Antonio Martini

Antonio Martini
University of Oslo · Department of Informatics

PhD

About

81
Publications
36,253
Reads
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1,301
Citations
Introduction
Antonio Martini currently works as Associate Professor at the Programming and Software Engineering, University of Oslo. Antonio does research in Software Engineering, especially on Software Architecture, Technical Debt Management, Agile Software Development, Software Metrics.
Additional affiliations
August 2011 - December 2015
Chalmers University of Technology
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (81)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Architectural Technical Debt has recently received the attention of the scientific community, as a suitable metaphor for describing sub-optimal architectural solutions having short-term benefits but causing a long-term negative impact. We study such phenomenon in the context of Volvo Car Group, where the development of modern cars includes complex...
Article
The adoption of Agile Software Development in large companies is a recent phenomenon of great interest both for researchers and practitioners. Although intra-team interaction is well supported by established agile practices, the critical interaction between the agile team and other parts of the organization is still unexplored in literature. Such i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Architectural Technical Debt is regarded as sub-optimal architectural solutions that need to be refactored in order to avoid the payment of a costly interest in the future. However, decisions on if and when to refactor architecture are extremely important and difficult to take, since changing software at the architectural level is quite expensive....
Conference Paper
In order to continuously support the value delivery both in short-term and long-term, a key goal for large software companies is to continuously develop and manage software architecture. In order to understand how architecture management is employed in large Agile software companies, we have conducted interviews involving several roles at 5 firms....
Article
Many companies migrate to microservices because they help deliver value to customers quickly and continuously. However, like any architectural style, microservices are prone to architectural technical debt (ATD), which can be costly if the debts are not timely identified, avoided, or removed. During the early stages of migration, microservice-speci...
Article
Full-text available
Adaptive immune receptor repertoires (AIRR) are key targets for biomedical research as they record past and ongoing adaptive immune responses. The capacity of machine learning (ML) to identify complex discriminative sequence patterns renders it an ideal approach for AIRR-based diagnostic and therapeutic discovery. So far, widespread adoption of AIR...
Article
Full-text available
Delivering increasingly complex software-reliant systems demands better ways to manage the long-term effects of short-term expedients. The technical debt (TD) metaphor has gained significant traction as a way to understand and communicate such issues. Almost 25 years after the term was coined in 1992 by Ward Cunningham, and more than 10 years after...
Article
Full-text available
Context : When developing software, it is vitally important to keep the level of technical debt down since, based on several studies, it has been well established that technical debt can lower the development productivity, decrease the developers' morale and compromise the overall quality of the software, among others. However, even if researchers...
Article
Full-text available
Context Software engineering is a human activity. Despite this, human aspects are under-represented in technical debt research, perhaps because they are challenging to evaluate. Objective This study’s objective was to investigate the relationship between technical debt and affective states (feelings, emotions, and moods) from software practitioner...
Preprint
Full-text available
Eliciting scalability requirements during agile software development is complicated and poorly described in previous research. This article presents a lightweight artifact for eliciting scalability requirements during agile software development: the ScrumScale model. The ScrumScale model is a simple spreadsheet. The scalability concepts underlying...
Article
Full-text available
Eliciting scalability requirements during agile software development is complicated and poorly described in previous research. This article presents a lightweight artifact for eliciting scalability requirements during agile software development: the ScrumScale model. The ScrumScale model is a simple spreadsheet. The scalability concepts underlying...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: Technical Debt is a consolidated notion in software engineering research and practice. However, the estimation of its impact (interest of the debt) is still imprecise and requires heavy empirical and experimental inquiry. Objective: We aim at developing a data-driven approach to calculate the interest of Technical Debt in terms of delay...
Article
Full-text available
There are numerous commercial tools and research prototypes that offer support for measuring technical debt. However, different tools adopt different terms, metrics, and ways to identify and measure technical debt. These tools offer diverse features, and their popularity / community support varies significantly. Therefore, (a) practitioners face di...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Using a microservices architecture is a popular strategy for software organizations to deliver value to their customers fast and continuously. However, scientific knowledge on how to manage architectural debt in microservices is scarce. Objectives In the context of microservices applications, this paper aims to identify architectural te...
Preprint
Full-text available
Adaptive immune receptor repertoires (AIRR) are key targets for biomedical research as they record past and ongoing adaptive immune responses. The capacity of machine learning (ML) to identify complex discriminative sequence patterns renders it an ideal approach for AIRR-based diagnostic and therapeutic discovery. To date, widespread adoption of AI...
Preprint
Full-text available
When developing software, it is vitally important to keep the level of technical debt down since it is well established from several studies that technical debt can, e.g., lower the development productivity, decrease the developers' morale, and compromise the overall quality of the software. However, even if researchers and practitioners working in...
Article
Full-text available
Background Software companies need to manage and refactor Technical Debt issues. Therefore, it is necessary to understand if and when refactoring of Technical Debt should be prioritized with respect to developing features or fixing bugs. Objective The goal of this study is to investigate the existing body of knowledge in software engineering to un...
