# Antonio OrtegaUniversity of Southern California | USC · Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Antonio Ortega

PhD Electrical Engineering

## About

612

Publications

43,684

Reads

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18,350

Citations

Introduction

Additional affiliations

June 2007 - January 2008

August 1994 - present

Education

January 1991 - July 1994

## Publications

Publications (612)

Self-supervised learning (SSL) has emerged as a desirable paradigm in computer vision due to the inability of supervised models to learn representations that can generalize in domains with limited labels. The recent popularity of SSL has led to the development of several models that make use of diverse training strategies, architectures, and data a...

We introduce chroma subsampling for 3D point cloud attribute compression by proposing a novel technique to sample points irregularly placed in 3D space. While most current video compression standards use chroma subsampling, these chroma subsampling methods cannot be directly applied to 3D point clouds, given their irregularity and sparsity. In this...

Video shared over the internet is commonly referred to as user generated content (UGC). UGC video may have low quality due to various factors including previous compression. UGC video is uploaded by users, and then it is re encoded to be made available at various levels of quality and resolution. In a traditional video coding pipeline the encoder p...

We study the design of filter banks for signals defined on the nodes of graphs. We propose novel two channel filter banks, that can be applied to arbitrary graphs, given a positive semi definite variation operator, while using downsampling operators on arbitrary vertex partitions. The proposed filter banks also satisfy several desirable properties,...

Transform coding to sparsify signal representations remains crucial in an image compression pipeline. While the Karhunen-Lo\`{e}ve transform (KLT) computed from an empirical covariance matrix $\bar{C}$ is theoretically optimal for a stationary process, in practice, collecting sufficient statistics from a non-stationary image to reliably estimate $\...

Data collected in the Global COVID-19 Trends and Impact Surveys (UMD Global CTIS), and data on variants sequencing from GISAID, are used to evaluate the impact of the Omicron variant (in South Africa and other countries) on the prevalence of COVID-19 among unvaccinated and vaccinated population, in general and discriminating by the number of doses....

Motivated by the success of fractional pixel motion in video coding, we explore the design of motion estimation with fractional-voxel resolution for compression of color attributes of dynamic 3D point clouds. Our proposed block-based fractional-voxel motion estimation scheme takes into account the fundamental differences between point clouds and vi...

An unfocused plenoptic light field (LF) camera places an array of microlenses in front of an image sensor in order to separately capture different directional rays arriving at an image pixel. Using a conventional Bayer pattern, data captured at each pixel is a single color component (R, G or B). The sensed data then undergoes demosaicking (interpol...

Data collected in the Global COVID-19 Trends and Impact Surveys (UMD Global CTIS), and data on variants sequencing from GISAID, are used to evaluate the impact of the Omicron variant (in SouthAfrica and other countries) on the prevalence of COVID-19 among unvaccinated and vaccinated population, in general and discriminating by the number of doses....

Graph signal sampling is the problem of selecting a subset of representative graph vertices whose values can be used to interpolate missing values on the remaining graph vertices. Optimizing the choice of sampling set using concepts from experiment design can help minimize the effect of noise in the input signal. While many existing sampling set se...

Feature spaces in the deep layers of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are often very high-dimensional and difficult to interpret. However, convolutional layers consist of multiple channels that are activated by different types of inputs, which suggests that more insights may be gained by studying the channels and how they relate to each other....

An increasing number of systems are being designed by first gathering significant amounts of data, and then optimizing the system parameters directly using the obtained data. Often this is done without analyzing the dataset structure. As task complexity, data size, and parameters all increase to millions or even billions, data summarization is beco...

This paper presents a convex-analytic framework to learn sparse graphs from data. While our problem formulation is inspired by an extension of the graphical lasso using the so-called combinatorial graph Laplacian framework, a key difference is the use of a nonconvex alternative to the $\ell_1$ norm to attain graphs with better interpretability. Spe...

Having accurate and timely data on confirmed active COVID-19 cases is challenging, since it depends on testing capacity and the availability of an appropriate infrastructure to perform tests and aggregate their results. In this paper, we propose methods to estimate the number of active cases of COVID-19 from the official data (of confirmed cases an...

