Antonio Donato Nobre

Antonio Donato Nobre
National Institute for Space Research, Brazil | inpe · Centro de Ciência do Sistema Terrestre

PhD

About

132
Publications
52,500
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Introduction
Forest ecosystem restoration, specially in degraded and arid lands. We use climate (lagrangian flows) and hydro-topographical modeling in order to locate best potential for greening.
Additional affiliations
October 2009 - present
National Institute for Space Research, Brazil
Position
  • Research: Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais
April 2003 - January 2015
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia
Position
  • Lyason Scientist
July 1985 - present
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia

Publications

Publications (132)
Preprint
Full-text available
The terrestrial water cycle links the soil and atmosphere moisture reservoirs through four fluxes: precipitation, evaporation, runoff and atmospheric moisture convergence. Each of these fluxes is essential for human and ecosystem well-being. However, predicting how the water cycle responds to changes in vegetation cover, remains a challenge (Lawren...
Preprint
Full-text available
Correspondence to: A. M. Makarieva (ammakarieva@gmail.com) Key Points:-Neglecting kinetic energy in the outflow results in Emanuel's Potential Intensity, here re-derived, underpredicting storm's maximum velocity-A revised maximum velocity estimate is shown to depend on oceanic latent heat flux only, independent of sensible heat or dissipative heati...
Article
We welcome the attention given to forest and trees by the Report “The global tree restoration potential” (5 July, p. 76), in which J.-F. Bastin et al. study the potential of tree cover to reduce climate change. However, we are concerned by their neglect of the water cycle.
Research
Full-text available
Scientific Framework to Save the Amazon By Scientists of the Amazon Countries and Global Partners September 30, 2019 We, the scientists who study and monitor the Amazon rainforest, appeal to the reason and conscience of humankind. The Amazon, the largest rainforest in the world, is at great risk of destruction, and with it the well-being of our ge...
Preprint
Full-text available
Jaramillo et al. (2018) (hereafter JMR1) stated that CIAD (condensation-induced atmospheric dynamics) modifies the equation of vertical motion in a manner that violates Newton's third law. Jaramillo et al. (2019) (hereafter JMR2) have subsequently conceded that on the contrary CIAD does not modify the equation of vertical motion. This could be seen...
Article
Here we respond to Jaramillo et al.’s recent critique of condensation-induced atmospheric dynamics (CIAD). We show that CIAD is consistent with Newton’s laws while Jaramillo et al.’s analysis is invalid. To address implied objections, we explain our different formulations of “evaporative force.” The essential concept of CIAD is condensation’s role...
Preprint
Full-text available
The concept of Maximum Potential Intensity (PI) relates the maximum velocity of tropical storms to environmental parameters. Since its original formulation by Emanuel (1986), two major modifications were made resulting in a considerable range of predicted PI values. First, dissipative heating was suggested to increase maximum velocity by up to 20%....
Article
We coupled the hydrologic routing and flood dynamics model Terrestrial Hydrology Model with Biogeochemistry (THMB) to the Integrated LAND Surface Model (INLAND) and compared simulations of discharge and flood extent area against gauge station and satellite-based information in the Amazon Basin. The coupled model represents well the seasonality of t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Our comments on paper "Is Condensation-Induced Atmospheric Dynamics a New Theory of the Origin of the Winds?" by A. Jaramillo, O. J. Mesa, and D. J. Raymond published in J. Atmos. Sci. 75, 3305 (2018).
Article
Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND), a state-of-the-art topo-hydrological index, has been increasingly used in geo-environmental studies. It describes the local normalized drainage potential of a large region. To date, a trial and error and cumbersome multistep process has been used to obtain the HAND index which does not result in an optimal...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of Maximum Potential Intensity (MPI) is widely used in tropical cyclone research to estimate the minimum central pressure and the maximum velocity of tropical storms from environmental parameters. The MPI pressure derives from consideration of an idealized thermodynamic cycle, while the MPI velocity additionally requires information abo...
Article
Full-text available
How phase transitions affect the motion of moist atmospheric air remains controversial. In the early 2000s two distinct differential equations of motion were proposed. Besides their contrasting formulations for the acceleration of condensate, the equations differ concerning the presence/absence of a term equal to the rate of phase transitions multi...
Article
Full-text available
• The photosynthetic performance of tropical forests in a warming Earth is uncertain. To decrease this uncertainty, it is critical and necessary to gain a better understanding of the optimum temperature for photosynthesis (Topt) and the photosynthetic response to warming. • With the aid of ecosystem flux data for seven tropical forests across diff...
Article
Full-text available
The Integrated Land Surface model (INLAND) land surface model, in offline mode, was adjusted and forced with prescribed climate to represent two contrasting environments along a topographic gradient in a central Amazon Terra Firme forest, which is distinguished by well-drained, flat plateaus and poorly drained, broad river valleys. To correctly simu...
Article
Despite the dangers associated with tropical cyclones and their rainfall, the origin of the moisture in these storms, which include destructive hurricanes and typhoons, remains surprisingly uncertain. Existing studies have focused on the region 40–400 km from the cyclone center. It is known that the rainfall within this area cannot be explained by...
Article
Full-text available
