.12 cm; body mass = 53.69 ± 5.91 kg) took part in the...
Article
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Sixteen female soccer players (age = 20.19 ± 1.52 years; body mass = 56.52 ± 4.95 kg; body height = 164.81 ± 4.21 cm) with no history of lower extremity injury participated in the study. The Biodex SD Balance system was used to determine the non-dominant single-leg stability. In anaerobic exercise, each subject performed four maximal cycling effort...
Article
Dual-task (DT) consists of the performance of two tasks simultaneously. An index of DT difficulty has been linked to decreased postural control. Because a wide range of DT is employed, this study aimed to evaluate its effects in static balance in older adults. PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were screened, and the secondary tasks were grouped as...
Article
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Background Manual dexterity is an important aspect in everyday life, which is widely studied through the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT). Since Dual-Tasks (DT) activities are widely investigated and important to simulate everyday life situations, the objectives of the present pilot study were the evaluation of the effect of a cognitive task and a motor...
Article
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Cocoa and its products are rich sources of polyphenols such as flavanols. These compounds exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, accountable for cocoa health-promoting effects. However, cocoa polyphenols are poorly absorbed in the intestine, and most of them cannot reach the systemic circulation in their natural forms. Instead, their s...
Article
At the beginning of 2020 a respiratory diseased named COVID-19 rapidly spread worldwide. Due to the presence of comorbidities and a greater susceptibility to infections, older adults are the population most affected by this pandemic. An efficient pharmacological treatment for COVID-19 is not ready yet; in the meanwhile, a general quarantine has bee...
Article
The standing broad jump (SBJ) is a valid, reliable and feasible field-based test, which can evaluate explosive strength of the lower limbs and physical fitness. This study aimed to provide normative data for the SBJ for male and female children and adolescents and describe differences in performance between age groups and genders. A total number of...
Article
At the beginning of 2020 a respiratory diseased named COVID-19 rapidly spread worldwide. Due to the presence of comorbidities and a greater susceptibility to infections, older adults are the population most affected by this pandemic. An efficient pharmacological treatment for COVID-19 is not ready yet; in the meanwhile, a general quarantine has bee...
Article
Full-text available
The standing broad jump (SBJ) is a valid, reliable and feasible field-based test, which can evaluate explosive strength of the lower limbs and physical fitness. This study aimed to provide normative data for the SBJ for male and female children and adolescents and describe differences in performance between age groups and genders. A total number of...
Article
Full-text available
At the beginning of 2020 a respiratory diseased named COVID-19 rapidly spread worldwide. Due to the presence of comorbidities and a greater susceptibility to infections, older adults are the population most affected by this pandemic. An efficient pharmacological treatment for COVID-19 is not ready yet; in the meanwhile, a general quarantine has bee...
Article
Full-text available
The standing broad jump (SBJ) is a valid, reliable and feasible field-based test, which can evaluate explosive strength of the lower limbs and physical fitness. This study aimed to provide normative data for the SBJ for male and female children and adolescents and describe differences in performance between age groups and genders. A total number of...
Article
Full-text available
Consistent practice of physical activity has well known positive effects on general health; however, time for exercise remains one major barrier for many. An acute bout of high intensity interval resistance training (HIIRT) increases acute resting energy expenditure (REE) and decreases respiratory ratio (RR), suggesting its potential role on weight...
Article
Full-text available
We aim to investigate the effect of 6 weeks of betaine supplementation on body composition and muscle performance during CrossFit© training. Twenty-nine subjects matched for training status (4.16 0.95 day/week) and body fat mass (12.66 4.08%) were randomly assigned to a betaine (BET; N = 14) or placebo group (PLA; N = 15). Body composition and cell...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented health crisis as entire populations have been asked to self-isolate and live in home-confinement for several weeks to months, which in itself represents a physiological challenge with significant health risks. This paper describes the impact of sedentarism on the human body at the level of the muscular, car...