This chapter presents methods for building graph Fourier transforms (GFTs) for image and video compression. A key insight is that classical transforms, such as the discrete sine/cosine transform (DCT) or the Karhunen–Loeve transform (KLT), can be interpreted from a graph perspective. The chapter considers two sets of techniques for designing graphs...

State-of-the-art neural network architectures continue to scale in size and deliver impressive generalization results, although this comes at the expense of limited interpretability. In particular, a key challenge is to determine when to stop training the model, as this has a significant impact on generalization. Convolutional neural networks (Conv...

We present an efficient voxelization method to encode the geometry and attributes of 3D point clouds obtained from autonomous vehicles. Due to the circular scanning trajectory of sensors, the geometry of LiDAR point clouds is inherently different from that of point clouds captured from RGBD cameras. Our method exploits these specific properties to...

We propose an intra frame predictive strategy for compression of 3D point cloud attributes. Our approach is integrated with the region adaptive graph Fourier transform (RAGFT), a multi-resolution transform formed by a composition of localized block transforms, which produces a set of low pass (approximation) and high pass (detail) coefficients at m...

CoronaSurveys is an ongoing interdisciplinary project developing a system to infer the incidence of COVID-19 around the world using anonymous open surveys. The surveys have been translated into 60 languages and are continuously collecting participant responses from any country in the world. The responses collected are pre-processed, organized, and...

During the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, accurate tracking has proven unfeasible. Initial estimation methods pointed toward case numbers that were much higher than officially reported. In the CoronaSurveys project, we have been addressing this issue using open online surveys with indirect reporting. We compare our estimates with the resu...

Graph filtering is a fundamental tool in graph signal processing. Polynomial graph filters (PGFs), defined as polynomials of a fundamental graph operator, can be implemented in the vertex domain, and usually have a lower complexity than frequency domain filter implementations. In this paper, we focus on the design of filters for graphs with graph F...

Graph signal sampling is the problem of selecting a subset of representative graph vertices whose values can be used to interpolate missing values on the remaining graph vertices. Optimizing the choice of sampling set can help minimize the effect of noise in the input signal. While many existing sampling set selection methods are computationally in...

A plenoptic light field (LF) camera places an array of microlenses in front of an image sensor in order to separately capture different directional rays arriving at an image pixel. Using a conventional Bayer pattern, data captured at each pixel is a single color component (R, G or B). The sensed data then undergoes demosaicking (interpolation of RG...

During the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, accurate tracking has proven unfeasible. Initial estimation methods pointed towards case numbers that were much higher than officially reported. In the CoronaSurveys project, we have been addressing this issue using open online surveys with indirect reporting. We compare our estimates with the res...

Deep Learning (DL) has attracted a lot of attention for its ability to reach state-of-the-art performance in many machine learning tasks. The core principle of DL methods consists of training composite architectures in an end-to-end fashion, where inputs are associated with outputs trained to optimize an objective function. Because of their composi...

For the past few years, deep learning (DL) robustness (i.e. the ability to maintain the same decision when inputs are subject to perturbations) has become a question of paramount importance, in particular in settings where misclassification can have dramatic consequences. To address this question, authors have proposed different approaches, such as...

Although spatio-temporal graph neural networks have achieved great empirical success in handling multiple correlated time series, they may be impractical in some real-world scenarios due to a lack of sufficient high-quality training data. Furthermore, spatio-temporal graph neural networks lack theoretical interpretation. To address these issues, we...

In this paper we study covariance estimation with missing data. We consider missing data mechanisms that can be independent of the data, or have a time varying dependency. Additionally, observed variables may have arbitrary (non uniform) and dependent observation probabilities. For each mechanism, we construct an unbiased estimator and obtain bound...

Deep Learning (DL) has attracted a lot of attention for its ability to reach state-of-the-art performance in many machine learning tasks. The core principle of DL methods consists in training composite architectures in an end-to-end fashion, where inputs are associated with outputs trained to optimize an objective function. Because of their composi...

The study of sampling signals on graphs, with the goal of building an analog of sampling for standard signals in the time and spatial domains, has attracted considerable attention recently. Beyond adding to the growing theory on graph signal processing (GSP), sampling on graphs has various promising applications. In this article, we review the curr...

Learning a suitable graph is an important precursor to many graph signal processing (GSP) pipelines, such as graph spectral signal compression and denoising. Previous graph learning algorithms either i) make some assumptions on connectivity (e.g., graph sparsity), or ii) make simple graph edge assumptions such as positive edges only. In this paper,...