The power of atmospheric circulation is a key measure of the Earth's climate system. The mismatch between predictions and observations under a warming climate calls for a reassessment of how atmospheric power W is defined, estimated and constrained. Here we review published formulations for W and show how they differ when applied to a moist atmosph...
Article
Full-text available
The pattern and size of the Earth's atmospheric circulation cells determine regional climates and challenge theorists. Here the authors present a theoretical framework that relates the size of meridional cells to the kinetic energy generation within them. Circulation cells are considered as heat engines (or heat pumps) driven by surface gradients o...
Article
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Canopy and aerodynamic conductances (gC and gA) are two of the key land surface biophysical variables that control the land surface response of land surface schemes in climate models. Their representation is crucial for predicting transpiration (λET) and evaporation (λEE) flux components of the terrestrial latent heat flux (λE), which has important...
Article
Full-text available
Tropical cyclones are fueled by water vapor. Here we estimate the oceanic evaporation within an Atlantic hurricane to be less than one sixth of the total moisture flux precipitating over the same area. So how does the hurricane get the remaining water vapor? Our analysis of TRMM rainfall, MERRA atmospheric moisture and hurricane translation velocit...
Article
Full-text available
Starting from the definition of mechanical work for an ideal gas, we present a novel derivation linking global wind power to measurable atmospheric parameters. The resulting expression distinguishes three components: the kinetic power associated with horizontal motion, the kinetic power associated with vertical motion and the gravitational power of...
Article
Full-text available
Mapping areas susceptible to flooding is an important step to minimize the damage caused by floods, especially in urban areas. This mapping is used to establish guidelines for use and occupation of the soil and in the formulation of civil defense plans. In the municipalities of Blumenau and Brusque, flood stricken areas were mapped, from surveys ca...
Article
Full-text available
Canopy and aerodynamic conductances (gC and gA) are some of the key land surface variables determining the land surface response of climate models. Their representation is crucial for predicting transpiration (λET) and evaporation (λEE), which has important implications for global climate change and water resource management. Here, we present a nov...
Book
Full-text available
In 2009, Thales Alenia Space and Suds-Concepts issued a book called “Climate Change and Satellites”, bringing together an international network of scientists, users, and representatives of major space agencies. With a circulation of over 15,000, mainly in the scientific, governmental and CC community, it was recognized as a leading publication in i...
Article
Full-text available
Tools for accurately predicting environmental risks, such as the location and spatial extent of potential inundation, are not widely available. A dependence on calibration and a lack of available flood data have prevented the widespread application of existing hydrodynamic methods for predicting the extent of inundation. We use the HAND (Height Abo...
Article
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T Bayr and D Dommenget [J. Climate 26 (2013) 1387] proposed a model of temperature-driven air redistribution to quantify the ratio between changes of sea level pressure $p_s$ and mean tropospheric temperature $T_a$ in the tropics. This model assumes that the height of the tropical troposphere is isobaric. Here problems with this model are identifie...
Article
Full-text available
The gross spatial features of the atmospheric kinetic energy budget are analytically investigated. Kinetic energy generation is evaluated in a hydrostatic atmosphere where the axisymmetric circulation cells are represented by Carnot cycles. The condition that kinetic energy generation is positive in the lower atmosphere is shown to limit the polewa...
Article
Full-text available
We analyze the determinants of the power output of moist atmospheric air. It is shown to be represented as a sum of terms with different physical meanings and uncertainties. We demonstrate that using a thermodynamic approach to constrain the global power output as a whole, e.g. by considering the entropy budget (Lalibert\'e et al., 2015), results i...
Article
Full-text available
While surface temperature gradients have been highlighted as drivers of low-level atmospheric circulation, the underlying physical mechanisms remain unclear. Lindzen and Nigam (1987) noted that sea level pressure (SLP) gradients are proportional to surface temperature gradients if isobaric height (the height where pressure does not vary in the hori...
Data
Full-text available
The effects of forests on weather are generally viewed solely in terms of moisture recycling. That is, evaporation from forest returns moisture to the atmosphere where it can increase local rain. In our new paper, using a recent study as an example, we discuss deficiencies in this perspective. Among other things, we argue that the existing global c...
Article
Full-text available
The physical equations determining the motion of moist atmospheric air in the presence of condensation remain controversial. Two distinct formulations have been proposed, published and cited. The equation of Bannon [2002, J. Atmos. Sci. 59: 1967--1982] includes a term for a "reactive motion" that arises when water vapor condenses and droplets begin...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of forest loss on rainfall remains poorly understood. Addressing this challenge Spracklen et al. recently presented a pan-tropical study of rainfall and land-cover that showed that satellite-derived rainfall measures were positively correlated with the degree to which model-derived air trajectories had been exposed to forest cover. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Phase transitions of atmospheric water play a ubiquitous role in the Earth's climate system, but their direct impact on atmospheric dynamics has escaped wide attention. Here we examine and advance a theory as to how condensation influences atmospheric pressure through the mass removal of water from the gas phase with a simultaneous account of the l...