Chapter
Context: Pivot has been a common strategical tactic of startups by shifting course of actions to adapt to environmental changes to the companies. Among many factors influencing the decisions of pivot or preserve, technical characteristics of the product and its evolution are possible triggering factors. We have learned that technical debt is an inh...
Book
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 21th International Conference on Software Business, ICSOB 2021, which was held during December 2-3, 2021. The conference was originally planned to take place in Drammen, Norway, but changed to an online format due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The special theme of ICSOB 2021 was software sustainabil...
Article
Context Exploratory testing plays an important role in the continuous integration and delivery pipelines of large-scale software systems, but a holistic and structured approach is needed to realize efficient and effective exploratory testing. Objective This paper seeks to address the need for a structured and reliable approach by providing a tangi...
Conference Paper
Process Debt, like Technical Debt, can be the source of short-term benefits but often is harmful in the long term for a software organization. Nonetheless, information about Process Debt is scarce in current literature. We conducted an exploratory study of Process Debt in four international organizations by interviewing 16 practitioners. The findin...
Article
Full-text available
Serverless computing aims at reducing processing and operational units to single event-driven functions for service orchestration and choreography. With its micro-granular architectural characteristics, serverless computing is bound to face considerable architectural issues and challenges in the medium-and long-term; are these bound to become Techn...
Chapter
Full-text available
Using microservices is a way of supporting an agile architecture. However, if the microservices development is not properly managed, the teams’ development velocity may be affected, reducing agility and increasing architectural technical debt. This paper investigates how to manage the use of shared libraries in microservices to improve agility duri...
Preprint
Full-text available
Software engineering is a human activity. Despite this, human aspects are under-represented in technical debt research, perhaps because they are challenging to valorize. This study's objective was to investigate the relationship between technical debt and affective states (feelings, emotions, and moods) from software practitioners. Forty participan...
Conference Paper
When developing software, it is vitally important to keep the level of technical debt down since it is well established from several studies that technical debt can, e.g., lower the development productivity, decrease the developers' morale, and compromise the overall quality of the software. However, even if researchers and practitioners working in...
Article
Context : Previous research in the Technical Debt (TD) field has mainly focused on the technical and economic aspects, while its human aspect has received minimal attention. Objective : This paper aims to understand how software developers’ morale is influenced by TD and how their morale is influenced by TD management activities. Furthermore, this...
Chapter
Agile software development (ASD) has been employed effectively in the development of embedded systems, contributing to speeding up the delivery of value to the customers. However, some obstacles have been found, limiting the application of ASD to such a domain. This chapter focuses on one such challenges, the degradation of the system architecture...
Chapter
Full-text available
Based on interviews with 20 interviewees from four case study companies, this paper presents a list of key factors that enable efficient and effective exploratory testing of large-scale software systems. The nine factors are grouped into four themes: “The testers’ knowledge, experience and personality”, “Purpose and scope”, “Ways of working” and “R...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Context: Technical debt is known to impact maintainability of software. As source code files grow in size, maintainability becomes more challenging. Therefore, it is expected that the density of technical debt in larger files would be reduced for the sake of maintainability. Objective: This exploratory study investigates whether a newly introduced...
Chapter
Full-text available
Large-scale agile projects bring inter-teams interaction challenges. Teams need to be autonomous, but often crosscutting concerns affect many teams. If the teams fail to collaborate on these concerns, the negative effects might hinder agility in the medium and long term. In other words, the organization and the system accumulate debt, on which the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The concept of technical debt has been explored from many perspectives but its precise estimation is still under heavy empirical and experimental inquiry. We aim to understand whether, by harnessing approximate, data-driven, machine-learning approaches it is possible to improve the current techniques for technical debt estimation, as represented by...
Preprint
Full-text available
The concept of technical debt has been explored from many perspectives but its precise estimation is still under heavy empirical and experimental inquiry. We aim to understand whether, by harnessing approximate, data-driven, machine-learning approaches it is possible to improve the current techniques for technical debt estimation, as represented by...
Conference Paper
Remediation of technical debt through regular refactoring initiatives is considered vital for the software system's long and healthy life. However, since today’s software companies face increasing pressure to deliver customer value continuously, the balance between spending developer time, effort, and resources on implementing new features or...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background. Software companies need to manage and refactor Technical Debt issues. Therefore, it is necessary to understand if and when refactoring Technical Debt should be prioritized with respect to developing features or fixing bugs. Objective. The goal of this study is to investigate the existing body of knowledge in software engineering to unde...
Preprint
Remediation of technical debt through regular refactoring initiatives is considered vital for the software system's long and healthy life. However, since today's software companies face increasing pressure to deliver customer value continuously, the balance between spending developer time, effort, and resources on implementing new features or spend...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction: Software companies aim to achieve continuous delivery to constantly provide value to their customers. A popular strategy is to use microservices architecture. However, such an architecture is also subject to debt, which hinders the continuous delivery process and thus negatively affects the software released to the customers. Objecti...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Software startups are typically under extreme pressure to get to market quickly with limited resources and high uncertainty. This pressure and uncertainty is likely to cause startups to accumulate technical debt as they make decisions that are more focused on the short-term than the long-term health of the codebase. However, most research on techni...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Software companies need to continuously deliver customer value, both from a short- and long-term perspective. However, software development can be impeded by what has been described as Technical Debt (TD). The aim of this study is to explore the negative consequences of TD in terms of wasted software development time. This study also investigates o...