In the past decade, several multi-resolution representation theories for graph signals have been proposed. Bipartite filter-banks stand out as the most natural extension of time domain filter-banks, in part because perfect reconstruction, orthogonality and bi-orthogonality conditions in the graph spectral domain resemble those for traditional filte...

In many state-of-the-art compression systems, signal transformation is an integral part of the encoding and decoding process, where transforms provide compact representations for the signals of interest. This paper introduces a class of transforms called graph-based transforms (GBTs) for video compression, and proposes two different techniques to d...

Modern machine learning systems based on neural networks have shown great success in learning complex data patterns while being able to make good predictions on unseen data points. However, the limited interpretability of these systems hinders further progress and application to several domains in the real world. This predicament is exemplified by...

This paper proposes a coded distributed graph processing framework to alleviate the communication bottleneck in large-scale distributed graph processing. In particular, we propose a topology-aware coded computing (TACC) algorithm that has two novel salient features: (i) a topology-aware graph allocation strategy, and (ii) a coded aggregation scheme...

The world is suffering from a pandemic called COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. National governments have problems evaluating the reach of the epidemic, due to having limited resources and tests at their disposal. This problem is especially acute in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Hence, any simple, cheap and flexible means of eval...

In graph signal processing, data samples are associated to vertices on a graph, while edge weights represent similarities between those samples. We propose a convex optimization problem to learn sparse well connected graphs from data. We prove that each edge weight in our solution is upper bounded by the inverse of the distance between data feature...

The study of sampling signals on graphs, with the goal of building an analog of sampling for standard signals in the time and spatial domains, has attracted considerable attention recently. Beyond adding to the growing theory on graph signal processing (GSP), sampling on graphs has various promising applications. In this article, we review current...

We introduce the Region Adaptive Graph Fourier Transform (RA-GFT) for compression of 3D point cloud attributes. We assume the points are organized by a family of nested partitions represented by a tree. The RA-GFT is a multiresolution transform, formed by combining spatially localized block transforms. At each resolution level, attributes are proce...

Graph vertex sampling set selection aims at selecting a set of ver-tices of a graph such that the space of graph signals that can be reconstructed exactly from those samples alone is maximal. In this context, we propose to extend sampling set selection based on spectral proxies to arbitrary Hilbert spaces of graph signals. Enabling arbitrary inner...

In image and video coding applications, distortion has been traditionally measured using mean square error (MSE), which suggests the use of orthogonal transforms, such as the discrete cosine transform (DCT). Perceptual metrics such as Structural Similarity (SSIM) are typically used after encoding, but not tied to the encoding process. In this paper...

Graphs are useful to interpret widely used image processing methods, e.g., bilateral filtering, or to develop new ones, e.g., kernel based techniques. However, simple graph constructions are often used, where edge weight and connectivity depend on a few parameters. In particular, the sparsity of the graph is determined by the choice of a window siz...

We propose a novel framework for learning time-varying graphs from spatiotemporal measurements. Given an appropriate prior on the temporal behavior of signals, our proposed method can estimate time-varying graphs from a small number of available measurements. To achieve this, we introduce two regularization terms in convex optimization problems tha...

The popularity of photo sharing services has increased dramatically in recent years. Increases in users, quantity of photos, and quality/resolution of photos combined with the user expectation that photos are reliably stored indefinitely creates a growing burden on the storage backend of these services. We identify a new opportunity for storage sav...

In most cases deep learning architectures are trained disregarding the amount of operations and energy consumption. However, some applications, like embedded systems, can be resource-constrained during inference. A popular approach to reduce the size of a deep learning architecture consists in distilling knowledge from a bigger network (teacher) to...

Data driven graph constructions are often used in various applications, including several machine learning tasks, where the goal is to make predictions and discover patterns. However, learning an optimal graph from data is still a challenging task. Weighted $K$-nearest neighbor and $\epsilon$-neighborhood methods are among the most common graph con...

In this paper we study covariance estimation with missing data. We consider various types of missing data mechanisms, which may depend or not on the observed data, and have a time varying distribution. Additionally, observed variables may have arbitrary (non uniform) and dependent observation probabilities. For each missing data mechanism we use a...