Article
Full-text available
Bannon (2002, J. Atmos. Sci. 59: 1967-1982) developed equations governing the motion of moist air. These equations include a term for a "reactive motion" that arises when water vapor condenses and droplets begin to fall; according to this term the remaining gas moves upwards so as to conserve momentum. Here we show that this reactive motion is base...
Article
Full-text available
Graphical abstract Figure optionsView in workspace Highlights ► DHSVM model evaluation for three nested basins in Central Amazonia. ► Tropical rainforest catchment with deep soil successfully modeled by DHSVM. ► High-resolution soil and vegetation maps obtained from SRTM-derived HAND model. ► HAND model useful in deriving spatial distributions of...
Article
Full-text available
Precipitation generates small-scale turbulent air flows the energy of which ultimately dissipates to heat. The power of this process has previously been estimated to be around 2-4 W m-2 in the tropics: a value comparable in magnitude to the dynamic power of the global circulation. Here we suggest that this previous power estimate is approximately d...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Uma grande questão que se coloca para as metrópoles brasileiras é se estão preparadas para enfrentar os impactos das mudanças climáticas. Durante os anos de 2008 a 2011, buscou-se lançar alguma luz sobre esse assunto por meio de um estudo interdisciplinar para identificar as vulnerabilidades das duas principais megacidades brasileiras—as regiões me...
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces a new terrain model named HAND, and reports on the calibration and validation of landscape classes representing soil environments in Amazonia, which were derived using it. The HAND model normalizes topography according to the local relative heights found along the drainage network, and in this way, presents the topology of the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper shows the application of the SRTM topographic data of 30 and 90 meters of spatial resolution in the model of terrain HAND (Height Above the Nearest Drainage), developed at the National Institute for Space Research, reveals that the hydrological characteristics of the landscape. The HAND classification model shows potential representation...
Article
Full-text available
The dissipative heat engine (DHE) is based on a Carnot cycle with external heat Qin received at temperature Ts and released at To < Ts. In contrast to the classical Carnot engine, mechanical work Ad in the DHE is not exported to external environment but dissipates to heat within the engine. Makarieva et al. (2010, hereafter MGLN) asserted that the...
Article
Full-text available
A heat engine operating on the basis of the Carnot cycle is considered, where the mechanical work performed is dissipated within the engine at the temperature of the warmer isotherm and the resulting heat is added to the engine together with an external heat input. The resulting work performed by the engine per cycle is increased at the expense of...
Article
Full-text available
Phase transitions of atmospheric water play a ubiquitous role in the Earth's climate system, but their direct impact on atmospheric dynamics has escaped wide attention. Here we examine and advance a theory as to how condensation influences atmospheric pressure through the mass removal of water from the gas phase with a simultaneous account of the l...
Article
The landscape of central Amazonia is composed of plateaus and valleys. Previous observations have shown preferential pooling of CO2 in the valleys, suggesting that the change in CO2 storage in the canopy air space (S) will be spatially variable at the scale of the topography. This may affect the interpretation of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE...
Article
Full-text available
Tropical forests are 'eco-utilities' providing critical ecosystem services that underpin food, energy, water and climate security at local to global scales. Currently, these services are unrecognised and unrewarded in international policy and financial frameworks, causing forests to be worth more dead than alive. Much attention is currently focused...
Article
Full-text available
The Amazon Rain Forest has attracted worldwide attention due its large scale services to climate and also due to the green house gas emissions arising from deforestation. Contributing to the later and detrimental to the former, timber logging in the region has very low efficiency (only 16% in the production chain). Such timber extraction, often ref...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the seasonal patterns of water vapor and sensible heat flux along a tropical biome gradient from forest to savanna. We analyzed data from a network of flux towers in Brazil that were operated within the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). These tower sites included tropical humid and semideciduous forest,...
Article
Full-text available
Long-term measurements of ecosystem-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, water, and energy, via eddy flux towers, give insight into three key questions about Amazonian forest function. First, what is the carbon balance of Amazon forests? Some towers give accurate site-specific carbon balances, as validated by independent methods, but decisive resolution...
Chapter
Full-text available
The objective of this chapter is to summarize current understanding of the hydrological function and nutrient dynamics of Amazonian forest derived from work in microcatchments and how these processes are affected by land use and land cover changes, mainly the conversion of forest to pasture. Our conclusions are based on field observations in catchm...
Article
Full-text available
To investigate the composition and floristic diversity of one hectare of a dense forest on a terra firme oxisol plateau, 90 km from the Manaus (02º35"45" S e 60º12"40" W), all trees, lianas and palm trees with diameter at breast height (DBH) > 10 cm were inventoried along two parallel transects of 500 x 10 m. The landscape is vegetationally exubera...