Conference Paper
It is challenging to assess and manage Technical Debt. Technical Debt is avoided or refactored if the long-term benefits, such as preventing extra-costs, exceed the cost of repaying the debt. Some tools have been recently proposed for the identification of Technical Debt, but most of them do not help in assessing the cost-benefits of repaying the D...
Article
Full-text available
Large software companies need to support continuous and fast delivery of customer value both in the short and long term. However, this can be hindered if both the evolution and maintenance of existing systems are hampered by Technical Debt. Although a lot of theoretical work on Technical Debt has been produced recently, its practical management lac...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: In the last two decades Technical Debt (TD) has received a considerable amount of attention from software engineering research and practice. Recently, a small group of studies suggests that, in addition to its technical and economic consequences, TD can affect developers' psychological states and morale. However, until now there has bee...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Software companies need to support continuous and fast delivery of customer value both in short and a long-term perspective. However, this can be hindered by evolution limitations and high maintenance efforts due to internal software quality issues by what is described as Technical Debt. Although significant theoretical work has been undertaken to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The negative consequences of Technical Debt is an area of increasing interest, and more specifically the Architectural aspects of it have received increased attention in the last few years. Besides the negative effects of Architectural Technical Debt on the overall software product quality in terms of hindering evolution and causing high maintenan...
Article
Context: Research and industry's attention has been focusing on developing systems that enable fast time to market in the short term, but would assure a sustainable delivery of business value and maintenance operations in the long run. A related phenomenon has been identified in Architectural Technical Debt: if the system architecture is sub-optima...
Article
Full-text available
Large Software Companies need to support the continuous and fast delivery of customer value in both the short and long term. However, this can be impeded if the evolution and maintenance of existing systems is hampered by what has been recently termed Technical Debt (TD). Specifically, Architectural TD has received increased attention in the last f...
Article
A known problem in large software companies is to balance the prioritization of short-term and long-term business goals. As an example, architecture suboptimality (Architectural Technical Debt), incurred to deliver fast, might hinder future feature development. However, some technical debt generates more interest to be paid than other. We conducted...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Software companies need to produce high-quality software and support continuous and fast delivery of customer value both in the short and long term. However, this can be hindered by compromised software quality attributes that have an important influence on the overall software development lifecycle. The aim of this study is threefold: to understan...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Software companies need to produce high-quality software and support continuous and fast delivery of customer value both in the short and long term. However, this can be hindered by compromised software quality attributes that have an important influence on the overall software development lifecycle. The aim of this study is threefold: to understan...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The interest of Technical Debt is difficult to assess. The negative effects (severity) of Technical Debt might depend on the context of the organization and the estimations might be subjective. There is a need for assessing Technical Debt interest in a more systematic way. Based on the results of previous research, we have developed and used a ligh...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Technical Debt is a recent concept, borrowed from the financial domain. It has been recently used in software development to describe technical sub-optimal solutions that have short-term benefits but long-term extra-costs. However, no body of literature investigates how Automatic Production Systems companies deal with Technical Debt. We investigate...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The interest of Technical Debt (TD) is difficult to calculate, especially on a project level. Current approaches are based on fine-grain issue assessment, but there is no evidence about how TD is assessed on a project level. A few tools use an aggregation function that sum the TD issues on a project level. We conducted a multiple case-study on four...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Beyond strategic and accidental accumulation, technical debt may also occur due to what we argue to be delayed accumulation. In addition, technical debt and software legacy are concepts which share a lot in common. Both concepts describe a state of software that is sub-optimal, and explain how this state can decrease an organization’s development e...
Conference Paper
Technical Debt Management (TDM) has drawn the attention of software industries during the last years, including embedded systems. However, we currently lack an overview of how practitioners from this application domain perceive technical debt. To this end, we conducted a multiple case study in the embedded systems industry, to investigate: (a) the...
Conference Paper
Fast software deliveries are hindered by high maintenance efforts due to internal quality issues and Technical Debt (TD) and specifically, Architectural Technical Debt (ATD) has received increased attention in the last few years. ATD has a significant influence and impact on system success and, left unchecked, it can cause expensive repercussions;...
Conference Paper
In recent years, research and industry's attention has been focused on maintaining a system that would both decrease time to market in the short term and assure a sustainable feature output and smooth maintenance operations in the long run. A related phenomenon has been identified in Architectural Technical Debt: if the system architecture is sub-o...
Article
The introduction of Agile Software Development in large companies developing embedded systems aims at shortening the time-to-market for new business value for the customers. However, evidences show how system engineering needs to be integrated in the process in order to avoid the degradation of architectural system qualities. Such phenomenon has re...